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H265关于RTP封包

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首先来介绍下h265(HEVC)nal单元头,与h264的nal层相比,h265的nal unit header有两个字节构成,如下图所示:

从图中可以看出hHEVC的nal包结构与h264有明显的不同,hevc加入了nal所在的时间层的ID,取去除了nal_ref_idc,此信息合并到了naltype中,通常情况下F为0,layerid为0,TID为1。

    nal单元的类型有如下几种:

[cpp] view plain copy 在CODE上查看代码片派生到我的代码片
enum NalUnitType
{
NAL_UNIT_CODED_SLICE_TRAIL_N = 0, // 0
NAL_UNIT_CODED_SLICE_TRAIL_R, // 1

NAL_UNIT_CODED_SLICE_TSA_N, // 2
NAL_UNIT_CODED_SLICE_TLA, // 3 // Current name in the spec: TSA_R

NAL_UNIT_CODED_SLICE_STSA_N, // 4
NAL_UNIT_CODED_SLICE_STSA_R, // 5

NAL_UNIT_CODED_SLICE_RADL_N, // 6
NAL_UNIT_CODED_SLICE_DLP, // 7 // Current name in the spec: RADL_R

NAL_UNIT_CODED_SLICE_RASL_N, // 8
NAL_UNIT_CODED_SLICE_TFD, // 9 // Current name in the spec: RASL_R

NAL_UNIT_RESERVED_10,
NAL_UNIT_RESERVED_11,
NAL_UNIT_RESERVED_12,
NAL_UNIT_RESERVED_13,
NAL_UNIT_RESERVED_14,
NAL_UNIT_RESERVED_15, NAL_UNIT_CODED_SLICE_BLA, // 16 // Current name in the spec: BLA_W_LP
NAL_UNIT_CODED_SLICE_BLA, // 16 // Current name in the spec: BLA_W_LP
NAL_UNIT_CODED_SLICE_BLANT, // 17 // Current name in the spec: BLA_W_DLP
NAL_UNIT_CODED_SLICE_BLA_N_LP, // 18
NAL_UNIT_CODED_SLICE_IDR, // 19 // Current name in the spec: IDR_W_DLP
NAL_UNIT_CODED_SLICE_IDR_N_LP, // 20
NAL_UNIT_CODED_SLICE_CRA, // 21
NAL_UNIT_RESERVED_22,
NAL_UNIT_RESERVED_23,

NAL_UNIT_RESERVED_24,
NAL_UNIT_RESERVED_25,
NAL_UNIT_RESERVED_26,
NAL_UNIT_RESERVED_27,
NAL_UNIT_RESERVED_28,
NAL_UNIT_RESERVED_29,
NAL_UNIT_RESERVED_30,
NAL_UNIT_RESERVED_31,

NAL_UNIT_VPS, // 32
NAL_UNIT_SPS, // 33
NAL_UNIT_PPS, // 34
NAL_UNIT_ACCESS_UNIT_DELIMITER, // 35
NAL_UNIT_EOS, // 36
NAL_UNIT_EOB, // 37
NAL_UNIT_FILLER_DATA, // 38
NAL_UNIT_SEI, // 39 Prefix SEI
NAL_UNIT_SEI_SUFFIX, // 40 Suffix SEI
NAL_UNIT_RESERVED_41,
NAL_UNIT_RESERVED_42,
NAL_UNIT_RESERVED_43,
NAL_UNIT_RESERVED_44,
NAL_UNIT_RESERVED_45,
NAL_UNIT_RESERVED_46,
NAL_UNIT_RESERVED_47,
NAL_UNIT_UNSPECIFIED_48,
NAL_UNIT_UNSPECIFIED_49,
NAL_UNIT_UNSPECIFIED_50,
NAL_UNIT_UNSPECIFIED_51,
NAL_UNIT_UNSPECIFIED_52,
NAL_UNIT_UNSPECIFIED_53,
NAL_UNIT_UNSPECIFIED_54,
NAL_UNIT_UNSPECIFIED_55,
NAL_UNIT_UNSPECIFIED_56,
NAL_UNIT_UNSPECIFIED_57,
NAL_UNIT_UNSPECIFIED_58,
NAL_UNIT_UNSPECIFIED_59,
NAL_UNIT_UNSPECIFIED_60,
NAL_UNIT_UNSPECIFIED_61,
NAL_UNIT_UNSPECIFIED_62,
NAL_UNIT_UNSPECIFIED_63,
NAL_UNIT_INVALID,
};
下面接收下fu分组打包方式,fu分组包头格式如下:

fus包头包含了两个字节的payloadhdr,一个字节的fu header,fu header与h264一样,结构如下图,包含开始位(1b)、停止位(1b)、futype(6b)

paylodhdr两个自己的赋值,其实就是把hevc帧数据的nal unit header的naltype替换为49即可,下面是从ffmpeg源码中截取出来的fu打包方式代码片段:

[cpp] view plain copy 在CODE上查看代码片派生到我的代码片
static void nal_send(AVFormatContext *ctx, const uint8_t *buf, int len, int last_packet_of_frame)
{
RTPMuxContext *rtp_ctx = ctx->priv_data;
int rtp_payload_size = rtp_ctx->max_payload_size - RTP_HEVC_HEADERS_SIZE;
int nal_type = (buf[0] >> 1) & 0x3F;

    /* send it as one single NAL unit? */  
    if (len <= rtp_ctx->max_payload_size) //小于对定的最大值时,直接发送(最大值一般小于mtu)  
 {  
     /* use the original NAL unit buffer and transmit it as RTP payload */  
    ff_rtp_send_data(ctx, buf, len, last_packet_of_frame);  

}  
else //大于最大值时进行fu分组发送  
{  
    /* 
                create the HEVC payload header and transmit the buffer as fragmentation units (FU) 

                0                   1 
                0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 
                +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
                |F|   Type    |  LayerId  | TID | 
                +-------------+-----------------+ 

                    F       = 0 
                    Type    = 49 (fragmentation unit (FU)) 
                    LayerId = 0 
                    TID     = 1 
    */  
    rtp_ctx->buf[0] = 49 << 1;  
    rtp_ctx->buf[1] = 1;  
       //此处为paylaodhdr,规范赋值应该是替换hevc数据nal 的payloadhdr的type  
        //rtp_ctx->buf[0] = (buf[0] &0x81) | (49<<1);  
   //rtp_ctx->buf[1] = buf[1]  
    /* 
        create the FU header 

        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 
        +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
        |S|E|  FuType   | 
        +---------------+ 

            S       = variable 
            E       = variable 
            FuType  = NAL unit type 
    */  
    rtp_ctx->buf[2] = nal_type;  
    /* set the S bit: mark as start fragment */  
    rtp_ctx->buf[2] |= 1 << 7;       
    /* pass the original NAL header */  
    //此处要注意,当是分组的第一报数据时,应该覆盖掉前两个字节的数据,h264要覆盖前一个字节的数据,即是第一包要去除hevc帧数据的paylaodhdr  
    buf += 2;  
    len -= 2;     
    while (len > rtp_payload_size)   
    {  
        /* complete and send current RTP packet */  
            memcpy(&rtp_ctx->buf[RTP_HEVC_HEADERS_SIZE], buf, rtp_payload_size);  
        ff_rtp_send_data(ctx, rtp_ctx->buf, rtp_ctx->max_payload_size, 0);  

            buf += rtp_payload_size;  
        len -= rtp_payload_size;  

            /* reset the S bit */  
            rtp_ctx->buf[2] &= ~(1 << 7);  

    }  

     /* set the E bit: mark as last fragment */  
     rtp_ctx->buf[2] |= 1 << 6;  

     /* complete and send last RTP packet */  
     memcpy(&rtp_ctx->buf[RTP_HEVC_HEADERS_SIZE], buf, len);  
    ff_rtp_send_data(ctx, rtp_ctx->buf, len + 2, last_packet_of_frame);  

}  

}

通过rtp发送hevc视频数据,当hevc帧数据大于mtu时,应该进行fu分组发送,从上面代码流程就是对超过max_payload_size数据进行fu分组的流程,这个h264 fu-A很类似,很容易理解。

参考规范:

https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-payload-rtp-h265-14

ffmpeg相关代码

https://www.ffmpeg.org/doxygen/2.5/rtpenc__hevc_8c_source.html

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