学习笔记——XSLT2.0实用的新功能

原创 2012年03月29日 17:39:35

2007年1月,W3C发布了XSLT2.0规范,2009年发布了XSLT2.1,XSLT3.0预计今年发布得意

 

分组

函数:node-set current-group():该函数返回分组所包含的节点集。

函数:node-set current-grouping-key():该函数返回当前分组的条件(控制分分组的关键节点)。

 

<!-- Category: instruction -->
<xsl:for-each-group
  select
= expression
  group-by? = expression
  group-adjacent? = expression
  group-starting-with? = pattern
  group-ending-with? = pattern
  collation? = { uri }>
  <!-- Content: (xsl:sort*, sequence-constructor) -->
</xsl:for-each-group>

 

属性详解:

1:select:用于指定需要分组的节点;

2:group-by:用于控制分组的关键节点;

3:group-adjacent:用于控制分组的关键节点,并且只将相邻的元素分为一组;

4:group-starting-with:指定分组的开始节点;

5:group-ending-with:指定分组的结束节点;

 

Example: Grouping Nodes based on Common Values

The following example groups a list of nodes based on common values. The resulting groups are numbered but unsorted, and a total is calculated for each group.

Source XML document:

<cities>
  <city name="Milano"  country="Italia"      pop="5"/>
  <city name="Paris"   country="France"      pop="7"/>
  <city name="München" country="Deutschland" pop="4"/>
  <city name="Lyon"    country="France"      pop="2"/>
  <city name="Venezia" country="Italia"      pop="1"/>
</cities>

 

Desired output:

<table>
  <tr>
    <th>Position</th>
    <th>Country</th>
    <th>List of Cities</th>
    <th>Population</th>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>1</td>
    <td>Italia</td>
    <td>Milano, Venezia</td>
    <td>6</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
    <td>2</td>
    <td>France</td>
    <td>Lyon, Paris</td>
    <td>9</td>
  </tr>  
  <tr>
    <td>3</td>
    <td>Deutschland</td>
    <td>München</td>
    <td>4</td>
  </tr>  
</table>

 

Solution:

<table xsl:version="2.0" xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform">
  <tr>
    <th>Position</th>
    <th>Country</th>
    <th>City List</th>
    <th>Population</th>
  </tr>
  <xsl:for-each-group select="cities/city" group-by="@country">
    <tr>
      <td><xsl:value-of select="position()"/></td>
      <td><xsl:value-of select="@country"/></td>
      <td>
        <xsl:value-of select="current-group()/@name" separator=", "/>
      </td>
      <td><xsl:value-of select="sum(current-group()/@pop)"/></td>
    </tr>
  </xsl:for-each-group>
</table>

 

自定义函数

<!-- Category: declaration -->
<xsl:function
  name = qname
  as? = sequence-type
  override? = "yes" | "no">
  <!-- Content: (xsl:param*, sequence-constructor) -->
</xsl:function>

 

属性详解:

1:name:函数名;

2:as:函数的返回值;

3:override:当存在同名函数时,是否覆盖。

 

<funciton.../>中可包含N个<param.../>子元素,用于为该函数定义形参。

 

<!-- Category: declaration -->
<xsl:param
  name = qname
  select? = expression
  as? = sequence-type
  required? = "yes" | "no"
  tunnel? = "yes" | "no">
  <!-- Content: sequence-constructor -->
</xsl:param>

 

属性详解:

as:指定形参的数据类型;

tunnel:默认是no,用于指定该参数是一个tunnel参数。

 

Example: A Stylesheet Function

The following example creates a recursive stylesheet function named str:reverse that reverses the words in a supplied sentence, and then invokes this function from within a template rule.

<xsl:transform 
  xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform"
  xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"
  xmlns:str="http://example.com/namespace"
  version="2.0"
  exclude-result-prefixes="str">

<xsl:function name="str:reverse" as="xs:string">
  <xsl:param name="sentence" as="xs:string"/>
  <xsl:sequence  
     select="if (contains($sentence, ' '))
             then concat(str:reverse(substring-after($sentence, ' ')),
                         ' ',
                         substring-before($sentence, ' '))
             else $sentence"/>
</xsl:function>

<xsl:template match="/">
<output>
  <xsl:value-of select="str:reverse('DOG BITES MAN')"/>
</output>
</xsl:template>

</xsl:transform>

 

An alternative way of writing the same function is to implement the conditional logic at the XSLT level, thus:

<xsl:function name="str:reverse" as="xs:string">
  <xsl:param name="sentence" as="xs:string"/>
  <xsl:choose>
    <xsl:when test="contains($sentence, ' ')">  
      <xsl:sequence select="concat(str:reverse(substring-after($sentence, ' ')),
                                ' ',
                                substring-before($sentence, ' '))"/>
    </xsl:when>
    <xsl:otherwise>
      <xsl:sequence select="$sentence"/>
    </xsl:otherwise>
  </xsl:choose>
</xsl:function> 

 

Final Result Trees

<!-- Category: instruction -->
<xsl:result-document
  format? = { qname }
  href? = { uri-reference }
  validation? = "strict" | "lax" | "preserve" | "strip"
  type? = qname
  method? = { "xml" | "html" | "xhtml" | "text" | qname-but-not-ncname }
  byte-order-mark? = { "yes" | "no" }
  cdata-section-elements? = { qnames }
  doctype-public? = { string }
  doctype-system? = { string }
  encoding? = { string }
  escape-uri-attributes? = { "yes" | "no" }
  include-content-type? = { "yes" | "no" }
  indent? = { "yes" | "no" }
  media-type? = { string }
  normalization-form? = { "NFC" | "NFD" | "NFKC" | "NFKD" | "fully-normalized" | "none" |nmtoken }
  omit-xml-declaration? = { "yes" | "no" }
  standalone? = { "yes" | "no" | "omit" }
  undeclare-prefixes? = { "yes" | "no" }
  use-character-maps? = qnames
  output-version? = { nmtoken }>
  <!-- Content: sequence-constructor -->
</xsl:result-document>

 

属性解释:

1:format:指定输出结果文档的格式,属性值是一个<output.../>元素的name属性值。

2:href:指定输出结果文档的文件路径。

 

Example: Multiple Result Documents

The following example takes an XHTML document as input, and breaks it up so that the text following each <h1> element is included in a separate document. A new documenttoc.html is constructed to act as an index:

<xsl:stylesheet
        version="2.0"
        xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform"
        xmlns:xhtml="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
        
<xsl:output name="toc-format" method="xhtml" indent="yes"
            doctype-system="http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd"
            doctype-public="-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN"/>
            
<xsl:output name="section-format" method="xhtml" indent="no"
            doctype-system="http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"
            doctype-public="-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"/>        
         
<xsl:template match="/">
  <xsl:result-document href="toc.html" format="toc-format" validation="strict">
    <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
      <head><title>Table of Contents</title></head>
      <body>
        <h1>Table of Contents</h1>
        <xsl:for-each select="/*/xhtml:body/(*[1] | xhtml:h1)">
          <p><a href="section{position()}.html"><xsl:value-of select="."/></a></p>
        </xsl:for-each>
      </body>
    </html>
  </xsl:result-document>
  <xsl:for-each-group select="/*/xhtml:body/*" group-starting-with="xhtml:h1">
    <xsl:result-document href="section{position()}.html" 
                         format="section-format" validation="strip">         
      <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
        <head><title><xsl:value-of select="."/></title></head>
        <body>
          <xsl:copy-of select="current-group()"/>
        </body>
      </html>
    </xsl:result-document>
  </xsl:for-each-group>
</xsl:template>

</xsl:stylesheet> 

 

字符映射

<!-- Category: declaration -->
<xsl:character-map
  name = qname
  use-character-maps? = qnames>
  <!-- Content: (xsl:output-character*) -->
</xsl:character-map>

 

属性解释:

1:name:标识符;

2:use-character-maps:用于包含另外一个字符映射。

<xsl:output-character
  character = char
  string = string />

 

属性解释:

用character的属性值替代string的属性值。

 

Example: Using Character Maps to Generate Non-XML Output

Character maps can be useful when producing serialized output in a format that resembles, but is not strictly conformant to, HTML or XML. For example, when the output is a JSP page, there might be a need to generate the output:

<jsp:setProperty name="user" property="id" value='<%= "id" + idValue %>'/>


Although this output is not well-formed XML or HTML, it is valid in Java Server Pages. This can be achieved by allocating three Unicode characters (which are not needed for any other purpose) to represent the strings<%,%>, and ", for example:

<xsl:character-map name="jsp">
  <xsl:output-character character="«" string="<%"/>   
  <xsl:output-character character="»" string="%>"/>
  <xsl:output-character character="§" string='"'/>
</xsl:character-map>


When this character map is referenced in the xsl:output declaration, the required output can be produced by writing the following in the stylesheet:

<jsp:setProperty name="user" property="id" value='«= §id§ + idValue »'/>

 

This works on the assumption that when an apostrophe or quotation mark is generated as part of an attribute value by the use of character maps, the serializer will (where possible) use the other choice of delimiter around the attribute value.

 

数据类型绑定

在<variable.../>、<param.../>和<with-param.../>元素中使用as属性,指定其数据类型,前面示例中用过。

 

正则表达式

 

<!-- Category: instruction -->
<xsl:analyze-string
  select = expression
  regex = { string }
  flags? = { string }>
  <!-- Content: (xsl:matching-substring?, xsl:non-matching-substring?, xsl:fallback*) -->
</xsl:analyze-string>

<xsl:matching-substring>
  <!-- Content: sequence-constructor -->
</xsl:matching-substring>

<xsl:non-matching-substring>
  <!-- Content: sequence-constructor -->
</xsl:non-matching-substring>

 

呃!直接理解字面意思就可得意

 

Example: Parsing a Date

Problem: the input string contains a date such as 23 March 2002. Convert it to the form2002-03-23.

Solution (with no error handling if the input format is incorrect):

<xsl:variable name="months" select="'January', 'February', 'March', ..."/>

<xsl:analyze-string select="normalize-space($input)" 
    regex="([0-9]{{1,2}})\s([A-Z][a-z]+)\s([0-9]{{4}})">
    <xsl:matching-substring>
        <xsl:number value="regex-group(3)" format="0001"/>          
        <xsl:text>-</xsl:text>
        <xsl:number value="index-of($months, regex-group(2))" format="01"/>
        <xsl:text>-</xsl:text>
        <xsl:number value="regex-group(1)" format="01"/>
    </xsl:matching-substring>
</xsl:analyze-string>

 

Note the use of normalize-space to simplify the work done by the regular expression, and the use of doubled curly brackets because theregex attribute is an attribute value template.

 

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