# 线段树&315 LeetCode：Count of Smaller Numbers After Self

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线段树是一颗二叉搜索树，与区间树相似，讲一个区间划分成一些单元区间，每一个单元区间对应线段树中一个叶子节点



You are given an integer array nums and you have to return a new counts array. The counts array has the property where counts[i] is the number of smaller elements to the right of nums[i].

Example:

Given nums = [5, 2, 6, 1]

To the right of 5 there are 2 smaller elements (2 and 1).
To the right of 2 there is only 1 smaller element (1).
To the right of 6 there is 1 smaller element (1).
To the right of 1 there is 0 smaller element.
Return the array [2, 1, 1, 0].

for example [3,2,2,6,1]
When we try to insert a number, the total number of smaller number would be adding dup and sum of the nodes where we turn right.
for example, if we insert 5, it should be inserted on the way down to the right of 3, the nodes where we turn right is 1(0,1), 2,(0,2), 3(0,1), so the answer should be (0 + 1)+(0 + 2)+ (0 + 1) = 4

if we insert 7, the right-turning nodes are 1(0,1), 6(3,1), so answer should be (0 + 1) + (3 + 1) = 5

1(0, 1)
\
6(3, 1)
/
2(0, 2)
\
3(0, 1)

class Node{
Node left,right;
int val,sum,dup = 1;
public Node(int v,int s){
val = v
sum = s}
}
public class Solution {
class Node {
Node left, right;
int val, sum, dup = 1;
public Node(int v, int s) {
val = v;
sum = s;
}
}
public List<Integer> countSmaller(int[] nums) {
Integer[] ans = new Integer[nums.length];
Node root = null;
for (int i = nums.length - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
root = insert(nums[i], root, ans, i, 0);
}
return Arrays.asList(ans);
}
private Node insert(int num, Node node, Integer[] ans, int i, int preSum) {
if (node == null) {
node = new Node(num, 0);
ans[i] = preSum;
} else if (node.val == num) {
node.dup++;
ans[i] = preSum + node.sum;
} else if (node.val > num) {
node.sum++;
node.left = insert(num, node.left, ans, i, preSum);
} else {
node.right = insert(num, node.right, ans, i, preSum + node.dup + node.sum);
}
return node;
}
}
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