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线段树&315 LeetCode:Count of Smaller Numbers After Self

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一:线段树的基本概念

线段树是一颗二叉搜索树,与区间树相似,讲一个区间划分成一些单元区间,每一个单元区间对应线段树中一个叶子节点
线段树上的每一个非叶子节点[a,b],它的左儿子表示区间为[a,(a+b)/2], 右儿子表示的区间为[(a+b)/2+1,b]。因此线段树是平衡二叉树,最后的子节点的数目为N。即是整个线段区间的长度。

You are given an integer array nums and you have to return a new counts array. The counts array has the property where counts[i] is the number of smaller elements to the right of nums[i].

Example:

Given nums = [5, 2, 6, 1]

To the right of 5 there are 2 smaller elements (2 and 1).
To the right of 2 there is only 1 smaller element (1).
To the right of 6 there is 1 smaller element (1).
To the right of 1 there is 0 smaller element.
Return the array [2, 1, 1, 0].

解法:每一个节点保存2个value
一个是sum:用来记录在树当前节点左下方的节点个数
一个是dup:用来记录数组中的重复元素
for example [3,2,2,6,1]
When we try to insert a number, the total number of smaller number would be adding dup and sum of the nodes where we turn right.
for example, if we insert 5, it should be inserted on the way down to the right of 3, the nodes where we turn right is 1(0,1), 2,(0,2), 3(0,1), so the answer should be (0 + 1)+(0 + 2)+ (0 + 1) = 4

if we insert 7, the right-turning nodes are 1(0,1), 6(3,1), so answer should be (0 + 1) + (3 + 1) = 5

1(0, 1)
\
6(3, 1)
/
2(0, 2)
\
3(0, 1)

class Node{
           Node left,right;
           int val,sum,dup = 1;
           public Node(int v,int s){
           val = v
           sum = s}
}
public class Solution {
    class Node {
        Node left, right;
        int val, sum, dup = 1;
        public Node(int v, int s) {
            val = v;
            sum = s;
        }
    }
    public List<Integer> countSmaller(int[] nums) {
        Integer[] ans = new Integer[nums.length];
        Node root = null;
        for (int i = nums.length - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
            root = insert(nums[i], root, ans, i, 0);
        }
        return Arrays.asList(ans);
    }
    private Node insert(int num, Node node, Integer[] ans, int i, int preSum) {
        if (node == null) {
            node = new Node(num, 0);
            ans[i] = preSum;
        } else if (node.val == num) {
            node.dup++;
            ans[i] = preSum + node.sum;
        } else if (node.val > num) {
            node.sum++;
            node.left = insert(num, node.left, ans, i, preSum);
        } else {
            node.right = insert(num, node.right, ans, i, preSum + node.dup + node.sum);
        }
        return node;
    }
}
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