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Eight(South Central USA 1998)

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Description

The 15-puzzle has been around for over 100 years; even if you don't know it by that name, you've seen it. It is constructed with 15 sliding tiles, each with a number from 1 to 15 on it, and all packed into a 4 by 4 frame with one tile missing. Let's call the missing tile 'x'; the object of the puzzle is to arrange the tiles so that they are ordered as:
 1  2  3  4
 5  6  7  8
 9 10 11 12
13 14 15  x

where the only legal operation is to exchange 'x' with one of the tiles with which it shares an edge. As an example, the following sequence of moves solves a slightly scrambled puzzle:
 1  2  3  4     1  2  3  4     1  2  3  4     1  2  3  4
 5  6  7  8     5  6  7  8     5  6  7  8     5  6  7  8
 9  x 10 12     9 10  x 12     9 10 11 12     9 10 11 12
13 14 11 15    13 14 11 15    13 14  x 15    13 14 15  x
 r->            d->            r->

The letters in the previous row indicate which neighbor of the 'x' tile is swapped with the 'x' tile at each step; legal values are 'r','l','u' and 'd', for right, left, up, and down, respectively.

Not all puzzles can be solved; in 1870, a man named Sam Loyd was famous for distributing an unsolvable version of the puzzle, and
frustrating many people. In fact, all you have to do to make a regular puzzle into an unsolvable one is to swap two tiles (not counting the missing 'x' tile, of course).

In this problem, you will write a program for solving the less well-known 8-puzzle, composed of tiles on a three by three
arrangement.
 

Input

You will receive, several descriptions of configuration of the 8 puzzle. One description is just a list of the tiles in their initial positions, with the rows listed from top to bottom, and the tiles listed from left to right within a row, where the tiles are represented by numbers 1 to 8, plus 'x'. For example, this puzzle

1 2 3
x 4 6
7 5 8

is described by this list:

1 2 3 x 4 6 7 5 8
 

Output

You will print to standard output either the word ``unsolvable'', if the puzzle has no solution, or a string consisting entirely of the letters 'r', 'l', 'u' and 'd' that describes a series of moves that produce a solution. The string should include no spaces and start at the beginning of the line. Do not print a blank line between cases.
 

Sample Input

2 3 4 1 5 x 7 6 8
 

Sample Output

ullddrurdllurdruldr


解题关键:bfs所有情况,用父节点方式存储每一次的路径。


#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include

using namespace std;

#define INF 0x3f3f3ff3f
struct node
{
    int x,y;
    int d;
    char c;
    int g[9];
}T[400000];

int vis[400000];
int fac[]={1,1,2,6,24,120,720,5040,40320,362880,3628800,39916800};
int dir[][6]={{1,0},{-1,0},{0,1},{0,-1}};

char cur[]="udlr";

void print(int g[])
{
    int num=0;
    for(int i=0;i<9;i++)
    {
        cout<=0&&x<3&&y>=0&&y<3) return true;
    return false;
}

void bfs(int c[])
{
    memset(vis,0,sizeof 0);
    queueque;

    node k;
    for(int i=0;i<9;i++) k.g[i]=c[i];
    k.x=2;
    k.y=2;
    k.d=-1;

    que.push(k);

    T[cantor(k.g)]=k;
    vis[cantor(k.g)]=1;

    while(que.size())
    {
        k=que.front();
        que.pop();
      //  print(k.g);
       // system("pause");

        int p=cantor(k.g);

        T[p]=k;

        for(int i=0;i<4;i++)
        {
            node temp=k;
            temp.x+=dir[i][0];
            temp.y+=dir[i][1];

            if(judge(temp.x,temp.y))
            {
                swap(temp.g[3*temp.x+temp.y],temp.g[3*k.x+k.y]);
                int ca=cantor(temp.g);
                if(!vis[ca])
                {
                    temp.d=p;
                    temp.c=cur[i];
                    vis[ca]=1;
                    que.push(temp);
                }
            }
        }
    }
}


int main()
{
    int c[20];
    for(int i=0;i<9;i++) if(i==8) c[i]=0; else c[i]=i+1;

    bfs(c);
    int an=cantor(c);

    char a[5];
    int s[15];
    while(scanf("%s",a)!=EOF)
    {
        int num=0;
        if(a[0]=='x') s[num++]=0;
        else s[num++]=a[0]-'0';

        for(int i=1;i<9;i++)
        {
            scanf("%s",a);
             if(a[0]=='x') s[num++]=0;
            else s[num++]=a[0]-'0';
        }

        int ca=cantor(s);

        if(vis[ca])
        {
            int t=ca;
            while(1)
            {
                if(t==an) break;
                printf("%c",T[t].c);
                t=T[t].d;
            }
        }
        else printf("unsolvable");
        puts("");
    }

    return 0;
}


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