The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing

转载 2011年01月24日 09:30:00

The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing

Authors: Peter Mell and Tim Grance

Version 15, 10-7-09


National Institute of Standards and Technology, Information Technology Laboratory


Note 1: Cloud computing is still an evolving paradigm. Its definitions, use cases, underlying technologies, issues, risks, and benefits will be refined in a spirited debate by the public and private sectors. These definitions, attributes, and characteristics will evolve and change over time.


Note 2: The cloud computing industry represents a large ecosystem of many models, vendors, and market niches. This definition attempts to encompass all of the various cloud approaches.

Definition of Cloud Computing:


Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. This cloud model promotes availability and is composed of five essential characteristics, three service models , and four deployment models .


Essential Characteristics:

On-demand self-service. A consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities, such as server time and network storage, as needed automatically without requiring human interaction with each service’s provider.

Broad network access. Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous thin or thick client platforms (e.g., mobile phones, laptops, and PDAs).

Resource pooling. The provider’s computing resources are pooled to serve multiple consumers using a multi-tenant model, with different physical and virtual resources dynamically assigned and reassigned according to consumer demand. There is a sense of location independence in that the customer generally has no control or knowledge over the exact location of the provided resources but may be able to specify location at a higher level of abstraction (e.g., country, state, or datacenter). Examples of resources include storage, processing, memory, network bandwidth, and virtual machines.

Rapid elasticity. Capabilities can be rapidly and elastically provisioned, in some cases automatically, to quickly scale out and rapidly released to quickly scale in. To the consumer, the capabilities available for provisioning often appear to be unlimited and can be purchased in any quantity at any time.

Measured Service. Cloud systems automatically control and optimize resource use by leveraging a metering capability at some level of abstraction appropriate to the type of service (e.g., storage, processing, bandwidth, and active user accounts). Resource usage can be monitored, controlled, and reported providing transparency for both the provider and consumer of the utilized service.


Service Models:

Cloud Software as a Service (SaaS). The capability provided to the consumer is to use the provider’s applications running on a cloud infrastructure. The applications are accessible from various client devices through a thin client interface such as a web browser (e.g., web-based email). The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, storage, or even individual application capabilities, with the possible exception of limited user-specific application configuration settings.

Cloud Platform as a Service (PaaS) . The capability provided to the consumer is to deploy onto the cloud infrastructure consumer-created or acquired applications created using programming languages and tools supported by the provider. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, or storage, but has control over the deployed applications and possibly application hosting environment configurations.

Cloud Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). The capability provided to the consumer is to provision processing, storage, networks, and other fundamental computing resources where the consumer is able to deploy and run arbitrary software, which can include operating systems and applications. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure but has control over operating systems, storage, deployed applications, and possibly limited control of select networking components (e.g., host firewalls).


Deployment Models:

Private cloud. The cloud infrastructure is operated solely for an organization. It may be managed by the organization or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise.

Community cloud. The cloud infrastructure is shared by several organizations and supports a specific community that has shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations). It may be managed by the organizations or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise.

Public cloud. The cloud infrastructure is made available to the general public or a large industry group and is owned by an organization selling cloud services.

Hybrid cloud . The cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more clouds (private, community, or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application portability (e.g., cloud bursting for load-balancing between clouds).


Note: Cloud software takes full advantage of the cloud paradigm by being service oriented with a focus on statelessness, low coupling, modularity, and semantic interoperability.


3 Measured Service Telephone service for which charge is made according to the measured amount of usage

关于云计算(Cloud Computing)的一些概念

什么是云计算? 云计算是目前非常火爆的一个概念。那个云计算到底是什么呢?它的前世今生又是什么呢? 关于云计算有许许多多非常专业的介绍。这里仅从知名网站知乎中,摘录问题“什么是云计算?”的一些比较有...
  • inter_peng
  • inter_peng
  • 2016年08月05日 20:47
  • 2061

云计算领域顶级期刊会议列表 云计算领域期刊会议列表-20150105-ly-0.xlsx 【源文件】 预览: ACM Symposium on Cloud Comp...
  • hsluoyc
  • hsluoyc
  • 2015年01月05日 23:36
  • 7241


云计算现在被大家炒的热火朝天,那么很多人也想更多了解云计算。那么我就给大家介绍几个杂志和网站。 IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computin...
  • c602273091
  • c602273091
  • 2014年12月19日 19:25
  • 1365

Market-Oriented Cloud Computing文章阅读笔记

云计算是将IT服务作为计算实用程序提供的新型范例。 云旨在为外部用户提供服务,因此需要对供应商进行补偿以分享其资源和能力。 文章提出了云层内资源市场化分配的架构、 讨论了云计算的一些代表性平台、提出了...
  • yangss123
  • yangss123
  • 2017年04月12日 09:27
  • 373

cloud computing for dummies读书笔记

近日花了一个星期的时间读了一下cloud computing for dummies这本书,算是对云计算进行一下基本概念的扫盲。觉得其中的脉络比较重要,现将要点摘录如下,作为读书笔记。 云服务分为三种...
  • eddyx
  • eddyx
  • 2011年06月27日 21:30
  • 654

Cloud computing 云计算是什么

Cloud computing 开放分类: 计算机、网络存储、云模型、云理论、云计算Cloud computing: a method to realize conceptual computing ...
  • linspire
  • linspire
  • 2008年06月25日 15:14
  • 317

Cloud Computing

云计算(或云),英文Cloud Computing,是一个演化中的词汇,是一种抽象的描述方式。业界用这个词汇描述了由多种现有的计算技术和方法组合创新而成的一种新的计算方式,形象地展现了从客户端计算转向...
  • bruceyue
  • bruceyue
  • 2011年08月23日 09:13
  • 204

Cloud computing

最近研究CLOUD COMPUTING平台,  現在大廠 VMWARE/ CITRIX 都提供了免費版本的系統供USER架設VM,若大家有空也可玩玩...
  • djboy1971
  • djboy1971
  • 2010年05月11日 10:16
  • 115

Cloud Computing(0)_What is Cloud Computing?

what is Cloud Computing?-The best thing since sliced bread.What is Cloud Computing?
  • u011290316
  • u011290316
  • 2017年03月02日 15:28
  • 303

Cloud Computing

Cloud Computing refers to the on-demand delivery of IT resources via the Internet with pay-as-you-go...
  • zhigangsun
  • zhigangsun
  • 2014年01月16日 16:12
  • 379
您举报文章:The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing