NSArray与NSSet

转载 2012年03月26日 19:51:15
NSArray与NSSet
NSArray:有序的集合,存储的元素在一个整块的内存中并按序排列;
NSSet:无序的集合,散列存储。
读developer.apple关于NSSet的解释:You can use sets as an alternative to arrays when the order of elements isn’t important and performance in testing whether an object is contained in the set is a consideration—while arrays are ordered, testing for membership is slower than with sets.
就是说,如果搜索一个元素,NSSet的效率会比NSArray高。为什么呢?道理比较简单:hash!NSSet中元素的存储和访问都是一个hash的过程。比如你要存储元素A,一个hash算法直接就能直接找到A应该存储的位置;同样,当你要访问A时,一个hash过程就能找到A存储的位置。而对于NSArray,若想知道A到底在不在数组中,则需要一个一个元素比较,显然效率没了。


循环使用整个NSArray内的对象


循环使用整个NSArray内的对象是非常常用的了,而且最近我在研究究竟怎么能方便的把NSArray存入Core Data,所以这更是必要了,看看如下的方法吧:

1,Objective-C 2.0法,最应该使用的

NSArray *aArray; //我们的Array,假设他已经初始化有内容了
 for(id innerObj in aArray) //id可以由其他对象类型替代
{
//也就是说, 在循环中的参数innerObj就是aArray中的对象
//由于NSArray中只能储存对象,所以我们使用id作为内涵对象的类型,其实就是个指针了
//而且如果NSArray中的内容不一致,id更不会出现冲突
}

2,C的老方法,不推荐,低性能

NSArray *aArray; //我们的Array,假设他已经初始化有内容了
 for(int i=0;i<[aArray count]; i++)
{
[[aArray objectAtIndex:i] 然后作你想作的事情]; //做爱 作的事情...
}

3, 用NSEnumerator(不知道怎么翻译阿….)

 NSEnumerator* myIterator = [myArray reverseObjectEnumerator];
 id anObject;
 while( anObject = [myIterator nextObject]) //每次读取“逐读器”的下一个对象
 {
     //anObject和刚才的innerObj是一个意思,但是看看多了这么多行
 }


三种集合类来收集cocoa对象(NSObject对象):
NSArray 用于对象有序集合(相当于是数组)
NSSet 用于对象无序集合
NSDictionary用于键值映射
以上三种集合类是不可变的(一旦初始化后,就不能改变)

以下是对应的三种可变集合类(这三种可变集合类是对应上面三种集合类的子类):
NSMutableArray
NSMutableSet
NSMutableDictionary

注:这些集合类只能收集cocoa对象(NSOjbect对象),如果想保存一些原始的C数据(例如,int, float, double, BOOL等),则需要将这些原始的C数据封装成NSNumber类型的,NSNumber对象是cocoa对象,可以被保存在集合类中。

NSArray
Ordered collection of objects. Immutable. You cannot add or remove objects to it once it’s created.
Important methods:
+ (id)arrayWithObjects:(id)firstObject, ...;     // nil terminated 
- (int)count;
- (id)objectAtIndex:(int)index;                     //  NSString *s1=[[myarray objectAtIndex: 0];
- (void)makeObjectsPerformSelector:(SEL)aSelector;
- (NSArray *)sortedArrayUsingSelector:(SEL)aSelector;
- (id)lastObject; // returns nil if there are no objects in the array (convenient)
注:
类方法arrayWithObjects 可以创建an autoreleased NSArray of the items.例如
@implementation MyObject
- (NSArray *)coolCats {
return [NSArray arrayWithObjects:@“Steve”, @“Ankush”, @“Sean”, nil];
}
@end
Other convenient create with methods (all return autoreleased objects):
[NSString stringWithFormat:@“Meaning of %@ is %d”, @“life”, 42];
[NSDictionary dictionaryWithObjectsAndKeys:ankush, @“TA”, janestudent, @“Student”, nil];
[NSArray arrayWithContentsOfFile:(NSString *)path];
-----创建数组 -----
    //NSArray *array = [[NSArray alloc] initWithObjects:
    @"One",@"Two",@"Three",@"Four",nil];

    self.dataArray = array;
    [array release];

    //- (unsigned) Count;数组所包含对象个数;
    NSLog(@"self.dataArray cound:%d",[self.dataArray count]);

    //- (id) objectAtIndex: (unsigned int) index;获取指定索引处的对象;
    NSLog(@"self.dataArray cound 2:%@",[self.dataArray objectAtIndex:2]);

------ 从一个数组拷贝数据到另一数组(可变数级) -------   

    //arrayWithArray:
    //NSArray *array1 = [[NSArray alloc] init];
    NSMutableArray *MutableArray = [[NSMutableArray alloc] init];
    NSArray *array = [NSArray arrayWithObjects:
                      @"a",@"b",@"c",nil];
    NSLog(@"array:%@",array);
    MutableArray = [NSMutableArray arrayWithArray:array];
    NSLog(@"MutableArray:%@",MutableArray);

    array1 = [NSArray arrayWithArray:array];
    NSLog(@"array1:%@",array1);

    //Copy

    //id obj;
    NSMutableArray *newArray = [[NSMutableArray alloc] init];
    NSArray *oldArray = [NSArray arrayWithObjects:
                         @"a",@"b",@"c",@"d",@"e",@"f",@"g",@"h",nil];

    NSLog(@"oldArray:%@",oldArray);
    for(int i = 0; i < [oldArray count]; i++)
    {        
        obj = [[oldArray objectAtIndex:i] copy];
        [newArray addObject: obj];
    }
    //     
    NSLog(@"newArray:%@", newArray);
    [newArray release];

//快速枚举
    
//NSMutableArray *newArray = [[NSMutableArray alloc] init];
    NSArray *oldArray = [NSArray arrayWithObjects:
                         @"a",@"b",@"c",@"d",@"e",@"f",@"g",@"h",nil];   
    NSLog(@"oldArray:%@",oldArray);

    for(id obj in oldArray)
    {
        [newArray addObject: obj];
    }
    //     
    NSLog(@"newArray:%@", newArray);
    [newArray release];   

    //Deep copy

    //NSMutableArray *newArray = [[NSMutableArray alloc] init];
    NSArray *oldArray = [NSArray arrayWithObjects:
                         @"a",@"b",@"c",@"d",@"e",@"f",@"g",@"h",nil];   
    NSLog(@"oldArray:%@",oldArray);   
    newArray = (NSMutableArray*)CFPropertyListCreateDeepCopy(kCFAllocatorDefault, (CFPropertyListRef)oldArray, kCFPropertyListMutableContainers);
    NSLog(@"newArray:%@", newArray);
    [newArray release];   

    //Copy and sort

    //NSMutableArray *newArray = [[NSMutableArray alloc] init];
    NSArray *oldArray = [NSArray arrayWithObjects:

NSMutableArray
Mutable version of NSArray.
- (void)addObject:(id)anObject;
- (void)insertObject:(id)anObject atIndex:(int)index;
- (void)removeObjectAtIndex:(int)index;
- (void)removeAllObjects;

-----给数组分配容量-----
    //NSArray *array;
    array = [NSMutableArray arrayWithCapacity:20];

-----在数组末尾添加对象-----
    //- (void) addObject: (id) anObject;
    //NSMutableArray *array = [NSMutableArray arrayWithObjects:@"One",@"Two",@"Three",nil];
    [array addObject:@"Four"];
    NSLog(@"array:%@",array);

-----删除数组中指定索引处对象-----   
    //-(void) removeObjectAtIndex: (unsigned) index;   
    //NSMutableArray *array = [NSMutableArray arrayWithObjects:@"One",@"Two",@"Three",nil];
    [array removeObjectAtIndex:1];
    NSLog(@"array:%@",array);

 ----- 数组枚举-----  
//1、- (NSEnumerator *)objectEnumerator;  //从前向后
    //NSMutableArray *array = [NSMutableArray arrayWithObjects:@"One",@"Two",@"Three",nil];
    NSEnumerator *enumerator;
    enumerator = [array objectEnumerator];

    id thingie;
    while (thingie = [enumerator nextObject]) {
        NSLog(@"thingie:%@",thingie);
    }
//2、- (NSEnumerator *)reverseObjectEnumerator;  //从后向前
    //NSMutableArray *array = [NSMutableArray arrayWithObjects:
    @"One",@"Two",@"Three",nil];
    NSEnumerator *enumerator;
    enumerator = [array reverseObjectEnumerator];

    id object;
    while (object = [enumerator nextObject]) {
        NSLog(@"object:%@",object);
    }
//3、快速枚举
    //NSMutableArray *array = [NSMutableArray arrayWithObjects:
    @"One",@"Two",@"Three",nil];
    for(NSString *string in array)
    {
        NSLog(@"string:%@",string);
    }

----- NSValue(对任何对象进行包装)-----
//将NSRect放入NSArray中
    NSMutableArray *array = [[NSMutableArray alloc] init];
    NSValue *value;
    CGRect rect = CGRectMake(0, 0, 320, 480);   
    value = [NSValue valueWithBytes:&rect objCType:@encode(CGRect)];
    [array addObject:value];
    NSLog(@"array:%@",array);
//从Array中 提取
    value = [array objectAtIndex:0];
    [value getValue:&rect];
    NSLog(@"value:%@",value);

----★使用NSMutableArray要防止内存泄露★------
NSObject* p1 = [[NSObject alloc] init];
NSObject* p2 = [[NSObject alloc] init];
NSMutableArray* objectsArray = [[NSMutableArray alloc] init];

[objectsArray addObject:p1];
NSLog(@"p1 count:%d", [p1 retainCount]);//输出 2,也就是执行追加对象后,对象的计数器也被加1
//[p1 release];
//NSLog(@"p1 count:%d", [p1 retainCount]);

//同样做数组替换时
[objectsArray replaceObjectAtIndex:0 withObject:p2];
NSLog(@"p2 count:%d", [p2 retainCount]);//输出 2,同样也是2
NSLog(@"p1 count:%d", [p1 retainCount]);//输出 1,对象p1仍然存在
//[p2 release];
//NSLog(@"p2 count:%d", [p2 retainCount]);

//执行清空数组
[objectsArray removeAllObjects];
NSLog(@"p2 count:%d", [p2 retainCount]);//输出 1,对象p2仍然存在
//[p2 release];

由此可知,每次执行上面的数组操作后,要执行对象release,如上面注释中的语句,才能保证内存不泄露。


NSSet
Unordered collection of objects.
Immutable. You cannot add or remove objects to it once it’s created.
Important methods:
+ setWithObjects:(id)firstObj, ...;  // nil terminated

- (int)count;
- (BOOL)containsObject:(id)anObject;
- (id)anyObject;
- (void)makeObjectsPerformSelector:(SEL)aSelector;
- (id)member:(id)anObject; // uses isEqual: and returns a matching object (if any)

NSMutableSet
Mutable version of NSSet.
+ (NSMutableSet *)set;
- (void)addObject:(id)anObject;
- (void)removeObject:(id)anObject;
- (void)removeAllObjects;
- (void)unionSet:(NSSet *)otherSet;
- (void)minusSet:(NSSet *)otherSet;
- (void)intersectSet:(NSSet *)otherSet;

NSDictionary
key-value, key-value, ..... 一系列键值对。
key(键)在整个dictionary是唯一的,通过key可以查询其对应的一个或多个value(值)。
Hash table. Look up objects using a key to get a value.
Immutable. You cannot add or remove objects to it once it’s created.
Keys are objects which must implement.  Keys are usually NSString objects.
- (NSUInteger)hash & - (BOOL)isEqual:(NSObject *)obj
Important methods:
+ dictionaryWithObjectsAndKeys: (id)firstObject, ...;
- (int)count;
- (id)objectForKey:(id)key;
- (NSArray *)allKeys;
- (NSArray *)allValues;
 -----创建字典 -----
    //- (id) initWithObjectsAndKeys;

    //NSDictionary *dictionary = [[NSDictionary alloc] initWithObjectsAndKeys:@"One",@"1",@"Two",@"2",@"Three",@"3",nil];
    NSString *string = [dictionary objectForKey:@"One"];
    NSLog(@"string:%@",string);
    NSLog(@"dictionary:%@",dictionary);
    [dictionary release];

NSMutableDictionary
Mutable version of NSDictionary.
+ (NSMutableDictionary *)dictionary;
- (void)setObject:(id)anObject forKey:(id)key;
- (void)removeObjectForKey:(id)key;
- (void)removeAllObjects;
- (void)addEntriesFromDictionary:(NSDictionary *)otherDictionary;
 -----创建可变字典 -----   
//创建
    NSMutableDictionary *dictionary = [NSMutableDictionary dictionary];
 
//添加字典
    [dictionary setObject:@"One" forKey:@"1"];
    [dictionary setObject:@"Two" forKey:@"2"];
    [dictionary setObject:@"Three" forKey:@"3"];
    [dictionary setObject:@"Four" forKey:@"4"];
    NSLog(@"dictionary:%@",dictionary);
//删除指定的字典
    [dictionary removeObjectForKey:@"3"];
    NSLog(@"dictionary:%@",dictionary);

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