第12课:Spark Streaming源码解读之Executor容错安全性

原创 2016年05月31日 17:35:25

本节课聚焦executor的安全容错,driver的安全容错下节课讲。
executor的安全容错主要是executor接受的数据的安全性,计算的安全容错完全可以借助于底层的rdd的安全容错。数据的安全性对spark streaming至关重要,这有2个原因:
第一个原因:spark streaming不断地持续地接受数据,不断地持续地产生JOb不断地持续地提交Job;
第二个原因:由于是基于spark core,如果能够确保数据安全可靠,即使运行时有故障也可以借助rdd的容错性自动进行恢复。

最简单的容错机制是副本,其次还有是数据源接受重放(即可以从数据源重新读取过去若干时间内的数据)。数据副本也有2中方式:通过配置storage level基于block manager做备份,这样接受到的数据存储到executor时,就可以天然地借助bm的机制做备份,这也是默认采用了的方式;通过wal来做备份。

一。基于bm做备份:
storage level默认是MEMORY_AND_DISK_SER_2,这时接受到的数据除了存储到receiver所在executor的机器的内存(和磁盘),还会有一份存储到其他的executor的内存(和磁盘)中,以socketTextStream()为例:

  /**
   * Create a input stream from TCP source hostname:port. Data is received using
   * a TCP socket and the receive bytes is interpreted as UTF8 encoded `\n` delimited
   * lines.
   * @param hostname      Hostname to connect to for receiving data
   * @param port          Port to connect to for receiving data
   * @param storageLevel  Storage level to use for storing the received objects
   *                      (default: StorageLevel.MEMORY_AND_DISK_SER_2)
   */
  def socketTextStream(
      hostname: String,
      port: Int,
      storageLevel: StorageLevel = StorageLevel.MEMORY_AND_DISK_SER_2
    ): ReceiverInputDStream[String] = withNamedScope("socket text stream") {
    socketStream[String](hostname, port, SocketReceiver.bytesToLines, storageLevel)
  }

创建Receiver时用到的storageLevel就是来自这里。

private[streaming]
class SocketReceiver[T: ClassTag](
    host: String,
    port: Int,
    bytesToObjects: InputStream => Iterator[T],
    storageLevel: StorageLevel
  ) extends Receiver[T](storageLevel) with Logging {

ReceiverSupervisorImpl中,在没有做wal时,实例化了BlockManagerBasedBlockHandler:

 private val receivedBlockHandler: ReceivedBlockHandler = {
    if (WriteAheadLogUtils.enableReceiverLog(env.conf)) {
      if (checkpointDirOption.isEmpty) {
        throw new SparkException(
          "Cannot enable receiver write-ahead log without checkpoint directory set. " +
            "Please use streamingContext.checkpoint() to set the checkpoint directory. " +
            "See documentation for more details.")
      }
      new WriteAheadLogBasedBlockHandler(env.blockManager, receiver.streamId,
        receiver.storageLevel, env.conf, hadoopConf, checkpointDirOption.get)
    } else {
      new BlockManagerBasedBlockHandler(env.blockManager, receiver.storageLevel)
    }
  }

BlockManagerBasedBlockHandler最终通过blockManager来存储数据:

/**
 * Implementation of a [[org.apache.spark.streaming.receiver.ReceivedBlockHandler]] which
 * stores the received blocks into a block manager with the specified storage level.
 */
private[streaming] class BlockManagerBasedBlockHandler(
    blockManager: BlockManager, storageLevel: StorageLevel)
  extends ReceivedBlockHandler with Logging {

  def storeBlock(blockId: StreamBlockId, block: ReceivedBlock): ReceivedBlockStoreResult = {

    var numRecords = None: Option[Long]

    val putResult: Seq[(BlockId, BlockStatus)] = block match {
      case ArrayBufferBlock(arrayBuffer) =>
        numRecords = Some(arrayBuffer.size.toLong)
        blockManager.putIterator(blockId, arrayBuffer.iterator, storageLevel,
          tellMaster = true)
      case IteratorBlock(iterator) =>
        val countIterator = new CountingIterator(iterator)
        val putResult = blockManager.putIterator(blockId, countIterator, storageLevel,
          tellMaster = true)
        numRecords = countIterator.count
        putResult
      case ByteBufferBlock(byteBuffer) =>
        blockManager.putBytes(blockId, byteBuffer, storageLevel, tellMaster = true)
      case o =>
        throw new SparkException(
          s"Could not store $blockId to block manager, unexpected block type ${o.getClass.getName}")
    }
    if (!putResult.map { _._1 }.contains(blockId)) {
      throw new SparkException(
        s"Could not store $blockId to block manager with storage level $storageLevel")
    }
    BlockManagerBasedStoreResult(blockId, numRecords)
  }

  def cleanupOldBlocks(threshTime: Long) {
    // this is not used as blocks inserted into the BlockManager are cleared by DStream's clearing
    // of BlockRDDs.
  }
}

二。基于wal做备份:
ReceiverSupervisorImpl中,在采用wal时,实例化了WriteAheadLogBasedBlockHandler,
可以看到wal机制使用了checkpoint目录,生产环境下一般都是放在hdfs,此时默认采用了3份副本,安全,但比较耗时,性能可能有影响,在对实时性要求比较高的情况下,不建议采用

/**
 * Implementation of a [[org.apache.spark.streaming.receiver.ReceivedBlockHandler]] which
 * stores the received blocks in both, a write ahead log and a block manager.
 */
private[streaming] class WriteAheadLogBasedBlockHandler(
    blockManager: BlockManager,
    streamId: Int,
    storageLevel: StorageLevel,
    conf: SparkConf,
    hadoopConf: Configuration,
    checkpointDir: String,
    clock: Clock = new SystemClock
  ) extends ReceivedBlockHandler with Logging {

  private val blockStoreTimeout = conf.getInt(
    "spark.streaming.receiver.blockStoreTimeout", 30).seconds

  private val effectiveStorageLevel = {
    if (storageLevel.deserialized) {
      logWarning(s"Storage level serialization ${storageLevel.deserialized} is not supported when" +
        s" write ahead log is enabled, change to serialization false")
    }
    //此时,由于做了wal,就没有必要再用有备份的storageLevel,因为checkpoint存放在hdfs上,默认就有了3份副本;
    if (storageLevel.replication > 1) {
      logWarning(s"Storage level replication ${storageLevel.replication} is unnecessary when " +
        s"write ahead log is enabled, change to replication 1")
    }

    StorageLevel(storageLevel.useDisk, storageLevel.useMemory, storageLevel.useOffHeap, false, 1)
  }

  if (storageLevel != effectiveStorageLevel) {
    logWarning(s"User defined storage level $storageLevel is changed to effective storage level " +
      s"$effectiveStorageLevel when write ahead log is enabled")
  }

  //写日志
  // Write ahead log manages
  private val writeAheadLog = WriteAheadLogUtils.createLogForReceiver(
    conf, checkpointDirToLogDir(checkpointDir, streamId), hadoopConf)

  // For processing futures used in parallel block storing into block manager and write ahead log
  // # threads = 2, so that both writing to BM and WAL can proceed in parallel
  implicit private val executionContext = ExecutionContext.fromExecutorService(
    ThreadUtils.newDaemonFixedThreadPool(2, this.getClass.getSimpleName))

  //并行写BM与wal
  /**
   * This implementation stores the block into the block manager as well as a write ahead log.
   * It does this in parallel, using Scala Futures, and returns only after the block has
   * been stored in both places.
   */
  def storeBlock(blockId: StreamBlockId, block: ReceivedBlock): ReceivedBlockStoreResult = {

    var numRecords = None: Option[Long]
    // Serialize the block so that it can be inserted into both
    val serializedBlock = block match {
      case ArrayBufferBlock(arrayBuffer) =>
        numRecords = Some(arrayBuffer.size.toLong)
        blockManager.dataSerialize(blockId, arrayBuffer.iterator)
      case IteratorBlock(iterator) =>
        val countIterator = new CountingIterator(iterator)
        val serializedBlock = blockManager.dataSerialize(blockId, countIterator)
        numRecords = countIterator.count
        serializedBlock
      case ByteBufferBlock(byteBuffer) =>
        byteBuffer
      case _ =>
        throw new Exception(s"Could not push $blockId to block manager, unexpected block type")
    }

    // Store the block in block manager
    val storeInBlockManagerFuture = Future {
      val putResult =
        blockManager.putBytes(blockId, serializedBlock, effectiveStorageLevel, tellMaster = true)
      if (!putResult.map { _._1 }.contains(blockId)) {
        throw new SparkException(
          s"Could not store $blockId to block manager with storage level $storageLevel")
      }
    }

    // Store the block in write ahead log
    val storeInWriteAheadLogFuture = Future {
      writeAheadLog.write(serializedBlock, clock.getTimeMillis())
    }

    // Combine the futures, wait for both to complete, and return the write ahead log record handle
    val combinedFuture = storeInBlockManagerFuture.zip(storeInWriteAheadLogFuture).map(_._2)
    val walRecordHandle = Await.result(combinedFuture, blockStoreTimeout)
    WriteAheadLogBasedStoreResult(blockId, numRecords, walRecordHandle)
  }

  def cleanupOldBlocks(threshTime: Long) {
    writeAheadLog.clean(threshTime, false)
  }

  def stop() {
    writeAheadLog.close()
    executionContext.shutdown()
  }
}

private[streaming] object WriteAheadLogBasedBlockHandler {
  def checkpointDirToLogDir(checkpointDir: String, streamId: Int): String = {
    new Path(checkpointDir, new Path("receivedData", streamId.toString)).toString
  }
}

来看下WriteAheadLog,抽象类,wal是顺序写数据,顺序或随机读数据,没有更改或删除记录之类的,读时只需要游标或指针,所以还是很快的:

**
 * :: DeveloperApi ::
 *
 * This abstract class represents a write ahead log (aka journal) that is used by Spark Streaming
 * to save the received data (by receivers) and associated metadata to a reliable storage, so that
 * they can be recovered after driver failures. See the Spark documentation for more information
 * on how to plug in your own custom implementation of a write ahead log.
 */
@org.apache.spark.annotation.DeveloperApi
public abstract class WriteAheadLog {
  /**
   * Write the record to the log and return a record handle, which contains all the information
   * necessary to read back the written record. The time is used to the index the record,
   * such that it can be cleaned later. Note that implementations of this abstract class must
   * ensure that the written data is durable and readable (using the record handle) by the
   * time this function returns.
   */
  abstract public WriteAheadLogRecordHandle write(ByteBuffer record, long time);

  /**
   * Read a written record based on the given record handle.
   */
  abstract public ByteBuffer read(WriteAheadLogRecordHandle handle);

  /**
   * Read and return an iterator of all the records that have been written but not yet cleaned up.
   */
  abstract public Iterator<ByteBuffer> readAll();

  /**
   * Clean all the records that are older than the threshold time. It can wait for
   * the completion of the deletion.
   */
  abstract public void clean(long threshTime, boolean waitForCompletion);

  /**
   * Close this log and release any resources.
   */
  abstract public void close();
}

返回的句柄是WriteAheadLogRecordHandle,它的一个具体实现是FileBasedWriteAheadLogSegment:

/**
 * :: DeveloperApi ::
 *
 * This abstract class represents a handle that refers to a record written in a
 * {@link org.apache.spark.streaming.util.WriteAheadLog WriteAheadLog}.
 * It must contain all the information necessary for the record to be read and returned by
 * an implemenation of the WriteAheadLog class.
 *
 * @see org.apache.spark.streaming.util.WriteAheadLog
 */
@org.apache.spark.annotation.DeveloperApi
public abstract class WriteAheadLogRecordHandle implements java.io.Serializable {
}
/** Class for representing a segment of data in a write ahead log file */
private[streaming] case class FileBasedWriteAheadLogSegment(path: String, offset: Long, length: Int)
  extends WriteAheadLogRecordHandle

来看下WriteAheadLog抽象类的具体实现FileBasedWriteAheadLog,需要说明的是,这里的注释中说了hdfs,其实使用的可以是hadoop支持的所有文件系统:

/**
 * This class manages write ahead log files.
 *
 *  - Writes records (bytebuffers) to periodically rotating log files.
 *  - Recovers the log files and the reads the recovered records upon failures.
 *  - Cleans up old log files.
 *
 * Uses [[org.apache.spark.streaming.util.FileBasedWriteAheadLogWriter]] to write
 * and [[org.apache.spark.streaming.util.FileBasedWriteAheadLogReader]] to read.
 *
 * @param logDirectory Directory when rotating log files will be created.
 * @param hadoopConf Hadoop configuration for reading/writing log files.
 */
private[streaming] class FileBasedWriteAheadLog(
    conf: SparkConf,
    logDirectory: String,
    hadoopConf: Configuration,
    rollingIntervalSecs: Int,
    maxFailures: Int,
    closeFileAfterWrite: Boolean
  ) extends WriteAheadLog with Logging {

  import FileBasedWriteAheadLog._

  private val pastLogs = new ArrayBuffer[LogInfo]
  private val callerNameTag = getCallerName.map(c => s" for $c").getOrElse("")

  private val threadpoolName = s"WriteAheadLogManager $callerNameTag"
  private val threadpool = ThreadUtils.newDaemonCachedThreadPool(threadpoolName, 20)
  private val executionContext = ExecutionContext.fromExecutorService(threadpool)
  override protected val logName = s"WriteAheadLogManager $callerNameTag"

  private var currentLogPath: Option[String] = None
  private var currentLogWriter: FileBasedWriteAheadLogWriter = null
  private var currentLogWriterStartTime: Long = -1L
  private var currentLogWriterStopTime: Long = -1L

  initializeOrRecover()

  /**
   * Write a byte buffer to the log file. This method synchronously writes the data in the
   * ByteBuffer to HDFS. When this method returns, the data is guaranteed to have been flushed
   * to HDFS, and will be available for readers to read.
   */
  def write(byteBuffer: ByteBuffer, time: Long): FileBasedWriteAheadLogSegment = synchronized {
    var fileSegment: FileBasedWriteAheadLogSegment = null
    var failures = 0
    var lastException: Exception = null
    var succeeded = false
    while (!succeeded && failures < maxFailures) {
      try {
        fileSegment = getLogWriter(time).write(byteBuffer)
        if (closeFileAfterWrite) {
          resetWriter()
        }
        succeeded = true
      } catch {
        case ex: Exception =>
          lastException = ex
          logWarning("Failed to write to write ahead log")
          resetWriter()
          failures += 1
      }
    }
    if (fileSegment == null) {
      logError(s"Failed to write to write ahead log after $failures failures")
      throw lastException
    }
    fileSegment
  }

  def read(segment: WriteAheadLogRecordHandle): ByteBuffer = {
    val fileSegment = segment.asInstanceOf[FileBasedWriteAheadLogSegment]
    var reader: FileBasedWriteAheadLogRandomReader = null
    var byteBuffer: ByteBuffer = null
    try {
      reader = new FileBasedWriteAheadLogRandomReader(fileSegment.path, hadoopConf)
      byteBuffer = reader.read(fileSegment)
    } finally {
      reader.close()
    }
    byteBuffer
  }

  /**
   * Read all the existing logs from the log directory.
   *
   * Note that this is typically called when the caller is initializing and wants
   * to recover past state from the write ahead logs (that is, before making any writes).
   * If this is called after writes have been made using this manager, then it may not return
   * the latest the records. This does not deal with currently active log files, and
   * hence the implementation is kept simple.
   */
  def readAll(): JIterator[ByteBuffer] = synchronized {
    val logFilesToRead = pastLogs.map{ _.path} ++ currentLogPath
    logInfo("Reading from the logs:\n" + logFilesToRead.mkString("\n"))
    def readFile(file: String): Iterator[ByteBuffer] = {
      logDebug(s"Creating log reader with $file")
      val reader = new FileBasedWriteAheadLogReader(file, hadoopConf)
      CompletionIterator[ByteBuffer, Iterator[ByteBuffer]](reader, reader.close _)
    }
    if (!closeFileAfterWrite) {
      logFilesToRead.iterator.map(readFile).flatten.asJava
    } else {
      // For performance gains, it makes sense to parallelize the recovery if
      // closeFileAfterWrite = true
      seqToParIterator(threadpool, logFilesToRead, readFile).asJava
    }
  }

  /**
   * Delete the log files that are older than the threshold time.
   *
   * Its important to note that the threshold time is based on the time stamps used in the log
   * files, which is usually based on the local system time. So if there is coordination necessary
   * between the node calculating the threshTime (say, driver node), and the local system time
   * (say, worker node), the caller has to take account of possible time skew.
   *
   * If waitForCompletion is set to true, this method will return only after old logs have been
   * deleted. This should be set to true only for testing. Else the files will be deleted
   * asynchronously.
   */
  def clean(threshTime: Long, waitForCompletion: Boolean): Unit = {
    val oldLogFiles = synchronized {
      val expiredLogs = pastLogs.filter { _.endTime < threshTime }
      pastLogs --= expiredLogs
      expiredLogs
    }
    logInfo(s"Attempting to clear ${oldLogFiles.size} old log files in $logDirectory " +
      s"older than $threshTime: ${oldLogFiles.map { _.path }.mkString("\n")}")

    def deleteFile(walInfo: LogInfo): Unit = {
      try {
        val path = new Path(walInfo.path)
        val fs = HdfsUtils.getFileSystemForPath(path, hadoopConf)
        fs.delete(path, true)
        logDebug(s"Cleared log file $walInfo")
      } catch {
        case ex: Exception =>
          logWarning(s"Error clearing write ahead log file $walInfo", ex)
      }
      logInfo(s"Cleared log files in $logDirectory older than $threshTime")
    }
    oldLogFiles.foreach { logInfo =>
      if (!executionContext.isShutdown) {
        try {
          val f = Future { deleteFile(logInfo) }(executionContext)
          if (waitForCompletion) {
            import scala.concurrent.duration._
            Await.ready(f, 1 second)
          }
        } catch {
          case e: RejectedExecutionException =>
            logWarning("Execution context shutdown before deleting old WriteAheadLogs. " +
              "This would not affect recovery correctness.", e)
        }
      }
    }
  }


  /** Stop the manager, close any open log writer */
  def close(): Unit = synchronized {
    if (currentLogWriter != null) {
      currentLogWriter.close()
    }
    executionContext.shutdown()
    logInfo("Stopped write ahead log manager")
  }

  /** Get the current log writer while taking care of rotation */
  private def getLogWriter(currentTime: Long): FileBasedWriteAheadLogWriter = synchronized {
    if (currentLogWriter == null || currentTime > currentLogWriterStopTime) {
      resetWriter()
      currentLogPath.foreach {
        pastLogs += LogInfo(currentLogWriterStartTime, currentLogWriterStopTime, _)
      }
      currentLogWriterStartTime = currentTime
      currentLogWriterStopTime = currentTime + (rollingIntervalSecs * 1000)
      val newLogPath = new Path(logDirectory,
        timeToLogFile(currentLogWriterStartTime, currentLogWriterStopTime))
      currentLogPath = Some(newLogPath.toString)
      currentLogWriter = new FileBasedWriteAheadLogWriter(currentLogPath.get, hadoopConf)
    }
    currentLogWriter
  }

  /** Initialize the log directory or recover existing logs inside the directory */
  private def initializeOrRecover(): Unit = synchronized {
    val logDirectoryPath = new Path(logDirectory)
    val fileSystem = HdfsUtils.getFileSystemForPath(logDirectoryPath, hadoopConf)

    if (fileSystem.exists(logDirectoryPath) && fileSystem.getFileStatus(logDirectoryPath).isDir) {
      val logFileInfo = logFilesTologInfo(fileSystem.listStatus(logDirectoryPath).map { _.getPath })
      pastLogs.clear()
      pastLogs ++= logFileInfo
      logInfo(s"Recovered ${logFileInfo.size} write ahead log files from $logDirectory")
      logDebug(s"Recovered files are:\n${logFileInfo.map(_.path).mkString("\n")}")
    }
  }

  private def resetWriter(): Unit = synchronized {
    if (currentLogWriter != null) {
      currentLogWriter.close()
      currentLogWriter = null
    }
  }
}

private[streaming] object FileBasedWriteAheadLog {

  case class LogInfo(startTime: Long, endTime: Long, path: String)

  val logFileRegex = """log-(\d+)-(\d+)""".r

  def timeToLogFile(startTime: Long, stopTime: Long): String = {
    s"log-$startTime-$stopTime"
  }

  def getCallerName(): Option[String] = {
    val stackTraceClasses = Thread.currentThread.getStackTrace().map(_.getClassName)
    stackTraceClasses.find(!_.contains("WriteAheadLog")).flatMap(_.split("\\.").lastOption)
  }

  /** Convert a sequence of files to a sequence of sorted LogInfo objects */
  def logFilesTologInfo(files: Seq[Path]): Seq[LogInfo] = {
    files.flatMap { file =>
      logFileRegex.findFirstIn(file.getName()) match {
        case Some(logFileRegex(startTimeStr, stopTimeStr)) =>
          val startTime = startTimeStr.toLong
          val stopTime = stopTimeStr.toLong
          Some(LogInfo(startTime, stopTime, file.toString))
        case None =>
          None
      }
    }.sortBy { _.startTime }
  }

  /**
   * This creates an iterator from a parallel collection, by keeping at most `n` objects in memory
   * at any given time, where `n` is the size of the thread pool. This is crucial for use cases
   * where we create `FileBasedWriteAheadLogReader`s during parallel recovery. We don't want to
   * open up `k` streams altogether where `k` is the size of the Seq that we want to parallelize.
   */
  def seqToParIterator[I, O](
      tpool: ThreadPoolExecutor,
      source: Seq[I],
      handler: I => Iterator[O]): Iterator[O] = {
    val taskSupport = new ThreadPoolTaskSupport(tpool)
    val groupSize = tpool.getMaximumPoolSize.max(8)
    source.grouped(groupSize).flatMap { group =>
      val parallelCollection = group.par
      parallelCollection.tasksupport = taskSupport
      parallelCollection.map(handler)
    }.flatten
  }
}

具体的读写用到了 FileBasedWriteAheadLogRandomReader, FileBasedWriteAheadLogReader.
二。基于数据重放:
此时不需要副本不需要容错,kafka就相当于一个文件存储系统,当然kafka有2中方式:基于receiver的与direct的,receiver的数据存放是交给zk来管理metadata如偏移量offset,如果失效后,kafka可以基于偏移量重新读取,(此时还没有发出acknowledged,kafka不会认为你已经消费了此数据),当然可能存在数据重复消费的问题,(当数据消费后还没来得及发送ask来同步zk中的元数据时就会发生重复消费)所以生产环境越来越多的使用direct的方式,自己管理offset, 可以确保有且仅有一次的容错处理.

来看下DirectKafkaInputDStream()类:

**
 *  A stream of {@link org.apache.spark.streaming.kafka.KafkaRDD} where
 * each given Kafka topic/partition corresponds to an RDD partition.
 * The spark configuration spark.streaming.kafka.maxRatePerPartition gives the maximum number
 *  of messages
 * per second that each '''partition''' will accept.
 * Starting offsets are specified in advance,
 * and this DStream is not responsible for committing offsets,
 * so that you can control exactly-once semantics.
 * For an easy interface to Kafka-managed offsets,
 *  see {@link org.apache.spark.streaming.kafka.KafkaCluster}
 * @param kafkaParams Kafka <a href="http://kafka.apache.org/documentation.html#configuration">
 * configuration parameters</a>.
 *   Requires "metadata.broker.list" or "bootstrap.servers" to be set with Kafka broker(s),
 *   NOT zookeeper servers, specified in host1:port1,host2:port2 form.
 * @param fromOffsets per-topic/partition Kafka offsets defining the (inclusive)
 *  starting point of the stream
 * @param messageHandler function for translating each message into the desired type
 */
private[streaming]
class DirectKafkaInputDStream[
  K: ClassTag,
  V: ClassTag,
  U <: Decoder[K]: ClassTag,
  T <: Decoder[V]: ClassTag,
  R: ClassTag](
    ssc_ : StreamingContext,
    val kafkaParams: Map[String, String],
    val fromOffsets: Map[TopicAndPartition, Long],
    messageHandler: MessageAndMetadata[K, V] => R
  ) extends InputDStream[R](ssc_) with Logging {
  val maxRetries = context.sparkContext.getConf.getInt(
    "spark.streaming.kafka.maxRetries", 1)

  // Keep this consistent with how other streams are named (e.g. "Flume polling stream [2]")
  private[streaming] override def name: String = s"Kafka direct stream [$id]"

  protected[streaming] override val checkpointData =
    new DirectKafkaInputDStreamCheckpointData


  /**
   * Asynchronously maintains & sends new rate limits to the receiver through the receiver tracker.
   */
  override protected[streaming] val rateController: Option[RateController] = {
    if (RateController.isBackPressureEnabled(ssc.conf)) {
      Some(new DirectKafkaRateController(id,
        RateEstimator.create(ssc.conf, context.graph.batchDuration)))
    } else {
      None
    }
  }

  protected val kc = new KafkaCluster(kafkaParams)

  //限流用maxRateLimitPerPartition
  private val maxRateLimitPerPartition: Int = context.sparkContext.getConf.getInt(
      "spark.streaming.kafka.maxRatePerPartition", 0)
  protected def maxMessagesPerPartition: Option[Long] = {
    val estimatedRateLimit = rateController.map(_.getLatestRate().toInt)
    val numPartitions = currentOffsets.keys.size

    val effectiveRateLimitPerPartition = estimatedRateLimit
      .filter(_ > 0)
      .map { limit =>
        if (maxRateLimitPerPartition > 0) {
          Math.min(maxRateLimitPerPartition, (limit / numPartitions))
        } else {
          limit / numPartitions
        }
      }.getOrElse(maxRateLimitPerPartition)

    if (effectiveRateLimitPerPartition > 0) {
      val secsPerBatch = context.graph.batchDuration.milliseconds.toDouble / 1000
      Some((secsPerBatch * effectiveRateLimitPerPartition).toLong)
    } else {
      None
    }
  }

  protected var currentOffsets = fromOffsets

  @tailrec
  protected final def latestLeaderOffsets(retries: Int): Map[TopicAndPartition, LeaderOffset] = {
    val o = kc.getLatestLeaderOffsets(currentOffsets.keySet)
    // Either.fold would confuse @tailrec, do it manually
    if (o.isLeft) {
      val err = o.left.get.toString
      if (retries <= 0) {
        throw new SparkException(err)
      } else {
        log.error(err)
        Thread.sleep(kc.config.refreshLeaderBackoffMs)
        latestLeaderOffsets(retries - 1)
      }
    } else {
      o.right.get
    }
  }

  // limits the maximum number of messages per partition
  protected def clamp(
    leaderOffsets: Map[TopicAndPartition, LeaderOffset]): Map[TopicAndPartition, LeaderOffset] = {
    maxMessagesPerPartition.map { mmp =>
      leaderOffsets.map { case (tp, lo) =>
        tp -> lo.copy(offset = Math.min(currentOffsets(tp) + mmp, lo.offset))
      }
    }.getOrElse(leaderOffsets)
  }

  override def compute(validTime: Time): Option[KafkaRDD[K, V, U, T, R]] = {
    val untilOffsets = clamp(latestLeaderOffsets(maxRetries))
    //DirectKafkaInputDStream计算的时候会生成KafkaRDD
    val rdd = KafkaRDD[K, V, U, T, R](
      context.sparkContext, kafkaParams, currentOffsets, untilOffsets, messageHandler)

    // Report the record number and metadata of this batch interval to InputInfoTracker.
    val offsetRanges = currentOffsets.map { case (tp, fo) =>
      val uo = untilOffsets(tp)
      OffsetRange(tp.topic, tp.partition, fo, uo.offset)
    }
    val description = offsetRanges.filter { offsetRange =>
      // Don't display empty ranges.
      offsetRange.fromOffset != offsetRange.untilOffset
    }.map { offsetRange =>
      s"topic: ${offsetRange.topic}\tpartition: ${offsetRange.partition}\t" +
        s"offsets: ${offsetRange.fromOffset} to ${offsetRange.untilOffset}"
    }.mkString("\n")
    // Copy offsetRanges to immutable.List to prevent from being modified by the user
    val metadata = Map(
      "offsets" -> offsetRanges.toList,
      StreamInputInfo.METADATA_KEY_DESCRIPTION -> description)
    val inputInfo = StreamInputInfo(id, rdd.count, metadata)
    ssc.scheduler.inputInfoTracker.reportInfo(validTime, inputInfo)

    currentOffsets = untilOffsets.map(kv => kv._1 -> kv._2.offset)
    Some(rdd)
  }

  override def start(): Unit = {
  }

  def stop(): Unit = {
  }

  private[streaming]
  class DirectKafkaInputDStreamCheckpointData extends DStreamCheckpointData(this) {
    def batchForTime: mutable.HashMap[Time, Array[(String, Int, Long, Long)]] = {
      data.asInstanceOf[mutable.HashMap[Time, Array[OffsetRange.OffsetRangeTuple]]]
    }

    override def update(time: Time) {
      batchForTime.clear()
      generatedRDDs.foreach { kv =>
        val a = kv._2.asInstanceOf[KafkaRDD[K, V, U, T, R]].offsetRanges.map(_.toTuple).toArray
        batchForTime += kv._1 -> a
      }
    }

    override def cleanup(time: Time) { }

    override def restore() {
      // this is assuming that the topics don't change during execution, which is true currently
      val topics = fromOffsets.keySet
      val leaders = KafkaCluster.checkErrors(kc.findLeaders(topics))

      batchForTime.toSeq.sortBy(_._1)(Time.ordering).foreach { case (t, b) =>
         logInfo(s"Restoring KafkaRDD for time $t ${b.mkString("[", ", ", "]")}")
         generatedRDDs += t -> new KafkaRDD[K, V, U, T, R](
           context.sparkContext, kafkaParams, b.map(OffsetRange(_)), leaders, messageHandler)
      }
    }
  }

  /**
   * A RateController to retrieve the rate from RateEstimator.
   */
  private[streaming] class DirectKafkaRateController(id: Int, estimator: RateEstimator)
    extends RateController(id, estimator) {
    override def publish(rate: Long): Unit = ()
  }
}

每次batch生成的时候都会调latestLeaderOffsets来看最新的offset,与上一次batch处理了的offset相减,就获得了此次offset范围,就确定了rdd的数据源.
来看下计算生成的KafkaRDD:

**
 * A batch-oriented interface for consuming from Kafka.
 * Starting and ending offsets are specified in advance,
 * so that you can control exactly-once semantics.
 * @param kafkaParams Kafka <a href="http://kafka.apache.org/documentation.html#configuration">
 * configuration parameters</a>. Requires "metadata.broker.list" or "bootstrap.servers" to be set
 * with Kafka broker(s) specified in host1:port1,host2:port2 form.
 * @param offsetRanges offset ranges that define the Kafka data belonging to this RDD
 * @param messageHandler function for translating each message into the desired type
 */
private[kafka]
class KafkaRDD[
  K: ClassTag,
  V: ClassTag,
  U <: Decoder[_]: ClassTag,
  T <: Decoder[_]: ClassTag,
  R: ClassTag] private[spark] (
    sc: SparkContext,
    kafkaParams: Map[String, String],
    val offsetRanges: Array[OffsetRange],
    leaders: Map[TopicAndPartition, (String, Int)],
    messageHandler: MessageAndMetadata[K, V] => R
  ) extends RDD[R](sc, Nil) with Logging with HasOffsetRanges {
  override def getPartitions: Array[Partition] = {
    offsetRanges.zipWithIndex.map { case (o, i) =>
        val (host, port) = leaders(TopicAndPartition(o.topic, o.partition))
        new KafkaRDDPartition(i, o.topic, o.partition, o.fromOffset, o.untilOffset, host, port)
    }.toArray
  }

  override def count(): Long = offsetRanges.map(_.count).sum

  override def countApprox(
      timeout: Long,
      confidence: Double = 0.95
  ): PartialResult[BoundedDouble] = {
    val c = count
    new PartialResult(new BoundedDouble(c, 1.0, c, c), true)
  }

  override def isEmpty(): Boolean = count == 0L

  override def take(num: Int): Array[R] = {
    val nonEmptyPartitions = this.partitions
      .map(_.asInstanceOf[KafkaRDDPartition])
      .filter(_.count > 0)

    if (num < 1 || nonEmptyPartitions.size < 1) {
      return new Array[R](0)
    }

    // Determine in advance how many messages need to be taken from each partition
    val parts = nonEmptyPartitions.foldLeft(Map[Int, Int]()) { (result, part) =>
      val remain = num - result.values.sum
      if (remain > 0) {
        val taken = Math.min(remain, part.count)
        result + (part.index -> taken.toInt)
      } else {
        result
      }
    }

    val buf = new ArrayBuffer[R]
    val res = context.runJob(
      this,
      (tc: TaskContext, it: Iterator[R]) => it.take(parts(tc.partitionId)).toArray,
      parts.keys.toArray)
    res.foreach(buf ++= _)
    buf.toArray
  }

  override def getPreferredLocations(thePart: Partition): Seq[String] = {
    val part = thePart.asInstanceOf[KafkaRDDPartition]
    // TODO is additional hostname resolution necessary here
    Seq(part.host)
  }

  private def errBeginAfterEnd(part: KafkaRDDPartition): String =
    s"Beginning offset ${part.fromOffset} is after the ending offset ${part.untilOffset} " +
      s"for topic ${part.topic} partition ${part.partition}. " +
      "You either provided an invalid fromOffset, or the Kafka topic has been damaged"

  private def errRanOutBeforeEnd(part: KafkaRDDPartition): String =
    s"Ran out of messages before reaching ending offset ${part.untilOffset} " +
    s"for topic ${part.topic} partition ${part.partition} start ${part.fromOffset}." +
    " This should not happen, and indicates that messages may have been lost"

  private def errOvershotEnd(itemOffset: Long, part: KafkaRDDPartition): String =
    s"Got ${itemOffset} > ending offset ${part.untilOffset} " +
    s"for topic ${part.topic} partition ${part.partition} start ${part.fromOffset}." +
    " This should not happen, and indicates a message may have been skipped"

  override def compute(thePart: Partition, context: TaskContext): Iterator[R] = {
    val part = thePart.asInstanceOf[KafkaRDDPartition]
    assert(part.fromOffset <= part.untilOffset, errBeginAfterEnd(part))
    if (part.fromOffset == part.untilOffset) {
      log.info(s"Beginning offset ${part.fromOffset} is the same as ending offset " +
        s"skipping ${part.topic} ${part.partition}")
      Iterator.empty
    } else {
      new KafkaRDDIterator(part, context)
    }
  }

  private class KafkaRDDIterator(
      part: KafkaRDDPartition,
      context: TaskContext) extends NextIterator[R] {

    context.addTaskCompletionListener{ context => closeIfNeeded() }

    log.info(s"Computing topic ${part.topic}, partition ${part.partition} " +
      s"offsets ${part.fromOffset} -> ${part.untilOffset}")

    val kc = new KafkaCluster(kafkaParams)
    val keyDecoder = classTag[U].runtimeClass.getConstructor(classOf[VerifiableProperties])
      .newInstance(kc.config.props)
      .asInstanceOf[Decoder[K]]
    val valueDecoder = classTag[T].runtimeClass.getConstructor(classOf[VerifiableProperties])
      .newInstance(kc.config.props)
      .asInstanceOf[Decoder[V]]
    val consumer = connectLeader
    var requestOffset = part.fromOffset
    var iter: Iterator[MessageAndOffset] = null

    // The idea is to use the provided preferred host, except on task retry attempts,
    // to minimize number of kafka metadata requests
    private def connectLeader: SimpleConsumer = {
      if (context.attemptNumber > 0) {
        kc.connectLeader(part.topic, part.partition).fold(
          errs => throw new SparkException(
            s"Couldn't connect to leader for topic ${part.topic} ${part.partition}: " +
              errs.mkString("\n")),
          consumer => consumer
        )
      } else {
        kc.connect(part.host, part.port)
      }
    }

    private def handleFetchErr(resp: FetchResponse) {
      if (resp.hasError) {
        val err = resp.errorCode(part.topic, part.partition)
        if (err == ErrorMapping.LeaderNotAvailableCode ||
          err == ErrorMapping.NotLeaderForPartitionCode) {
          log.error(s"Lost leader for topic ${part.topic} partition ${part.partition}, " +
            s" sleeping for ${kc.config.refreshLeaderBackoffMs}ms")
          Thread.sleep(kc.config.refreshLeaderBackoffMs)
        }
        // Let normal rdd retry sort out reconnect attempts
        throw ErrorMapping.exceptionFor(err)
      }
    }

    private def fetchBatch: Iterator[MessageAndOffset] = {
      val req = new FetchRequestBuilder()
        .addFetch(part.topic, part.partition, requestOffset, kc.config.fetchMessageMaxBytes)
        .build()
      val resp = consumer.fetch(req)
      handleFetchErr(resp)
      // kafka may return a batch that starts before the requested offset
      resp.messageSet(part.topic, part.partition)
        .iterator
        .dropWhile(_.offset < requestOffset)
    }

    override def close(): Unit = {
      if (consumer != null) {
        consumer.close()
      }
    }

    override def getNext(): R = {
      if (iter == null || !iter.hasNext) {
        iter = fetchBatch
      }
      if (!iter.hasNext) {
        assert(requestOffset == part.untilOffset, errRanOutBeforeEnd(part))
        finished = true
        null.asInstanceOf[R]
      } else {
        val item = iter.next()
        if (item.offset >= part.untilOffset) {
          assert(item.offset == part.untilOffset, errOvershotEnd(item.offset, part))
          finished = true
          null.asInstanceOf[R]
        } else {
          requestOffset = item.nextOffset
          messageHandler(new MessageAndMetadata(
            part.topic, part.partition, item.message, item.offset, keyDecoder, valueDecoder))
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

private[kafka]
object KafkaRDD {
  import KafkaCluster.LeaderOffset

  /**
   * @param kafkaParams Kafka <a href="http://kafka.apache.org/documentation.html#configuration">
   * configuration parameters</a>.
   *   Requires "metadata.broker.list" or "bootstrap.servers" to be set with Kafka broker(s),
   *   NOT zookeeper servers, specified in host1:port1,host2:port2 form.
   * @param fromOffsets per-topic/partition Kafka offsets defining the (inclusive)
   *  starting point of the batch
   * @param untilOffsets per-topic/partition Kafka offsets defining the (exclusive)
   *  ending point of the batch
   * @param messageHandler function for translating each message into the desired type
   */
  def apply[
    K: ClassTag,
    V: ClassTag,
    U <: Decoder[_]: ClassTag,
    T <: Decoder[_]: ClassTag,
    R: ClassTag](
      sc: SparkContext,
      kafkaParams: Map[String, String],
      fromOffsets: Map[TopicAndPartition, Long],
      untilOffsets: Map[TopicAndPartition, LeaderOffset],
      messageHandler: MessageAndMetadata[K, V] => R
    ): KafkaRDD[K, V, U, T, R] = {
    val leaders = untilOffsets.map { case (tp, lo) =>
        tp -> (lo.host, lo.port)
    }.toMap

    val offsetRanges = fromOffsets.map { case (tp, fo) =>
        val uo = untilOffsets(tp)
        OffsetRange(tp.topic, tp.partition, fo, uo.offset)
    }.toArray

    new KafkaRDD[K, V, U, T, R](sc, kafkaParams, offsetRanges, leaders, messageHandler)
  }
}

基于kafka的direct方式是经典的容错方式.
需要说明的是,所有的容错都会消耗一部分性能,由于不是所有情况都不能容忍数据丢(很多时候我们允许在容忍度范围内丢失一部分数据,比如5%),当数据完整性要求不高时,有时候就不需要配置额外的容错.
补充一点:1000个block丢失了1个,也是丢失,按照现有的机制,也需要从新读取处理所有的block,粒度太粗,可以通过修改direct kafka的方式的源码来修整这点。

本次分享来自于王家林老师的课程‘源码版本定制发行班’,在此向王家林老师表示感谢!
欢迎大家交流技术知识!一起学习,共同进步!

版权声明:本文为博主原创文章,未经博主允许不得转载。

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