Codeforces Round #369 (Div. 2) ABCDE题解

原创 2016年08月30日 21:02:23

A. Bus to Udayland

水题,枚举字符并判断,无坑点

#include <map>
#include <set>
#include <cmath>
#include <ctime>
#include <queue>
#include <stack>
#include <string>
#include <vector>
#include <cstdio>
#include <cstring>
#include <cstdlib>
#include <iostream>
#include <algorithm>
using namespace std;
typedef __int64 LL;
typedef pair<int,int> PII;
#define FIN freopen("in.txt", "r", stdin);
#define FOUT freopen("out.txt", "w", stdout);
#define lson l, mid, cur << 1
#define rson mid + 1, r, cur << 1 | 1
//#pragma comment(linker, "/STACK:1024000000,1024000000")
const int INF = 0x3f3f3f3f;
const LL INFLL = 0x3f3f3f3f3f3f3f3fLL;
const double ERR = 1e-8;
const int MOD = 1e9 + 7;
const int MAXN = 1e3 + 50;
const int MAXM = 5e3 + 50;

int n, m;
char s[MAXN][10];

int main() {
#ifdef LOCAL_NORTH
    FIN;
#endif // LOCAL_NORTH
    while (~scanf("%d", &n)) {
        bool ok = false;
        for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
            scanf("%s", s[i]);
            if (!ok) {
                if (s[i][0] == 'O' && s[i][1] == 'O') {
                    s[i][0] = s[i][1] = '+';
                    ok = true;
                }
                if (!ok) {
                    if (s[i][3] == 'O' && s[i][4] == 'O') {
                        s[i][3] = s[i][4] = '+';
                        ok = true;
                    }
                }
            }
        }
        if (!ok)
            puts("NO");
        else {
            puts("YES");
            for (int i = 0; i < n; i++)
                printf("%s\n", s[i]);
        }
    }
#ifdef LOCAL_NORTH
    cout << "Time elapsed: " << 1.0 * clock() / CLOCKS_PER_SEC * 1000 << " ms." << endl;
#endif // LOCAL_NORTH
    return 0;
}



B. Chris and Magic Square

水题,先记录0出现的位置,然后用已知的行和,求出应该填写的数,再判断是否相等。注意要特判n=1的情况。

#include <map>
#include <set>
#include <cmath>
#include <ctime>
#include <queue>
#include <stack>
#include <string>
#include <vector>
#include <cstdio>
#include <cstring>
#include <cstdlib>
#include <iostream>
#include <algorithm>
using namespace std;
typedef __int64 LL;
typedef pair<int,int> PII;
#define FIN freopen("in.txt", "r", stdin);
#define FOUT freopen("out.txt", "w", stdout);
#define lson l, mid, cur << 1
#define rson mid + 1, r, cur << 1 | 1
//#pragma comment(linker, "/STACK:1024000000,1024000000")
const int INF = 0x3f3f3f3f;
const LL INFLL = 0x3f3f3f3f3f3f3f3fLL;
const double ERR = 1e-8;
const int MOD = 1e9 + 7;
const int MAXN = 500 + 50;
const int MAXM = 5e3 + 50;

int n, num[MAXN][MAXN];
LL c[MAXN], r[MAXN], d1, d2;

int main() {
#ifdef LOCAL_NORTH
    FIN;
#endif // LOCAL_NORTH
    while (~scanf("%d", &n)) {
        memset(c, 0, sizeof(c));
        memset(r, 0, sizeof(r));
        d1 = d2 = 0;
        int x, y;
        for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
            for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {
                scanf("%d", &num[i][j]);
                if (num[i][j] == 0) {
                    x = i; y = j;
                    continue;
                }
                r[i] += num[i][j];
                c[j] += num[i][j];
                if (i == j) d1 += num[i][j];
                if (i + j == n - 1) d2 += num[i][j];
            }
        }
        if (n == 1) {
            puts("1");
            continue;
        }
        LL ans = 0;
        if (x > 0)
            ans = r[x - 1] - r[x];
        else
            ans = r[x + 1] - r[x];
        r[x] += ans;
        c[y] += ans;
        if (x == y)
            d1 += ans;
        if (x + y == n - 1)
            d2 += ans;
        bool ok = true;
        LL flag = r[0];
        for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
            if (r[i] != flag || c[i] != flag) {
                ok = false;
                break;
            }
        }
        if (d1 != flag || d2 != flag)
            ok = false;
        if (!ok || ans <= 0)
            puts("-1");
        else
            printf("%I64d\n", ans);
    }
#ifdef LOCAL_NORTH
    cout << "Time elapsed: " << 1.0 * clock() / CLOCKS_PER_SEC * 1000 << " ms." << endl;
#endif // LOCAL_NORTH
    return 0;
}


C. Coloring Trees

简单dp,dp[i][j][k]表示第i个位置,颜色为j,段数为k的最小花费。我比较蠢- -,分了4种情况(当前位置和上一个位置是否为0)讨论(比赛时有个细节写错了结果fst。状态转移方程见代码。时间复杂度是O(n*m^2*k),用cf的测评机跑不会超时。

#include <map>
#include <set>
#include <cmath>
#include <ctime>
#include <queue>
#include <stack>
#include <string>
#include <vector>
#include <cstdio>
#include <cstring>
#include <cstdlib>
#include <iostream>
#include <algorithm>
using namespace std;
typedef __int64 LL;
typedef pair<int,int> PII;
#define FIN freopen("in.txt", "r", stdin);
#define FOUT freopen("out.txt", "w", stdout);
#define lson l, mid, cur << 1
#define rson mid + 1, r, cur << 1 | 1
//#pragma comment(linker, "/STACK:1024000000,1024000000")
const int INF = 0x3f3f3f3f;
const LL INFLL = 0x3f3f3f3f3f3f3f3fLL;
const double ERR = 1e-8;
const int MOD = 1e9 + 7;
const int MAXN = 100 + 50;
const int MAXM = 5e3 + 50;

int n, m, k, c[MAXN], cost[MAXN][MAXN];
LL dp[MAXN][MAXN][MAXN];

int main() {
#ifdef LOCAL_NORTH
    FIN;
#endif // LOCAL_NORTH
    while (~scanf("%d%d%d", &n, &m, &k)) {
        memset(dp, INFLL, sizeof(dp));
        memset(cost, 0, sizeof(cost));
        for (int i = 1; i <= n; i++)
            scanf("%d", &c[i]);
        if (!c[1])
            c[0] = 101;
        else
            c[0] = c[1];
        for (int i = 1; i <= n; i++) {
            for (int j = 1; j <= m; j++) {
                scanf("%d", &cost[i][j]);
            }
        }
        for (int i = 1; i <= m; i++) {
            dp[0][i][0] = 0;
        }
        for (int i = 1; i <= m; i++) {
            if (c[1])
                dp[1][c[1]][1] = 0;
            else
                dp[1][i][1] = cost[1][i];
        }
        for (int i = 1; i <= n; i++) {
            if (c[i]) {
                if (c[i - 1]) {
                    for (int l = 1; l < i; l++) {
                        if (c[i] == c[i - 1])
                            dp[i][c[i]][l] = min(dp[i][c[i]][l], dp[i - 1][c[i - 1]][l]);
                        else
                            dp[i][c[i]][l + 1] = min(dp[i][c[i]][l + 1], dp[i - 1][c[i - 1]][l]);
                    }
                } else {
                    for (int j = 1; j <= m; j++) {
                        for (int l = 1; l < i; l++) {
                            if (c[i] == j)
                                dp[i][j][l] = min(dp[i][j][l], dp[i - 1][j][l]);
                            else
                                dp[i][c[i]][l + 1] = min(dp[i][c[i]][l + 1], dp[i - 1][j][l]);
                        }
                    }
                }
            } else {
                if (c[i - 1]) {
                    for (int j = 1; j <= m; j++) {
                        for (int l = 1; l < i; l++) {
                            if (j == c[i - 1])
                                dp[i][j][l] = min(dp[i][j][l], dp[i - 1][j][l] + cost[i][j]);
                            else
                                dp[i][j][l + 1] = min(dp[i][j][l + 1], dp[i - 1][c[i - 1]][l] + cost[i][j]);
                        }
                    }
                } else {
                    for (int j1 = 1; j1 <= m; j1++) {
                        for (int j2 = 1; j2 <= m; j2++) {
                            for (int l = 1; l < i; l++) {
                                if (j1 == j2)
                                    dp[i][j1][l] = min(dp[i][j1][l], dp[i - 1][j1][l] + cost[i][j1]);
                                else
                                    dp[i][j1][l + 1] = min(dp[i][j1][l + 1], dp[i - 1][j2][l] + cost[i][j1]);
                            }
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
        }
        LL ans = INFLL;
        if (c[n])
            ans = min(ans, dp[n][c[n]][k]);
        else
            for (int i = 1; i <= m; i++) {
                ans = min(ans, dp[n][i][k]);
            }
        printf("%I64d\n", ans == INFLL ? -1 : ans);
    }
#ifdef LOCAL_NORTH
    cout << "Time elapsed: " << 1.0 * clock() / CLOCKS_PER_SEC * 1000 << " ms." << endl;
#endif // LOCAL_NORTH
    return 0;
}


D. Directed Roads

简单图论+计数。(qwb说的对,确实是水题

题目意思是给你一个可能有环的有向图,你可以翻转一些边(原来u->v变成v->u),使得原图变为一个DAG,输出方案数。

思路比较直接,跑一遍tarjan统计出每个强连通分量的节点数,对于节点数num>2的强连通分量来说,我们必须翻转其中的[1,num-1](也就是(2^num)-2)条边。然后对于其余强连通分量(也就是不属于num>2的scc的节点),我们可选可不选,也就是有2^tmp种情况。然后把以上两种情况的所有结果相乘即可。

#include <map>
#include <set>
#include <cmath>
#include <ctime>
#include <queue>
#include <stack>
#include <string>
#include <vector>
#include <cstdio>
#include <cstring>
#include <cstdlib>
#include <iostream>
#include <algorithm>
using namespace std;
typedef __int64 LL;
typedef pair<int,int> PII;
#define FIN freopen("in.txt", "r", stdin);
#define FOUT freopen("out.txt", "w", stdout);
#define lson l, mid, cur << 1
#define rson mid + 1, r, cur << 1 | 1
//#pragma comment(linker, "/STACK:1024000000,1024000000")
const int INF = 0x3f3f3f3f;
const LL INFLL = 0x3f3f3f3f3f3f3f3fLL;
const double ERR = 1e-8;
const int MOD = 1e9 + 7;
const int MAXN = 2e5 + 50;
const int MAXM = 2e5 + 50;

int n;
struct edge {
    int to, nxt;
} E[MAXM];
int Head[MAXN], tot;
void edge_init() {
    tot = 0;
    memset(Head, -1, sizeof(Head));
}
void edge_add(int u, int v) {
    E[tot].to = v;
    E[tot].nxt = Head[u];
    Head[u] = tot++;
}

/*
for (int i = 1; i <= n; i++)
    if (!DFN[i])
        Tarjan(i);
*/
int Low[MAXN], DFN[MAXN], Stack[MAXN], Belong[MAXN], num[MAXN];
int Index, top, scc;
bool InStack[MAXN];
void Tarjan_init() {
    memset(DFN, 0, sizeof(DFN));
    memset(num, 0, sizeof(num));
    memset(InStack, false, sizeof(InStack));
    Index = scc = top = 0;
}
void Tarjan(int u) {
    int v;
    Low[u] = DFN[u] = ++Index;
    Stack[top++] = u;
    InStack[u] = true;
    for(int i = Head[u]; i != -1; i = E[i].nxt) {
        v = E[i].to;
        if( !DFN[v] ) {
            Tarjan(v);
            if( Low[u] > Low[v] )Low[u] = Low[v];
        } else if(InStack[v] && Low[u] > DFN[v])
            Low[u] = DFN[v];
    }
    if(Low[u] == DFN[u]) {
        scc++;
        do {
            v = Stack[--top];
            InStack[v] = false;
            Belong[v] = scc;
            num[scc]++;
        } while( v != u);
    }
}

LL fastpow(LL a, LL c) {
    LL res = 1;
    while (c) {
        if (c & 1)
            res = (res * a) % MOD;
        a = (a * a) % MOD;
        c >>= 1;
    }
    return res;
}

int main() {
#ifdef LOCAL_NORTH
    FIN;
#endif // LOCAL_NORTH
    while (~scanf("%d", &n)) {
        edge_init();
        Tarjan_init();
        for (int i = 1; i <= n; i++) {
            int t;
            scanf("%d", &t);
            edge_add(i, t);
        }
        for (int i = 1; i <= n; i++)
            if (!DFN[i])
                Tarjan(i);
        LL ans = 1;
        int tmp = n;
        for (int i = 1; i <= scc; i++) {
            if (num[i] > 1) {
                ans = (ans * (fastpow(2, num[i]) - 2)) % MOD;
                tmp -= num[i];
            }
        }
        if (tmp)
            ans = (ans * fastpow(2, tmp)) % MOD;
        printf("%I64d\n", ans);
    }
#ifdef LOCAL_NORTH
    cout << "Time elapsed: " << 1.0 * clock() / CLOCKS_PER_SEC * 1000 << " ms." << endl;
#endif // LOCAL_NORTH
    return 0;
}


E. ZS and The Birthday Paradox

简单数学题。

一年2^n天,求k个人中有人生日是同一天的概率(1<=n,k<=1e18)。

假如一年365天,n个人中有人生日相同的概率为


所以这一题就是让求


然后求出分子分母的gcd约分就可以了。gcd一定是2^x的形式,因为分母已经是2^x的形式,所以只需要求出分子的因子2的个数。

对于1*2*3*...*k,因子2的个数为k/2+k/4+k/8...。

然后求出gcd的逆元,分子分母同时乘上逆元就得到结果了。

#include <map>
#include <set>
#include <cmath>
#include <ctime>
#include <queue>
#include <stack>
#include <string>
#include <vector>
#include <cstdio>
#include <cstring>
#include <cstdlib>
#include <iostream>
#include <algorithm>
using namespace std;
typedef __int64 LL;
typedef pair<int,int> PII;
#define FIN freopen("in.txt", "r", stdin);
#define FOUT freopen("out.txt", "w", stdout);
#define lson l, mid, cur << 1
#define rson mid + 1, r, cur << 1 | 1
#define bitcnt(x) __builtin_popcount(x)
#define bitcntll(x) __builtin_popcountll(x)
//#pragma comment(linker, "/STACK:1024000000,1024000000")
const int INF = 0x3f3f3f3f;
const LL INFLL = 0x3f3f3f3f3f3f3f3fLL;
const double ERR = 1e-8;
const int MOD = 1e6 + 3;
const int MAXN = 2e5 + 50;
const int MAXM = 2e5 + 50;

LL n, k;

LL fastpow(LL a, LL c) {
    LL res = 1;
    while (c) {
        if (c & 1)
            res = (res * a) % MOD;
        a = (a * a) % MOD;
        c >>= 1;
    }
    return res;
}

int main() {
#ifdef LOCAL_NORTH
    FIN;
#endif // LOCAL_NORTH
    while (~scanf("%I64d%I64d", &n, &k)) {
        if (n <= 62 && k > (1LL << n)) {
            printf("1 1\n");
            continue;
        }
        LL cnt = 0;
        LL p = fastpow(2, n);
        for (LL i = k - 1; i >= 1; i >>= 1) {
            cnt += i / 2;
        }
//        for (LL i = tmp - 1; i >= tmp - k + 1; i--) {
//            LL ttmp = i & (-i);
//            cnt += (LL)log2(ttmp);
//        }
        LL inv = fastpow(fastpow(2, cnt), MOD - 2);
        LL up = 1, down = fastpow(p, k - 1);
        for (LL i = 1; i <= k - 1; i++) {
            LL tmp = (p - i + MOD) % MOD;
            up = (up * tmp) % MOD;
            if (tmp <= 0) //!!!
                break;
        }
        up = up * inv % MOD;
        down = down * inv % MOD;
        up = (down - up + MOD) % MOD;
        printf("%I64d %I64d\n", up, down);
    }
#ifdef LOCAL_NORTH
    cout << "Time elapsed: " << 1.0 * clock() / CLOCKS_PER_SEC * 1000 << " ms." << endl;
#endif // LOCAL_NORTH
    return 0;
}


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