A buffer is a portion of a computer's memory that is set aside as a temporary holding place for data that is being sent to or received from an external device, such as ahard disk drive (HDD), printer or keyboard.
A kernel is the core of an operating system. It is the first part of the operating system that is loaded intomemory when a computer boots up (i.e., starts up), and it controls virtually everything on a system.
3. POSIX -- Portable Operating System Interface of Unix