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Android 的 Recovery 模式分析

标签: androidresourceswildcardextensionbuildimage
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  • Recovery Binary: 

  Recovery Binary 是 Android 进入 Recovery 模式所运行的程序,实现了 Recovery 模式下的功能。它由目录 bootable/recovery 下的源代码编译生成。头文件 bootable/recovery/recovery_ui.h 定义了 Recovery UI 的接口,bootable/recovery/default_recovery_ui.c 是其默认实现,每个设备可以有自己不同的实现,然后通过变量 TARGET_RECOVERY_UI_LIB 来指定,否则使用默认实现。

# bootable/recovery/Android.mk

ifeq ($(TARGET_RECOVERY_UI_LIB),)
LOCAL_SRC_FILES +=default_recovery_ui.c
else
LOCAL_STATIC_LIBRARIES +=$(TARGET_RECOVERY_UI_LIB)
endif
  • Recovery Image:

  Recovery Image 的生成规则在文件 build/core/Makefile 中定义,具体分析如下:

# build/core/Makefile

# -----------------------------------------------------------------
# Recovery image

# If neither TARGET_NO_KERNEL nor TARGET_NO_RECOVERY are true
ifeq (,$(filter true, $(TARGET_NO_KERNEL) $(TARGET_NO_RECOVERY) $(BUILD_TINY_ANDROID)))

INSTALLED_RECOVERYIMAGE_TARGET := $(PRODUCT_OUT)/recovery.img

recovery_initrc :=$(call include-path-for, recovery)/etc/init.rc
recovery_kernel :=$(INSTALLED_KERNEL_TARGET)# same as a non-recovery system
recovery_ramdisk :=$(PRODUCT_OUT)/ramdisk-recovery.img
recovery_build_prop :=$(INSTALLED_BUILD_PROP_TARGET)
recovery_binary :=$(call intermediates-dir-for,EXECUTABLES,recovery)/recovery
recovery_resources_common :=$(call include-path-for, recovery)/res
recovery_resources_private :=$(strip$(wildcard$(TARGET_DEVICE_DIR)/recovery/res))
recovery_resource_deps :=$(shell find$(recovery_resources_common)\
$(recovery_resources_private)-type f)
recovery_fstab :=$(strip$(wildcard$(TARGET_DEVICE_DIR)/recovery.fstab))
recovery_mmc_fstab :=$(strip$(wildcard$(TARGET_DEVICE_DIR)/recovery_mmc.fstab))

ifeq ($(recovery_resources_private),)
$(info No private recovery resourcesfor TARGET_DEVICE $(TARGET_DEVICE))
endif

ifeq ($(recovery_fstab),)
$(info No recovery.fstabfor TARGET_DEVICE $(TARGET_DEVICE))
endif

INTERNAL_RECOVERYIMAGE_ARGS :=\
$(addprefix --second ,$(INSTALLED_2NDBOOTLOADER_TARGET))\
--kernel $(recovery_kernel) \
--ramdisk $(recovery_ramdisk)

# Assumes this has already been stripped
ifdef BOARD_KERNEL_CMDLINE
INTERNAL_RECOVERYIMAGE_ARGS +=--cmdline "$(BOARD_KERNEL_CMDLINE)"
endif
ifdef BOARD_KERNEL_BASE
INTERNAL_RECOVERYIMAGE_ARGS +=--base $(BOARD_KERNEL_BASE)
endif
BOARD_KERNEL_PAGESIZE :=$(strip$(BOARD_KERNEL_PAGESIZE))
ifdef BOARD_KERNEL_PAGESIZE
INTERNAL_RECOVERYIMAGE_ARGS +=--pagesize $(BOARD_KERNEL_PAGESIZE)
endif

INSTALLED_BOOTIMAGE_TARGET :=$(PRODUCT_OUT)/boot.img
kernel: $(INSTALLED_BOOTIMAGE_TARGET)
.PHONY: kernel

# Keys authorized to sign OTA packages this build will accept. The
# build always uses test-keys for this; release packaging tools will
# substitute other keys for this one.
OTA_PUBLIC_KEYS :=$(SRC_TARGET_DIR)/product/security/testkey.x509.pem

# Generate a file containing the keys that will be read by the
# recovery binary.
RECOVERY_INSTALL_OTA_KEYS :=\
$(call intermediates-dir-for,PACKAGING,ota_keys)/keys
DUMPKEY_JAR :=$(HOST_OUT_JAVA_LIBRARIES)/dumpkey.jar
$(RECOVERY_INSTALL_OTA_KEYS): PRIVATE_OTA_PUBLIC_KEYS :=$(OTA_PUBLIC_KEYS)
$(RECOVERY_INSTALL_OTA_KEYS):$(OTA_PUBLIC_KEYS)$(DUMPKEY_JAR)
@echo "DumpPublicKey: $@ <= $(PRIVATE_OTA_PUBLIC_KEYS)"
@rm -rf $@
@mkdir -p $(dir $@)
java -jar $(DUMPKEY_JAR) $(PRIVATE_OTA_PUBLIC_KEYS) > $@

$(INSTALLED_RECOVERYIMAGE_TARGET):$(MKBOOTFS)$(MKBOOTIMG)$(MINIGZIP)\
$(INSTALLED_RAMDISK_TARGET)\
$(INSTALLED_BOOTIMAGE_TARGET)\
$(recovery_binary)\
$(recovery_initrc)$(recovery_kernel)\
$(INSTALLED_2NDBOOTLOADER_TARGET)\
$(recovery_build_prop)$(recovery_resource_deps)\
$(recovery_fstab)\
$(RECOVERY_INSTALL_OTA_KEYS)

/* 以正常系统的根文件系统为基础构建 Recovery 的根文件系统 */
@echo ----- Making recovery image ------
rm -rf $(TARGET_RECOVERY_OUT)
mkdir -p $(TARGET_RECOVERY_OUT)
mkdir -p $(TARGET_RECOVERY_ROOT_OUT)
mkdir -p $(TARGET_RECOVERY_ROOT_OUT)/etc
mkdir -p $(TARGET_RECOVERY_ROOT_OUT)/tmp
echo Copying baseline ramdisk...
cp -R $(TARGET_ROOT_OUT) $(TARGET_RECOVERY_OUT)

/* 删除所有的 Init 脚本,使用 Recovery 特定的 Init 脚本 */
rm $(TARGET_RECOVERY_ROOT_OUT)/init*.rc
echo Modifying ramdisk contents...
cp -f $(recovery_initrc) $(TARGET_RECOVERY_ROOT_OUT)/

/* 添加 Recovery Binary */
cp -f $(recovery_binary) $(TARGET_RECOVERY_ROOT_OUT)/sbin/

/* 添加通用的和设备特定的 Recovery 资源 */
cp -rf $(recovery_resources_common) $(TARGET_RECOVERY_ROOT_OUT)/
$(foreach item,$(recovery_resources_private),\
cp -rf $(item) $(TARGET_RECOVERY_ROOT_OUT)/)

/* 添加设备特定的文件系统表 */
$(foreach item,$(recovery_fstab),\
cp -f $(item) $(TARGET_RECOVERY_ROOT_OUT)/etc/recovery.fstab)
$(foreach item,$(recovery_mmc_fstab),\
cp -f $(item) $(TARGET_RECOVERY_ROOT_OUT)/etc/recovery_mmc.fstab)

/* 内嵌验证签名的公钥 */
cp $(RECOVERY_INSTALL_OTA_KEYS) $(TARGET_RECOVERY_ROOT_OUT)/res/keys

/* 生成 Recovery 模式的默认属性文件 */
cat $(INSTALLED_DEFAULT_PROP_TARGET) $(recovery_build_prop) \
> $(TARGET_RECOVERY_ROOT_OUT)/default.prop

/* 生成 Recovery 的根文件系统 ramdisk-recovery.img */
$(MKBOOTFS)$(TARGET_RECOVERY_ROOT_OUT) |$(MINIGZIP)> $(recovery_ramdisk)

/* 把正常系统的内核跟 ramdisk-recovery.img 打包生成 Recovery Image */
$(MKBOOTIMG)$(INTERNAL_RECOVERYIMAGE_ARGS)--output $@
@echo ----- Made recovery image -------- $@

/* 验证生成的 Recovery Image 有没有超出 Recovery 分区的大小 */
$(hide)$(call assert-max-image-size,$@,$(BOARD_RECOVERYIMAGE_PARTITION_SIZE),raw)

else
INSTALLED_RECOVERYIMAGE_TARGET :=
endif

.PHONY: recoveryimage
recoveryimage: $(INSTALLED_RECOVERYIMAGE_TARGET)

  • Recovery Init Script:

  从上面的分析可以看出 recovery.img 和 boot.img 的区别不大,主要是 init 脚本不一样,recovery 的 init 脚本相对简单,系统起来后只运行 ueventd、recovery、adbd 三个服务。

# bootable/recovery/etc/init.rc

on early-init
start ueventd

on init
export PATH /sbin
export ANDROID_ROOT /system
export ANDROID_DATA /data
export EXTERNAL_STORAGE /sdcard

symlink /system/etc /etc

mkdir /sdcard
mkdir /system
mkdir /data
mkdir /cache

mount /tmp /tmp tmpfs

on boot
ifup lo
hostname localhost
domainname localdomain

class_start default

service ueventd /sbin/ueventd
critical

service recovery /sbin/recovery

service adbd /sbin/adbd recovery
disabled

on property:persist.service.adb.enable=1
start adbd

on property:persist.service.adb.enable=0
stop adbd

  • Android <----> Recovery Binary <----> Bootloader:

  有时候 Android 需要不同的模式互相协助来完成一项任务,这样不同模式之间就要有一种机制来交换信息。Recovery Binary 和 Bootloader 之间是通过 misc 分区来传递信息的,如果是 MTD 设备,则使用 misc 分区的第二个页面,如果是块设备,则使用 misc 分区的第一块,交换的信息通过如下结构体封装。Recovery Binary 和 Android 之间是通过 cache 分区下的如下几个固定文件来传递信息的。

/* Recovery Binary <----> Bootloader */

struct bootloader_message {
char command[32];
char status[32];
char recovery[1024];
};

/* Recovery Binary <----> Android */

/cache/recovery/command
/cache/recovery/intent
/cache/recovery/log
/cache/recovery/last_log

  • Updater Binary:

  Updater Binary 是 OTA package 的安装程序,被打包到 OTA package 中一起发布。Updater Binary 的源代码位于目录 bootable/recovery/updater 中。每个设备都可以为 Updater Binary 添加自己特定的扩展,然后通过变量TARGET_RECOVERY_UPDATER_LIBS 和 TARGET_RECOVERY_UPDATER_EXTRA_LIBS 来指定。

# bootable/recovery/updater/Android.mk

LOCAL_STATIC_LIBRARIES += $(TARGET_RECOVERY_UPDATER_LIBS) \
$(TARGET_RECOVERY_UPDATER_EXTRA_LIBS)
LOCAL_STATIC_LIBRARIES +=libapplypatch libedify libmtdutils libminzip libz
LOCAL_STATIC_LIBRARIES +=libmincrypt libbz
LOCAL_STATIC_LIBRARIES +=libcutils libstdc++ libc
LOCAL_C_INCLUDES +=$(LOCAL_PATH)/..

# Each library in TARGET_RECOVERY_UPDATER_LIBS should have a function
# named "Register_<libname>()". Here we emit a little C function that
# gets #included by updater.c. It calls all those registration
# functions.

# Devices can also add libraries to TARGET_RECOVERY_UPDATER_EXTRA_LIBS.
# These libs are also linked in with updater, but we don't try to call
# any sort of registration function for these. Use this variable for
# any subsidiary static libraries required for your registered
# extension libs.

inc := $(call intermediates-dir-for,PACKAGING,updater_extensions)/register.inc

# During the first pass of reading the makefiles, we dump the list of
# extension libs to a temp file, then copy that to the ".list" file if
# it is different than the existing .list (if any). The register.inc
# file then uses the .list as a prerequisite, so it is only rebuilt
# (and updater.o recompiled) when the list of extension libs changes.

junk := $(shell mkdir -p $(dir $(inc));\
echo $(TARGET_RECOVERY_UPDATER_LIBS) > $(inc).temp;\
diff -q $(inc).temp$(inc).list ||cp -f $(inc).temp$(inc).list)

$(inc): libs := $(TARGET_RECOVERY_UPDATER_LIBS)
$(inc): $(inc).list
$(hide)mkdir -p $(dir $@)
$(hide)echo "" > $@
$(hide)$(foreach lib,$(libs),echo"extern void Register_$(lib)(void);" >> $@)
$(hide)echo "void RegisterDeviceExtensions() {">> $@
$(hide)$(foreach lib,$(libs),echo" Register_$(lib)();" >> $@)
$(hide)echo "}" >> $@

$(call intermediates-dir-for,EXECUTABLES,updater)/updater.o :$(inc)
LOCAL_C_INCLUDES +=$(dir$(inc))


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