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[leetcode] 174. Dungeon Game

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The demons had captured the princess (P) and imprisoned her in the bottom-right corner of a dungeon. The dungeon consists of M x N rooms laid out in a 2D grid. Our valiant knight (K) was initially positioned in the top-left room and must fight his way through the dungeon to rescue the princess.

The knight has an initial health point represented by a positive integer. If at any point his health point drops to 0 or below, he dies immediately.

Some of the rooms are guarded by demons, so the knight loses health (negative integers) upon entering these rooms; other rooms are either empty (0's) or contain magic orbs that increase the knight's health (positive integers).

In order to reach the princess as quickly as possible, the knight decides to move only rightward or downward in each step.

Write a function to determine the knight's minimum initial health so that he is able to rescue the princess.

For example, given the dungeon below, the initial health of the knight must be at least7 if he follows the optimal path RIGHT-> RIGHT -> DOWN -> DOWN.

-2 (K)

-3

3

-5

-10

1

10

30

-5 (P)

Notes:

  • The knight's health has no upper bound.

  • Any room can contain threats or power-ups, even the first room the knight enters and the bottom-right room where the princess is imprisoned.

这道题是小游戏“骑士救公主”,非常有意思,想想都有些小激动。每个房间会有恶魔(负数减血)或者血包(正数加血,空房间也可以认为是数值0的血包),骑士需从左上入口到达右下囚牢救出公主,中间只能向下或者向右行进,任何时刻当骑士血量到0或者0以下立即死亡,让求顺利救出公主所需要的最小初始血量,难度为Hard。

这是一道典型的动态规划题目。以上图为例,若要求出进入中心房间[-10]的最小血量,则需要知道进入其右侧房间[1]和下方房间[30]的最小血量,选出其中较小的就是下一步进入的房间,如果进入下一房间的最小血量比当前房间[-10]数值大,表明骑士进入当前房间之前需要有一定的血量以保证达到进入下一房间的最小血量,反之表明骑士进入当前房间之前存活(血量至少为1)即可。依此即可计算出进入当前房间[-10]所需的最小血量。而右下角囚禁公主的房间作为初始状态可以直接得到进入所需的最小血量,这样递推即可得出进入入口处房间所需的最小血量,保证骑士顺利救出公主。具体代码:

class Solution {
public:
    int calculateMinimumHP(vector<vector<int> > &dungeon) {
        int row = dungeon.size();
        int col = dungeon[0].size();
        vector<int> line(col, INT_MAX);
        vector<vector<int>> health(row, line);
        
        for(int i=row-1; i>=0; i--) {
            for(int j=col-1; j>=0; j--) {
                int down, right, minHealth;
                if(i == row-1) down = INT_MAX;
                else down = health[i+1][j];
                if(j == col-1) right = INT_MAX;
                else right = health[i][j+1];
                minHealth = ((i == row-1) && (j == col-1)) ? 1 : min(down, right);
                if(minHealth - dungeon[i][j] > 0) health[i][j] = minHealth - dungeon[i][j];
                else health[i][j] = 1;
            }
        }
        
        return health[0][0];
    }
};
如果需要骑士所走的路径,从入口处遍历health,选择右侧和下方的两个房间进行比较,health值较小的是下一步的房间,顺次得到骑士所走的路径。

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