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HDU4055 - number string(DP)

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Problem Description
The signature of a permutation is a string that is computed as follows: for each pair of consecutive elements of the permutation, write down the letter 'I' (increasing) if the second element is greater than the first one, otherwise write down the letter 'D' (decreasing). For example, the signature of the permutation {3,1,2,7,4,6,5} is "DIIDID".

Your task is as follows: You are given a string describing the signature of many possible permutations, find out how many permutations satisfy this signature.

Note: For any positive integer n, a permutation of n elements is a sequence of length n that contains each of the integers 1 through n exactly once.
 

Input
Each test case consists of a string of 1 to 1000 characters long, containing only the letters 'I', 'D' or '?', representing a permutation signature.

Each test case occupies exactly one single line, without leading or trailing spaces.

Proceed to the end of file. The '?' in these strings can be either 'I' or 'D'.
 

Output
For each test case, print the number of permutations satisfying the signature on a single line. In case the result is too large, print the remainder modulo 1000000007.
 

Sample Input
II ID DI DD ?D ??
 

Sample Output
1 2 2 1 3 6
Hint
Permutation {1,2,3} has signature "II". Permutations {1,3,2} and {2,3,1} have signature "ID". Permutations {3,1,2} and {2,1,3} have signature "DI". Permutation {3,2,1} has signature "DD". "?D" can be either "ID" or "DD". "??" gives all possible permutations of length 3.
 

Author
HONG, Qize
 

Source


思路:dp[i][j]表示处理前i个字符以j结尾可能的序列数。
当a[i]=='I'时,dp[i][j]=sum(dp[i-1][k]),(1<=k<=j-1), 可进一步化为dp[i][j-1]+dp[i-1][j-1]。
当a[i]=='D'时,dp[i][j]=sum(dp[i-1][k]),(j<=k<=i-1),可进一步化为dp[i][j+1]+dp[i-1][j]。
当a[i]=='?'时,dp[i][j]=sum(dp[i-1][k]),(1<=k<=i-1)。

#include<cstdio>
#include<cstring>
using namespace std;
const int N = 1e3 + 5;
const int mod = 1e9 + 7;
char a[N];
int dp[N][N];
int main()
{
    while(~scanf("%s",a+2))
    {
        memset(dp,0,sizeof(dp));
        int len = strlen(a+2) + 1;
        dp[1][1] = 1;
        for(int i = 2 ;i <= len ;i++)
        {
            if(a[i] == 'I')
            {
                for(int j = 2 ;j <= i ;j++)
                    dp[i][j] = (dp[i][j-1] + dp[i-1][j-1]) % mod;
            }
            else if(a[i] == 'D')
            {
                for(int j = i-1 ;j >= 1 ;j--)
                    dp[i][j] = (dp[i][j+1] + dp[i-1][j]) % mod;
            }
            else
            {
                int sum = 0;
                for(int j = 1 ;j <= i-1 ;j++)
                    sum = (sum + dp[i-1][j]) % mod;
                for(int j = 1 ;j <= i ;j++)
                    dp[i][j] = sum;
            }
        }
        int ans = 0;
        for(int i = 1 ;i <= len ;i++)
            ans = (ans + dp[len][i]) % mod;
        printf("%d\n",ans);
    }
    return 0;
}


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