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[kuangbin带你飞]专题二 搜索进阶 A - Eight

标签: 专题二 搜索进阶
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A - Eight
Time Limit:5000MS     Memory Limit:32768KB     64bit IO Format:%I64d & %I64u
Appoint description: 

Description

The 15-puzzle has been around for over 100 years; even if you don't know it by that name, you've seen it. It is constructed with 15 sliding tiles, each with a number from 1 to 15 on it, and all packed into a 4 by 4 frame with one tile missing. Let's call the missing tile 'x'; the object of the puzzle is to arrange the tiles so that they are ordered as: 
 1  2  3  4
 5  6  7  8
 9 10 11 12
13 14 15  x

where the only legal operation is to exchange 'x' with one of the tiles with which it shares an edge. As an example, the following sequence of moves solves a slightly scrambled puzzle: 
 1  2  3  4     1  2  3  4     1  2  3  4     1  2  3  4
 5  6  7  8     5  6  7  8     5  6  7  8     5  6  7  8
 9  x 10 12     9 10  x 12     9 10 11 12     9 10 11 12
13 14 11 15    13 14 11 15    13 14  x 15    13 14 15  x
 r->            d->            r->

The letters in the previous row indicate which neighbor of the 'x' tile is swapped with the 'x' tile at each step; legal values are 'r','l','u' and 'd', for right, left, up, and down, respectively. 

Not all puzzles can be solved; in 1870, a man named Sam Loyd was famous for distributing an unsolvable version of the puzzle, and 
frustrating many people. In fact, all you have to do to make a regular puzzle into an unsolvable one is to swap two tiles (not counting the missing 'x' tile, of course). 

In this problem, you will write a program for solving the less well-known 8-puzzle, composed of tiles on a three by three 
arrangement. 
 

Input

You will receive, several descriptions of configuration of the 8 puzzle. One description is just a list of the tiles in their initial positions, with the rows listed from top to bottom, and the tiles listed from left to right within a row, where the tiles are represented by numbers 1 to 8, plus 'x'. For example, this puzzle 

1 2 3 
x 4 6 
7 5 8 

is described by this list: 

1 2 3 x 4 6 7 5 8 
 

Output

You will print to standard output either the word ``unsolvable'', if the puzzle has no solution, or a string consisting entirely of the letters 'r', 'l', 'u' and 'd' that describes a series of moves that produce a solution. The string should include no spaces and start at the beginning of the line. Do not print a blank line between cases. 
 

Sample Input

2 3 4 1 5 x 7 6 8
 

Sample Output

ullddrurdllurdruldr
 

搜索中经典的八数码问题。

参考:八数码的八境界

方法一:直接用bfs

用bfs就要考虑判重的问题。总共有9个(把x看成0),我们很容易想到直接把他看成9位数就可以了,但是在编程我们会发现数组开的太大了无法编译。

这些状态可以看成九个数的全排列,用排列组合我们可以求出所有的状态个数9!=362880,就可以用康拓展示。

要注意用0初始化时,不能用0表示上一状态,不然输出时会产生死循环

但是会TLE

详见代码



方法二:反向bfs打表

方法一超时,因为有多个输入。我们可以用bfs反向打表,事先以目标为起点搜出所有可以到达的状态。



方法三:a*算法

最关键的部分是估价函数和判断逆序是否为偶数的剪枝

估价函数,是根据与目标解的曼哈顿距离,也就是每个数字与目标位置的曼哈顿距离之和。


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