# [kuangbin带你飞]专题二 搜索进阶 A - Eight

A - Eight
Time Limit:5000MS     Memory Limit:32768KB     64bit IO Format:%I64d & %I64u
Appoint description:

Description

The 15-puzzle has been around for over 100 years; even if you don't know it by that name, you've seen it. It is constructed with 15 sliding tiles, each with a number from 1 to 15 on it, and all packed into a 4 by 4 frame with one tile missing. Let's call the missing tile 'x'; the object of the puzzle is to arrange the tiles so that they are ordered as:
 1  2  3  4
5  6  7  8
9 10 11 12
13 14 15  x


where the only legal operation is to exchange 'x' with one of the tiles with which it shares an edge. As an example, the following sequence of moves solves a slightly scrambled puzzle:
 1  2  3  4     1  2  3  4     1  2  3  4     1  2  3  4
5  6  7  8     5  6  7  8     5  6  7  8     5  6  7  8
9  x 10 12     9 10  x 12     9 10 11 12     9 10 11 12
13 14 11 15    13 14 11 15    13 14  x 15    13 14 15  x
r->            d->            r->


The letters in the previous row indicate which neighbor of the 'x' tile is swapped with the 'x' tile at each step; legal values are 'r','l','u' and 'd', for right, left, up, and down, respectively.

Not all puzzles can be solved; in 1870, a man named Sam Loyd was famous for distributing an unsolvable version of the puzzle, and
frustrating many people. In fact, all you have to do to make a regular puzzle into an unsolvable one is to swap two tiles (not counting the missing 'x' tile, of course).

In this problem, you will write a program for solving the less well-known 8-puzzle, composed of tiles on a three by three
arrangement.

Input

You will receive, several descriptions of configuration of the 8 puzzle. One description is just a list of the tiles in their initial positions, with the rows listed from top to bottom, and the tiles listed from left to right within a row, where the tiles are represented by numbers 1 to 8, plus 'x'. For example, this puzzle

1 2 3
x 4 6
7 5 8

is described by this list:

1 2 3 x 4 6 7 5 8

Output

You will print to standard output either the word unsolvable'', if the puzzle has no solution, or a string consisting entirely of the letters 'r', 'l', 'u' and 'd' that describes a series of moves that produce a solution. The string should include no spaces and start at the beginning of the line. Do not print a blank line between cases.

Sample Input

2  3  4  1  5  x  7  6  8

Sample Output

ullddrurdllurdruldr

///TLE
#include
#include
#include
#include
using namespace std;

int fac[10];
int flag_star;
struct {
int flag;//指向上一个状态
char dir;//从上一个状态到这一状态的方向
}vis[362881];//判重
int a[10];

struct node
{
int a[10];
int x;
};

int Hash(int a[])//求康拓展示
{
int ans = 0;
for(int i = 0; i < 9; i++)
{
int tmp = 0;
for(int j = i+1; j < 9; j++)
{
if(a[i] > a[j]) tmp++;
}
ans += tmp*fac[8-i];
}
return ans;
}

queueque;

void prin(int n)//输出方向
{
if(n != flag_star)
{
prin(vis[n].flag);
printf("%c", vis[n].dir);
}
}

int dir[5][2] = { {1, 0}, {-1, 0}, {0, 1}, {0, -1} };
char str[5] = "durl";

void swap(int &x, int &y)
{
int t = x;
x = y;
y = t;
}

int bfs(node star)
{
while(!que.empty()) que.pop();
que.push(star);
while(!que.empty())
{
node tmp = que.front(); que.pop();
int flag = Hash(tmp.a);
for(int i = 0; i < 4; i++)
{
int x = tmp.x/3 + dir[i][0];
int y = tmp.x%3 + dir[i][1];
if(0 <= x && x < 3 && 0 <= y && y < 3)
{
int t = tmp.x;
swap(tmp.a[x*3+y], tmp.a[tmp.x]);
tmp.x = x*3+y;
int flag_ = Hash(tmp.a);
if( vis[ flag_ ].flag == -1)
{
vis[ flag_ ].flag = flag;
vis[ flag_ ].dir = str[i];
if(flag_ == 46233) return flag_;
que.push(tmp);
}
tmp.x = t;
swap(tmp.a[x*3+y], tmp.a[tmp.x]);
}
}
}
return 362881;
}

int main(void)
{
int i;
char c[10];
fac[1] = 1;
for(i = 2; i < 10; i++)
fac[i] = fac[i-1]*i;
while(~scanf("%s", c))
{
for(i = 0; i < 362881; i++) vis[i].flag = -1;
node star;//输入
if(c[0] == 'x') {star.a[0] = 0; star.x = 0;}
else star.a[0] = c[0] - '0';
for(i = 1 ; i < 9; i++)
{
scanf("%s", c);
if(c[0] == 'x') {star.a[i] = 0; star.x = i;}
else star.a[i] = c[0] - '0';
}
flag_star = Hash(star.a);//得到初始状态
if(flag_star == 46233) {printf("\n"); continue;}//特判 如果初始状态就是目标
int tmp = bfs(star);
if(tmp == 362881) printf("unsolvable");
else prin(tmp);
printf("\n");
}
return 0;
}


//bfs+hash(康拓展示)
#include
#include
#include
#include
using namespace std;

int fac[10];
int flag_star;
struct {
int flag;//标记是否访问过
char dir;//移动方向
}vis[362881];
int a[10];

struct node
{
int a[10];  //状态
int x;      //x所在的位置
};

int Hash(int a[])//康拓展示
{
int ans = 0;
for(int i = 0; i < 9; i++)
{
int tmp = 0;
for(int j = i+1; j < 9; j++)
{
if(a[i] > a[j]) tmp++;
}
ans += tmp*fac[8-i];
}
return ans;
}

queueque;

void prin(int n)
{
if(n != 46233)
{
printf("%c", vis[n].dir);
prin(vis[n].flag);
}
}

int dir[5][2] = { {1, 0}, {-1, 0}, {0, 1}, {0, -1} };
char str[5] = "udlr";

void swap(int &x, int &y)
{
int t = x;
x = y;
y = t;
}

int bfs()
{
node star;
for(int i = 0; i < 8; i++) star.a[i] = i+1; star.a[8] = 0;
star.x = 8;
while(!que.empty()) que.pop();
que.push(star);
while(!que.empty())
{
node tmp = que.front(); que.pop();
int flag = Hash(tmp.a);
//        printf("flag=%d tmp.x=%d\n", flag, tmp.x);
for(int i = 0; i < 4; i++)
{
int x = tmp.x/3 + dir[i][0];
int y = tmp.x%3 + dir[i][1];
if(0 <= x && x < 3 && 0 <= y && y < 3)
{
int t = tmp.x;
swap(tmp.a[x*3+y], tmp.a[tmp.x]);
tmp.x = x*3+y;
int flag_ = Hash(tmp.a);
if( vis[ flag_ ].flag == -1)//没有访问过就可以移动(判重)
{
vis[ flag_ ].flag = flag;
vis[ flag_ ].dir = str[i];
que.push(tmp);
}
//还原
tmp.x = t;
swap(tmp.a[x*3+y], tmp.a[tmp.x]);
}
}
}
return 0;
}

int main(void)
{
int i;
char c[10];
fac[1] = 1;
for(i = 2; i < 10; i++)
fac[i] = fac[i-1]*i;
for(i = 0; i < 362881; i++) vis[i].flag = -1;
bfs();
while(~scanf("%s", c))
{
node star;
if(c[0] == 'x') {star.a[0] = 0; star.x = 0;}
else star.a[0] = c[0] - '0';
for(i = 1 ; i < 9; i++)
{
scanf("%s", c);
if(c[0] == 'x') {star.a[i] = 0; star.x = i;}
else star.a[i] = c[0] - '0';
}
flag_star = Hash(star.a);
if(flag_star == 46233) {printf("\n"); continue;}
if(vis[flag_star].flag == -1) printf("unsolvable");
else prin(flag_star);
printf("\n");
}
return 0;
}


#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
using namespace std;

struct node     //状态
{
int a[10];
int f, h, g;
int x;      //x在的位置

//    bool operator<(const node n1)const{     //优先队列第一关键字为h,第二关键字为g
//        return h!=n1.h?h>n1.h:g>n1.g;
//    }
friend bool operator < (node a, node b)
{
return a.f > b.f;
}
};

priority_queueque;
int fac[10];
//46233
struct
{
int father;
char dir;
}vis[362881];

int get_h(int a[])
{
int h = 0;
for(int i = 0; i < 8; i++)
{
if(a[i])
h += fabs((a[i]-1)/3 - i/3) + fabs((a[i]-1)%3 - i%3);
}
return h;
}

int Hash(int a[])
{
int ans = 0;
for(int i = 0; i < 9; i++)
{
int tmp = 0;
for(int j = i+1; j < 9; j++)
{
if(a[i] > a[j]) tmp++;
}
ans += tmp*fac[8-i];
}
return ans+1;
}

void prin(int n)
{
//    printf("n=%d\n", n);
if(vis[n].father!=-1)
{
prin(vis[n].father);
printf("%c", vis[n].dir);
}
}

void SWAP(int &x, int &y)
{
int t = x;
x = y;
y = t;
}

int dir[4][2] = { {1, 0}, {-1, 0}, {0, -1}, {0, 1} };
char dd[] = "dulr";

bool is(int a[])
{
int ans = 0;
for(int i = 0; i < 9; i++)
{
if(a[i])
for(int j = i+1; j < 9; j++)
{
if(a[i] > a[j] && a[j])
ans++;
}
}
return !(ans&1);
}

void debug(int a[])
{
for(int i = 0; i < 3; i++)
{
for(int j = 0; j < 3; j++)
{
printf("%d ", a[i*3+j]);
}
printf("\n");
}
printf("\n");
}

int bfs(node star)
{
while(!que.empty()) que.pop();
que.push( star );
star.h = get_h( star.a );    star.g = 0;
star.f = star.g + star.h;
vis[ Hash( star.a ) ].father = -1;
while(!que.empty())
{
node tmp = que.top();
que.pop();
int father = Hash(tmp.a);

//        printf("father=%d\n", father); debug(tmp.a);

for(int i = 0; i < 4; i++)
{
int x = dir[i][0] + tmp.x/3;
int y = dir[i][1] + tmp.x%3;
if(0 <= x && x < 3 && 0 <= y && y < 3)
{
node s = tmp;
s.x = x*3+y;
SWAP( s.a[ tmp.x ], s.a[ s.x ] );
s.g++;
s.h = get_h( s.a );
s.f = s.h + s.g;
int son = Hash(s.a);
//                printf("tmp.x =%d s.x=%d\n", tmp.x, s.x);
//                printf("son=%d\n", son); debug(s.a);
if(son == 46234)
{
vis[ son ].father = father;
vis[ son ].dir = dd[i];
prin(46234);printf("\n");
return 0;
}
if(!vis[ son ].father && is(s.a))
{
vis[ son ].father = father;
vis[ son ].dir = dd[i];
que.push( s );
}
}
}
}
return 1;
}

int main(void)
{
int i;
fac[1] = 1;
for(i = 2; i < 10; i++) fac[i] = fac[i-1]*i;
node star;
char in[2];
//    freopen("ou.txt", "w", stdout);
while(~scanf("%s", in))
{
memset(vis, 0, sizeof(vis));
if(in[0] == 'x')
{
star.a[0] = 0;
star.x = 0;
}
else star.a[0] = in[0] - '0';
for(i = 1; i < 9; i++)
{
scanf("%s", in);
if(in[0] == 'x')
{
star.a[i] = 0;
star.x = i;
}
else star.a[i] = in[0] - '0';
}
if(!is(star.a))
{
printf("unsolvable\n");continue;
}
if(Hash(star.a) == 46234) {printf("\n"); continue;}
if(bfs(star))
{
printf("unsolvable\n");
}
}
return 0;
}


• 本文已收录于以下专栏：

## [kuangbin带你飞]专题二 搜索进阶 A - Eight

A - Eight Time Limit:5000MS     Memory Limit:32768KB     64bit IO Format:%I64d & %I64u Submit Statu...
• ZZ_AC
• 2015年11月17日 16:21
• 580

## ZOJ - 2477 dfs [kuangbin带你飞]专题二

• flyawayl
• 2017年02月16日 19:21
• 333

## [kuangbin带你飞]专题一 简单搜索

• hsj970319
• 2017年01月22日 20:23
• 753

## kuangbin带你飞 专题一 简单搜索 （题解）

POJ 3279  题意：黑白的板，每次选择一个十字形翻转（十字板内黑白互换，若是边界则不管），求最小将原图变为全白的策略。 题解：枚举第一行翻转情况(二进制)，2^c，然后验证，由于第一行确定...
• Miracle_ma
• 2015年06月30日 12:28
• 1203

## Servlet之动作框架

• Jianzs_426
• 2018年02月16日 21:52
• 53

## //水题//map和iterator//find your present (2)

In the new year party, everybody will get a “special present”.Now it’s your turn to get your spec...
• lydia_ke
• 2018年02月18日 00:40
• 9

## kuangbin带你飞 专题一

kuangbin在vjudge上面挂了一些专题，感谢bin神带我飞~ Problem A POJ1321 中文题目 DFS 注意某一行可以不放棋子，因此需要在DFS函数后面加一个dfs(row+1,...
• zdjdsg
• 2015年03月16日 15:03
• 2153

## [kuangbin带你飞]专题五 并查集——题解

[kuangbin带你飞]专题五 并查集——题解
• hsj970319
• 2017年05月05日 23:16
• 266

## [kuangbin带你飞]专题十四 数论基础 （数论）（fmod）

• hi_just_do_it
• 2017年01月14日 23:00
• 268

## 【 题集 】 【kuangbin带你飞】专题十二 基础DP1

B - Ignatius and the Princess IV Time Limit:1000MS     Memory Limit:32767KB     64bit IO Format:%I64...
• xi__long
• 2015年02月28日 19:13
• 634

举报原因： 您举报文章：[kuangbin带你飞]专题二 搜索进阶 A - Eight 色情 政治 抄袭 广告 招聘 骂人 其他 (最多只允许输入30个字)