How To Quantify The User Experience(如何量化用户体验UE)

翻译 2007年10月10日 09:36:00
关键词:用户体验度
量化用户体验有四个互相关联的重要因素:

1. 品牌(branding)
2. 使用性(usability)
3. 功能性(functionality)
4. 内容(content)


一个客观的衡量和分析工具,能帮助你的客户提供有实事依据的建议。而不是推测的意见和观点。我们在这篇文章中的探讨能帮助你:

1. 尽可能的去除你的主观偏好。
2. 使具有不同背景的人(设计人员、开发人员、客户)能够在理解网站上有统一的共识。
3. 创立与竞争对手网站或者以往的开发相比较的基本规则,为你的客户提供一个对他们网站的优缺点事实依据,视觉上的展示。

衡量用户体验


我们把我们的分析分成四部分,每个用户体验元素为一个部分。对每个元素我们创建一系列的描述和参数,有针对性的考查网站。每个描述分类1-X个级别,我们在这个范围内给每个描述打分,等到你完成了第一部分的分析,你应给四个部分的描述分别打分。


文章中的示例分析,在每个元素中仅用了5个参数,因为我们设20分一个档,最大分值为100,在每个元素中如果我们加上另外五个描述/参数每个元素就是10分一个档,下面就是有关每个元素和描述/参数的概要。

一.品牌

用来衡量网站品牌的描述包括:

1.用户为访问都提供了有吸引力的难忘的体验
2.网站的视觉效果与品牌一致
3.图片,附加内容,多媒体内容提供了体验过程的价值
4.网站传达了品牌设定的程度。
5.网站充分运用了这个体能力,加强了或延伸了品牌。

二、功能性

功能性包括所有的技术上的及屏幕之后的流程及应用,它伴随着为所有最终用户提供互动服务。而且有时对公众和管理员都有意义。

用来衡量功能性的描述包括:

1. 用户及时获得对其查询和提交信息的反馈。
2. 深晰的任务过程的告知(比如成功页面或邮件更新提示)
3. 网站和应用加上了一般的安全及个人隐私的标准
4. 在线功能与离线业务结合
5. 网站包含管理工具,加强管理员的效率。

三使用性

使用性包括 一般意义上的对所有网站的内容和特点的易用性。在可能之下的二级主题还包括导航的友好性。他们包括:

1. 网站防止错误发生,并帮助使用都从错误中恢复。
2. 整体页面侧重应针对主要目标受众优化。
3. 网站帮助其访问都达成一般性目标和任务。
4. 网站保持其一致性和标准。
5. 网站能为有残疾用户提供特定内容。

四、内容

内容指网站的实际内容,文本,图片,多媒体等到,以及其结构,信息体结构。
我们考虑信息和内容是如果根据用户需要和客户业务要求而组织的。

1. 连接密度带来的清晰度和简单的网站浏览。
2. 内容组织方便了用户实现他们的目标
3. 内容及时准确
4. 内容与用户需要和商务目标相切合。
5. 多语言的综合性内容。

结果:


首先,将每个元素的价值相加,因为每个元素设定了一个最大和为100的量级,我们得到的是一个百分比的分数。最好的方式是通过一个蜘蛛图来展示。


通过分析获得创意

文中描述的分析和方法的优点在于它们能迎合你的特定客户。可根据需要加入其它考察元素。

这个分析平台使你能在你选取的某一元素中增加权重,比如你的客户是一个生产商,它非常侧重品牌和外观及氛围。毫无疑问你可以修改衡量体系,给予品牌元素更多更好的侧重。给于可通知性少些侧重。

 

英文原文:

How To Quantify The User Experience

By Robert Rubinoff   April 21st 2004  

Many look to the user experience as an overall indicator of Website success. Analyzing how effectively a Website provides for a net positive user experience can often turn into a subjective affair, rife with opinion and short on objectivity.

This article outlines a quick-and-dirty methodology for quantifying the user experience, which I"ve found to be very useful in providing clients with a quick, objective, visual representation of where their site stands vis-à-vis the competition or past development efforts.

What is the User Experience?

The term "user experience" refers to a concept that places the end-user at the focal point of design and development efforts, as opposed to the system, its applications or its aesthetic value alone. It"s based on the general concept of user-centered design.

The user experience is primarily made up of a four factors:


  • branding
  • usability
  • functionality
  • content


Independently, none of these factors makes for a positive user experience; however, taken together, these factors constitute the main ingredients for a website"s success.


Take, for example, a brilliantly designed site that routinely gives server errors, or times-out. Or imagine a fantastic, database-driven application that, for some reason or other, is never used because it"s buried deep within the bowels of the site"s information architecture. In both cases, we see that the independent elements of branding, usability, functionality and content structure aren"t necessarily indicative of a site"s success. Yet, when taken together, these core elements provide the basis for the user experience.

The Need for an Objective Analysis Tool

Say you"ve got a new lead -- they"re unhappy with their Website in its current form and want you to help steer the site in the right direction. If you"re like me, the first thing you"ll do is take a look at the site and make some cursory mental notes. How then do you convey these ideas and notes back to the client without simply ripping the current site apart?

The problem is that each of our perceptions of how "good" or "bad" a Website is, is skewed by our personal backgrounds and specialties within the industry. Asked to evaluate a Website"s benefits and constraints, a developer, usability professional, designer or information architect may come up with an entirely different critique.

An objective tool for measurement and analysis helps you provide your clients with fact-based recommendations, as opposed to mere conjecture and opinion. The methodology we"ll explore in this article will help you to:



  • Remove your personal preferences (subjectivity) from the equation as much as possible.
  • Enable persons with different backgrounds (designers, developers, clients) to share a common understanding of the site.
  • Create ground rules for comparisons of the site to those of competitors, or past development efforts.
  • Provide your clients with a fact-based, visual representation of their site"s benefits and limitations.


Measuring the User Experience

As mentioned above, the user experience is made up of four interdependent elements:


  • branding
  • usability
  • functionality
  • content


But, how can we quantify and measure these seemingly intangible elements?

The methodology is quite simple. We separate our analysis into four sections -- one for each of the four elements of the user experience. For each of these elements, we create a series of statements or parameters against which the Website in question will be measured. A scale of 1 to X is created for each of the statements; we give each statement a score within this range.

Once you"ve completed this first part of the analysis, you should have a score for each of the statements in each of the four sections.


In the sample analysis attached to this article, we only used five statements or parameters for each element. Consequently, we work with a 20-point scale, so that the maximum total score of the site is 100. So, if we added an extra five statements or parameters to each element, we"d rate each on a 10-point scale.

Below, find a brief explanation of each of the elements and the statements or parameters used in the sample analysis.

Branding

Branding includes all the aesthetic and design-related items within a Website. It entails the site"s creative projection of the desired organizational image and message. Statements used to measure branding can include:



  • The site provides visitors with an engaging and memorable experience.
  • The visual impact of the site is consistent with the brand identity.
  • Graphics, collaterals and multimedia add value to the experience.
  • The site delivers on the perceived promise of the brand.
  • The site leverages the capabilities of the medium to enhance or extend the brand.

Functionality

Functionality includes all the technical and "behind the scenes" processes and applications. It entails the site"s delivery of interactive services to all end users, and it"s important to note that this sometimes means both the public as well as administrators. Statements used to measure a site"s functionality can include:



  • Users receive timely responses to their queries or submissions.
  • Task progress is clearly communicated (e.g., success pages or email updates).
  • The Website and applications adhere to common security and privacy standards.
  • Online functions are integrated with offline business processes.
  • The site contains administration tools that enhance administrator efficiency.



Usability entails the general ease of use of all site components and features. Sub-topics beneath the usability banner can include navigation and accessibility. Statements used to measure usability might include:



  • The site prevents errors and helps the user recover from them.
  • Overall page weight is optimized for the main target audience.
  • The site helps its visitors accomplish common goals and tasks.
  • The site adheres to its own consistency and standards.
  • The site provides content for users with disabilities.


Content

Content refers to the actual content of the site (text, multimedia, images) as well as its structure, or information architecture. We look to see how the information and content are structured in terms of defined user needs and client business requirements. Statements used to measure content can include:



  • Link density provides clarity and easy navigation.
  • Content is structured in a way that facilitates the achievement of user goals.
  • Content is up-to-date and accurate.
  • Content is appropriate to customer needs and business goals.
  • Content across multiple languages is comprehensive.


In most instances, I use from 10-20 separate statements for each of these four elements. I suggest you use the statements above as a basis for creating your own analysis. Remember that if you add more statements, you must also refine the 20-point scale so that each element"s total score is 100. For example, if you used 10 statements for each element, then your rating scale would be 1-10. If you used 20 statements for each element, your scale would be 1-5.

For a example of this style of analysis download this sample Excel file.

Displaying Your Results

Once you"ve completed your analysis and have values for each of the statements or parameters, it"s time to put this data into a clear, communicative format.


The first thing we want to do is add up all the values for each element. Because we"ve set the point scale to provide with a maximum score of 100 for each element, what we really have is a percentage score. Once we have these percentage values, what I"ve found works best is to create a Spider chart to visually represent them. Microsoft"s Excel or Open Office Calc both work well here, although any spreadsheet program with graphing capabilities will do.

Using your spreadsheet program, you can generate a host of visual representations of the data. See the sample file you downloaded above for more examples.


Get Creative with Your Analysis

The great thing about the analysis and methods described in this article is that they can be catered to your specific client or project needs.

There"s no reason why you couldn"t add a fifth category to the analysis to describe accessibility or business metrics. For example, say you"ve got a government client that needs to adhere to Section 508 regulations (for the U.S.). You could easily create a set of statements or parameters that deal exclusively with the accessibility element, modifying your charts to display accordingly. Likewise, it would be very easy to create a category that deals exclusively with your client"s important business metrics, for example, ROI, click-through rates, conversions, or repeat customers.

Alternatively, this platform of analysis can enable you to add greater weight to particular elements of your choice. Say you have a client who"s a luxury goods manufacturer, and is heavily focused on branding and look and feel. There"s no reason why you couldn"t create a modified measurement system that gave greater weight to the branding elements and less to, say, the usability elements.

Practical Uses

I"ve incorporated this analysis into a number of different projects on which I"ve worked. Often, I include a "quick and dirty" analysis as an appendix to a new client proposal, to provide the prospective clients a snapshot view of where their site stands vis-à-vis the competition.

Providing this kind of review also gives you an excellent chance to display your professionalism. Chances are that other firms bidding on the RFP in question will not include such "free" consulting services -- and your inclusion of this report in your proposal may be a decisive factor in your favor.

In other instances, I"ve had clients pay for an in-depth analysis of their site complete with recommendations. This type of report includes, for each of the statements or parameters, several descriptive paragraphs complete with examples or screen shots. If I"m ultimately hired to follow through on my recommendations, I often schedule another evaluation six months after the launch of the site as a means of showing improvement, while at the same time reinforcing the value of my services.

This type of analysis can also serve as a gateway project that leads to further business. If you price the analysis well, it can be a great tool for getting your foot in the door and showing the new client the benefits of your services.
 

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