# The King’s Problem

Time Limit: 2000/1000 MS (Java/Others)    Memory Limit: 65536/32768 K (Java/Others)
Total Submission(s): 1366    Accepted Submission(s): 507

Problem Description
In the Kingdom of Silence, the king has a new problem. There are N cities in the kingdom and there are M directional roads between the cities. That means that if there is a road from u to v, you can only go from city u to city v, but can’t go from city v to city u. In order to rule his kingdom more effectively, the king want to divide his kingdom into several states, and each city must belong to exactly one state. What’s more, for each pair of city (u, v), if there is one way to go from u to v and go from v to u, (u, v) have to belong to a same state. And the king must insure that in each state we can ether go from u to v or go from v to u between every pair of cities (u, v) without passing any city which belongs to other state.
Now the king asks for your help, he wants to know the least number of states he have to divide the kingdom into.

Input
The first line contains a single integer T, the number of test cases. And then followed T cases.

The first line for each case contains two integers n, m(0 < n <= 5000,0 <= m <= 100000), the number of cities and roads in the kingdom. The next m lines each contains two integers u and v (1 <= u, v <= n), indicating that there is a road going from city u to city v.

Output
The output should contain T lines. For each test case you should just output an integer which is the least number of states the king have to divide into.

Sample Input
1
3 2
1 2
1 3

Sample Output
2

Source

题目大意：1每个城市当且仅当属于一个state。2相互可达的两个城市要求必须属于一个state。3同一个state的两个城市u,v至少存在一条路径从u 到 v或在从v到u且不经过其他的state。求最小state的个数。

#include <iostream>
#include <cstdio>
#include <cstring>
#include <vector>
#include <algorithm>
#include <stack>
#define DEBUG 10
using namespace std;
const int maxn = 5000+10;
//Accepted	3861	140MS	1536K	2751 B	G++	Achiberx
int gn, gm;
vector<int> G[maxn]; // for original graph.
vector<int> G2[maxn];// for DAG.
// for dfs().
int dfs_clock, scc_cnt, sccno[maxn];
int pre[maxn], lowlink[maxn];
stack<int> S;
// for hungary();
int from[maxn], tot;
bool use[maxn];

void init() {
for(int i = 0; i < maxn; i++) {
G[i].clear(); G2[i].clear();
}
}

void dfs(int u) {
pre[u] = lowlink[u] = ++dfs_clock;
S.push(u);
for(int i = 0; i < (int)G[u].size(); i++) {
int v = G[u][i];
if(!pre[v]) {
dfs(v);
lowlink[u] = min(lowlink[u], lowlink[v]);
} else if(!sccno[v]) {
lowlink[u] = min(lowlink[u], pre[v]);
}
}
if(pre[u] == lowlink[u]) {
scc_cnt++;
for(;;) {
int x = S.top(); S.pop();
sccno[x] = scc_cnt;
if(x == u) break;
}
}
}

#ifndef DEBUG
void mid_res() {
for(int i = 1; i <= gn; i++) {
printf("sccno[%d] = %d\n", i, sccno[i]);
}
}
#endif

void find_scc(int n) {
dfs_clock = scc_cnt = 0;
memset(pre, 0, sizeof(pre));
memset(sccno, 0, sizeof(sccno));
memset(lowlink, 0, sizeof(lowlink));
for(int i = 1; i <= gn; i++) {
if(!pre[i]) dfs(i);
}
}

void build_map() {
int u, v;
for(int i = 1; i <= gn; i++) {
for(int j = 0; j < (int)G[i].size(); j++) {
u = sccno[i]; v = sccno[G[i][j]];
if(u != v) {
G2[u].push_back(v);
// printf("%d -> %d\n", u, v);   // check if G2[] is correct.
}
}
}
}

bool match(int x) {
int v;
for(int i = 0; i < (int)G2[x].size(); i++) {
v = G2[x][i];
if(!use[v]) {
use[v] = true;
if(from[v] == -1 || match(from[v])) {
from[v] = x;
return true;
}
}
}
return false;
}

int hungary() {
tot = 0;
memset(from, -1, sizeof(from));
for(int i = 1; i <= scc_cnt; i++) {
memset(use, 0, sizeof(use));
if(match(i)) ++tot;
}
return tot;
}

int main()
{
int T, u, v;
scanf("%d", &T);
while(T--) {
scanf("%d%d", &gn, &gm);
init();
for(int i = 1; i <= gm; i++) {
scanf("%d%d", &u, &v);
G[u].push_back(v);
}
find_scc(gn);
// mid_res();
build_map();
int res = hungary();
printf("%d\n", scc_cnt-res);
}
return 0;
}

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