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Oracle常用管理命令

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第一章:日志管理

  1.forcing log switches

  sql> alter system switch logfile;

  2.forcing checkpoints

  sql> alter system checkpoint;

  3.adding online redo log groups

  sql> alter database add logfile [group 4]

  sql> ('/disk3/log4a.rdo','/disk4/log4b.rdo') size 1m;

  4.adding online redo log members

  sql> alter database add logfile member

  sql> '/disk3/log1b.rdo' to group 1,

  sql> '/disk4/log2b.rdo' to group 2;

  5.changes the name of the online redo logfile

  sql> alter database rename file 'c:/oracle/oradata/oradb/redo01.log'

  sql> to 'c:/oracle/oradata/redo01.log';

  6.drop online redo log groups

  sql> alter database drop logfile group 3;

  7.drop online redo log members

  sql> alter database drop logfile member 'c:/oracle/oradata/redo01.log';

  8.clearing online redo log files

  sql> alter database clear [unarchived] logfile 'c:/oracle/log2a.rdo';

  9.using logminer analyzing redo logfiles

  a. in the init.ora specify utl_file_dir = ' '

  b. sql> execute dbms_logmnr_d.build('oradb.ora','c:/oracle/oradb/log');

  c. sql> execute dbms_logmnr_add_logfile('c:/oracle/oradata/oradb/redo01.log',

  sql> dbms_logmnr.new);

  d. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.add_logfile('c:/oracle/oradata/oradb/redo02.log',

  sql> dbms_logmnr.addfile);

  e. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.start_logmnr(dictfilename=>'c:/oracle/oradb/log/oradb.ora');

  f. sql> select * from v$logmnr_contents(v$logmnr_dictionary,v$logmnr_parameters

  sql> v$logmnr_logs);

  g. sql> execute dbms_logmnr.end_logmnr;

  第二章:表空间管理

  1.create tablespaces

  sql> create tablespace tablespace_name datafile 'c:/oracle/oradata/file1.dbf' size 100m,

  sql> 'c:/oracle/oradata/file2.dbf' size 100m minimum extent 550k [logging/nologging]

  sql> default storage (initial 500k next 500k maxextents 500 pctinccease 0)

  sql> [online/offline] [permanent/temporary] [extent_management_clause]

  2.locally managed tablespace

  sql> create tablespace user_data datafile 'c:/oracle/oradata/user_data01.dbf'

  sql> size 500m extent management local uniform size 10m;

  3.temporary tablespace

  sql> create temporary tablespace temp tempfile 'c:/oracle/oradata/temp01.dbf'

  sql> size 500m extent management local uniform size 10m;

  4.change the storage setting

  sql> alter tablespace app_data minimum extent 2m;

  sql> alter tablespace app_data default storage(initial 2m next 2m maxextents 999);

  5.taking tablespace offline or online

  sql> alter tablespace app_data offline;

  sql> alter tablespace app_data online;

  6.read_only tablespace

  sql> alter tablespace app_data read only|write;

  7.droping tablespace

  sql> drop tablespace app_data including contents;

  8.enableing automatic extension of data files

  sql> alter tablespace app_data add datafile 'c:/oracle/oradata/app_data01.dbf' size 200m

  sql> autoextend on next 10m maxsize 500m;

  9.change the size fo data files manually

  sql> alter database datafile 'c:/oracle/oradata/app_data.dbf' resize 200m;

  10.Moving data files: alter tablespace

  sql> alter tablespace app_data rename datafile 'c:/oracle/oradata/app_data.dbf'

  sql> to 'c:/oracle/app_data.dbf';

  11.moving data files:alter database

  sql> alter database rename file 'c:/oracle/oradata/app_data.dbf'

  sql> to 'c:/oracle/app_data.dbf';

  第三章:表

  1.create a table

  sql> create table table_name (column datatype,column datatype]....)

  sql> tablespace tablespace_name [pctfree integer] [pctused integer]

  sql> [initrans integer] [maxtrans integer]

  sql> storage(initial 200k next 200k pctincrease 0 maxextents 50)

  sql> [logging|nologging] [cache|nocache]

  2.copy an existing table

  sql> create table table_name [logging|nologging] as subquery

  3.create temporary table

  sql> create global temporary table xay_temp as select * from xay;

  on commit preserve rows/on commit delete rows

  4.pctfree = (average row size - initial row size) *100 /average row size

  pctused = 100-pctfree- (average row size*100/available data space)

  5.change storage and block utilization parameter

  sql> alter table table_name pctfree=30 pctused=50 storage(next 500k

  sql> minextents 2 maxextents 100);

  6.manually allocating extents

  sql> alter table table_name allocate extent(size 500k datafile 'c:/oracle/data.dbf');

  7.move tablespace

  sql> alter table employee move tablespace users;

  8.deallocate of unused space

  sql> alter table table_name deallocate unused [keep integer]

  9.truncate a table

  sql> truncate table table_name;

  10.drop a table

  sql> drop table table_name [cascade constraints];

  11.drop a column

  sql> alter table table_name drop column comments cascade constraints checkpoint 1000;

  alter table table_name drop columns continue;

  12.mark a column as unused

  sql> alter table table_name set unused column comments cascade constraints;

  alter table table_name drop unused columns checkpoint 1000;

  alter table orders drop columns continue checkpoint 1000

  data_dictionary : dba_unused_col_tabs

  第四章:索引

  1.creating function-based indexes

  sql> create index summit.item_quantity on summit.item(quantity-quantity_shipped);

  2.create a B-tree index

  sql> create [unique] index index_name on table_name(column,.. asc/desc) tablespace

  sql> tablespace_name [pctfree integer] [initrans integer] [maxtrans integer]

  sql> [logging | nologging] [nosort] storage(initial 200k next 200k pctincrease 0

  sql> maxextents 50);

  3.pctfree(index)=(maximum number of rows-initial number of rows)*100/maximum number of rows

  4.creating reverse key indexes

  sql> create unique index xay_id on xay(a) reverse pctfree 30 storage(initial 200k

  sql> next 200k pctincrease 0 maxextents 50) tablespace indx;

  5.create bitmap index

  sql> create bitmap index xay_id on xay(a) pctfree 30 storage( initial 200k next 200k

  sql> pctincrease 0 maxextents 50) tablespace indx;

  6.change storage parameter of index

  sql> alter index xay_id storage (next 400k maxextents 100);

  7.allocating index space

  sql> alter index xay_id allocate extent(size 200k datafile 'c:/oracle/index.dbf');

  8.alter index xay_id deallocate unused;

  第五章:约束

  1.define constraints as immediate or deferred

  sql> alter session set constraint[s] = immediate/deferred/default;

  set constraint[s] constraint_name/all immediate/deferred;

  2. sql> drop table table_name cascade constraints

  sql> drop tablespace tablespace_name including contents cascade constraints

  3. define constraints while create a table

  sql> create table xay(id number(7) constraint xay_id primary key deferrable

  sql> using index storage(initial 100k next 100k) tablespace indx);

  primary key/unique/references table(column)/check

  4.enable constraints

  sql> alter table xay enable novalidate constraint xay_id;

  5.enable constraints

  sql> alter table xay enable validate constraint xay_id;

  第六章:LOAD数据

  1.loading data using direct_load insert

  sql> insert /*+append */ into emp nologging

  sql> select * from emp_old;

  2.parallel direct-load insert

  sql> alter session enable parallel dml;

  sql> insert /*+parallel(emp,2) */ into emp nologging

  sql> select * from emp_old;

  3.using sql*loader

  sql> sqlldr scott/tiger /

  sql> control = ulcase6.ctl /

  sql> log = ulcase6.log direct=true

  第七章:数据整理

  1.using expoty

  $exp scott/tiger tables(dept,emp) file=c:/emp.dmp log=exp.log compress=n direct=y

  2.using import

  $imp scott/tiger tables(dept,emp) file=emp.dmp log=imp.log ignore=y

  3.transporting a tablespace

  sql>alter tablespace sales_ts read only;

  $exp sys/.. file=xay.dmp transport_tablespace=y tablespace=sales_ts

  triggers=n constraints=n

  $copy datafile

  $imp sys/.. file=xay.dmp transport_tablespace=y datafiles=(/disk1/sles01.dbf,/disk2

  /sles02.dbf)

  sql> alter tablespace sales_ts read write;

  4.checking transport set

  sql> DBMS_tts.transport_set_check(ts_list =>'sales_ts' ..,incl_constraints=>true);

  在表transport_set_violations 中查看

  sql> dbms_tts.isselfcontained 为true 是, 表示自包含

第八章: 密码安全与资源管理

  1.controlling account lock and password

  sql> alter user juncky identified by oracle account unlock;

  2.user_provided password function

  sql> function_name(userid in varchar2(30),password in varchar2(30),

  old_password in varchar2(30)) return boolean

  3.create a profile : password setting

  sql> create profile grace_5 limit failed_login_attempts 3

  sql> password_lock_time unlimited password_life_time 30

  sql>password_reuse_time 30 password_verify_function verify_function

  sql> password_grace_time 5;

  4.altering a profile

  sql> alter profile default failed_login_attempts 3

  sql> password_life_time 60 password_grace_time 10;

  5.drop a profile

  sql> drop profile grace_5 [cascade];

  6.create a profile : resource limit

  sql> create profile developer_prof limit sessions_per_user 2

  sql> cpu_per_session 10000 idle_time 60 connect_time 480;

  7. view => resource_cost : alter resource cost

  dba_Users,dba_profiles

  8. enable resource limits

  sql> alter system set resource_limit=true;

  第九章:用户管理

  1.create a user: database authentication

  sql> create user juncky identified by oracle default tablespace users

  sql> temporary tablespace temp quota 10m on data password expire

  sql> [account lock|unlock] [profile profilename|default];

  2.change user quota on tablespace

  sql> alter user juncky quota 0 on users;

  3.drop a user

  sql> drop user juncky [cascade];

  4. monitor user

  view: dba_users , dba_ts_quotas

  第十章:特权管理

  1.system privileges: view => system_privilege_map ,dba_sys_privs,session_privs

  2.grant system privilege

  sql> grant create session,create table to managers;

  sql> grant create session to scott with admin option;

  with admin option can grant or revoke privilege from any user or role;

  3.sysdba and sysoper privileges:

  sysoper: startup,shutdown,alter database open|mount,alter database backup controlfile,

  alter tablespace begin/end backup,recover database

  alter database archivelog,restricted session

  sysdba: sysoper privileges with admin option,create database,recover database until

  4.password file members: view:=> v$pwfile_users

  5.O7_dictionary_accessibility =true restriction access to view or tables in other schema

  6.revoke system privilege

  sql> revoke create table from karen;

  sql> revoke create session from scott;

  7.grant object privilege

  sql> grant execute on dbms_pipe to public;

  sql> grant update(first_name,salary) on employee to karen with grant option;

  8.display object privilege : view => dba_tab_privs, dba_col_privs

  9.revoke object privilege

  sql> revoke execute on dbms_pipe from scott [cascade constraints];

  10.audit record view :=> sys.aud$

  11. protecting the audit trail

  sql> audit delete on sys.aud$ by access;

  12.statement auditing

  sql> audit user;

  13.privilege auditing

  sql> audit select any table by summit by access;

  14.schema object auditing

  sql> audit lock on summit.employee by access whenever successful;

  15.view audit option : view=> all_def_audit_opts,dba_stmt_audit_opts,dba_priv_audit_opts,dba_obj_audit_opts

  16.view audit result: view=> dba_audit_trail,dba_audit_exists,dba_audit_object,dba_audit_session,dba_audit_statement

  第十一章: 规则管理器

  1.create roles

  sql> create role sales_clerk;

  sql> create role hr_clerk identified by bonus;

  sql> create role hr_manager identified externally;

  2.modify role

  sql> alter role sales_clerk identified by commission;

  sql> alter role hr_clerk identified externally;

  sql> alter role hr_manager not identified;

  3.assigning roles

  sql> grant sales_clerk to scott;

  sql> grant hr_clerk to hr_manager;

  sql> grant hr_manager to scott with admin option;

  4.establish default role

  sql> alter user scott default role hr_clerk,sales_clerk;

  sql> alter user scott default role all;

  sql> alter user scott default role all except hr_clerk;

  sql> alter user scott default role none;

  5.enable and disable roles

  sql> set role hr_clerk;

  sql> set role sales_clerk identified by commission;

  sql> set role all except sales_clerk;

  sql> set role none;

  6.remove role from user

  sql> revoke sales_clerk from scott;

  sql> revoke hr_manager from public;

  7.remove role

  sql> drop role hr_manager;

  8.display role information

  view: =>dba_roles,dba_role_privs,role_role_privs,dba_sys_privs,role_sys_privs,role_tab_privs,session_roles

  第十二章: 备份与恢复

  1. v$sga,v$instance,v$process,v$bgprocess,v$database,v$datafile,v$sgastat

  2. Rman need set dbwr_IO_slaves or backup_tape_IO_slaves and large_pool_size

  3. Monitoring Parallel Rollback

  > v$fast_start_servers , v$fast_start_transactions

  4.perform a closed database backup (noarchivelog)

  > shutdown immediate

  > cp files /backup/

  > startup

  5.restore to a different location

  > connect system/manager as sysdba

  > startup mount

  > alter database rename file '/disk1/../user.dbf' to '/disk2/../user.dbf';

  > alter database open;

  6.recover syntax

  --recover a mounted database

  >recover database;

  >recover datafile '/disk1/data/df2.dbf';

  >alter database recover database;

  --recover an opened database

  >recover tablespace user_data;

  >recover datafile 2;

  >alter database recover datafile 2;

  7.how to apply redo log files automatically

  >set autorecovery on

  >recover automatic datafile 4;

  8.complete recovery:

  --method 1(mounted databae)

  >copy c:/backup/user.dbf c:/oradata/user.dbf

  >startup mount

  >recover datafile 'c:/oradata/user.dbf;

  >alter database open;

  --method 2(opened database,initially opened,not system or rollback datafile)

  >copy c:/backup/user.dbf c:/oradata/user.dbf (alter tablespace offline)

  >recover datafile 'c:/oradata/user.dbf' or

  >recover tablespace user_data;

  >alter database datafile 'c:/oradata/user.dbf' online or

  >alter tablespace user_data online;

  --method 3(opened database,initially closed not system or rollback datafile)

  >startup mount

  >alter database datafile 'c:/oradata/user.dbf' offline;

  >alter database open

  >copy c:/backup/user.dbf d:/oradata/user.dbf

  >alter database rename file 'c:/oradata/user.dbf' to 'd:/oradata/user.dbf'

  >recover datafile 'e:/oradata/user.dbf' or recover tablespace user_data;

  >alter tablespace user_data online;

  --method 4(loss of data file with no backup and have all archive log)

  >alter tablespace user_data offline immediate;

  >alter database create datafile 'd:/oradata/user.dbf' as 'c:/oradata/user.dbf''

  >recover tablespace user_data;

  >alter tablespace user_data online

  5.perform an open database backup

  > alter tablespace user_data begin backup;

  > copy files /backup/

  > alter database datafile '/c:/../data.dbf' end backup;

  > alter system switch logfile;

  6.backup a control file

  > alter database backup controlfile to 'control1.bkp';

  > alter database backup controlfile to trace;

  7.recovery (noarchivelog mode)

  > shutdown abort

  > cp files

  > startup

  8.recovery of file in backup mode

  >alter database datafile 2 end backup;

  9.clearing redo log file

  >alter database clear unarchived logfile group 1;

  >alter database clear unarchived logfile group 1 unrecoverable datafile;

  10.redo log recovery

  >alter database add logfile group 3 'c:/oradata/redo03.log' size 1000k;

  >alter database drop logfile group 1;

  >alter database open;

  or >cp c:/oradata/redo02.log' c:/oradata/redo01.log

  >alter database clear logfile 'c:/oradata/log01.log';

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