CMMI for DEV v1.2 Chapter 4(2)

翻译 2007年09月15日 20:00:00
 项目管理

项目管理过程域覆盖了与项目的计划、监督和控制相关的项目管理活动。

CMMI定义的项目管理过程域包括:

l         项目计划

l         项目监督和控制

l         供应商合同管理

l         集成化项目管理+IPPD2

l         风险管理

l         项目定量管理

基本的项目管理过程域

      基本的项目管理过程域包括与项目计划的建立和维护、承诺的建立和维护、计划进度的监督、纠正行动的采取和供应商合同的管理相关的活动。

4.3所示的鸟瞰图描述了基本项目过程域及其与其他过程域分类间之间的相互作用。正如图中所示,过程域“项目计划”包括发布计划、征得利益相关者的同意、取得对计划的承诺和维护计划。当使用了IPPD之后,利益相关者就不仅仅是产品和过程开发的技术专家,也是产品和过程开发的商业代表。

计划对产品和项目作定义的需求开始(图3所示的“What to Build”)。项目计划要覆盖项目期间实施的各种项目管理和开发活动。项目回顾来自各方面的利益相关者用于影响项目的计划以及与其它利益相关者就其对项目的投入建立承诺。举例来讲,这些计划覆盖了配置管理、验证和检测与分析。

过程域“项目的监督与控制”包括监督活动和采取纠正行动。项目计划定义了项目跟踪的适合度、进度检查的频率和用于控制进度的度量标准。进度主要决定于对项目状态和计划之间的对比。当实际状态明显偏离预期效果时,就需要采取适当的纠正行动了。这些行动可能包括重新计划。

过程域“供应商合同管理”确定项目的需求以从供应商生产的成果中获得指定的部分。可能用于适应项目需求的产品源要提前识别。选择供应商和建立用于管理供应商的供应商合同。供应商的进度和行为要通过监督指定的工作产品和过程以及适当的修正供应商协议来跟踪。基于供应商生产的产品组件进行承诺的检查和测试。

高级项目管理过程域

高级项目管理过程域包括诸如组织的系列标准过程中裁减而来的可定义过程的建立、符合组织工作环境标准的项目工作环境的建立、与相关的利益相关者之间的平等合作、风险的管理、针对项目行为整合团队的形成和维持以及项目定义过程的定量管理等活动。

4.4给出的鸟瞰图描述了各高级项目管理过程域及其与其它分类过程域之间的相互作用。每一个高级过程域都依赖于对项目的计划、监督和控制能力。基本的项目管理过程域提供了这种能力。

集成项目管理过程域建立和维护从组织系列标准过程裁减而来的已定义过程。项目管理用到这些已定义过程。项目使用组织过程资产并使其更加丰富。项目工作环境的建立和维持依赖于组织的工作环境标准。

项目管理确保与项目相关的各利益相关者以及时的方式整合它们的工作。这些通过促进各利益相关者的参与,识别、商讨和跟踪关键依赖以及对项目内部和各利益相关者之间争端的协调解决来实现。

+IPPD的情况下,集成项目管理+IPPD建立和维持项目的共享视图和一个整合的团队结构,然后建立完整的团队来实施项目的工作,确保项目组的满意协作。

尽管分线识别和监督覆盖了项目计划和项目监督与控制两个过程域,但风险管理要采取持续的、前瞻性的方法来管理分线,这些活动包括分线参数的识别、风险评估和风险解除。

过程域“定量项目管理过程域”提供了定量和统计的方法来管理过程实施和产品质量。项目的质量和过程实施目标基于由组织确立的目标。项目的已定义过程部分的包含过程元素和过程行为可预测的字过程。最小情况下,通过对达到项目质量和过程实施目标关键的子过程引起的过程变更是可以理解的。当过程变更的特殊原因能够识别的时候就要采取纠正行动。(参看术语表中关于“过程变更的特定原因”的定义)

Project Management process areas cover the project management activities related to planning, monitoring, and controlling the project.

The Project Management process areas of CMMI are as follows:

·         Project Planning

·         Project Monitoring and Control

·         Supplier Agreement Management

·         Integrated Project Management +IPPD[2]

·         Risk Management

·         Quantitative Project Management

The Basic Project Management process areas address the activities related to establishing and maintaining the project plan, establishing and maintaining commitments, monitoring progress against the plan, taking corrective action, and managing supplier agreements.

Figure 4.3 provides a bird’s-eye view of the interactions among the Basic Project Management process areas and with other process area categories. As illustrated in Figure 4.3, the Project Planning process area includes developing the project plan, involving stakeholders appropriately, obtaining commitment to the plan, and maintaining the plan. When using IPPD, stakeholders represent not just the technical expertise for product and process development, but also the business implications of product and process development.

Figure 4.3:  Basic Project Management Process Areas

 

Planning begins with requirements that define the product and project (“What to Build” in Figure 4.3). The project plan covers the various project management and development activities performed by the project. The project reviews other plans that affect the project from various relevant stakeholders and establish commitments with those stakeholders for their contributions to the project. For example, these plans cover configuration management, verification, and measurement and analysis.

The Project Monitoring and Control process area includes monitoring activities and taking corrective action. The project plan specifies the appropriate level of project monitoring, the frequency of progress reviews, and the measures used to monitor progress. Progress is determined primarily by comparing project status to the plan. When the actual status deviates significantly from the expected values, corrective actions are taken as appropriate. These actions may include replanning.

The Supplier Agreement Management process area addresses the need of the project to acquire those portions of work that are produced by suppliers. Sources of products that may be used to satisfy project requirements are proactively identified. The supplier is selected, and a supplier agreement is established to manage the supplier. The supplier’s progress and performance are tracked by monitoring selected work products and processes, and the supplier agreement is revised as appropriate. Acceptance reviews and tests are conducted on the supplier-produced product component.

The Advanced Project Management process areas address activities such as establishing a defined process that is tailored from the organization’s set of standard processes, establishing the project work environment from the organization’s work environment standards, coordinating and collaborating with relevant stakeholders, managing risk, forming and sustaining integrated teams for the conduct of projects, and quantitatively managing the project’s defined process.

Figure 4.4 provides a bird’s-eye view of the interactions among the Advanced Project Management process areas and with other process area categories. Each Advanced Project Management process area depends on the ability to plan, monitor, and control the project. The Basic Project Management process areas provide this ability.

Figure 4.4: Advanced Project Management Process Areas

The Integrated Project Management process area establishes and maintains the project’s defined process that is tailored from the organization’s set of standard processes. The project is managed using the project’s defined process. The project uses and contributes to the organization’s process assets. The project’s work environment is established and maintained from the organization’s work environment standards.

The management of the project ensures that the relevant stakeholders associated with the project coordinate their efforts in a timely manner. It does this by providing for the management of stakeholder involvement; the identification, negotiation, and tracking of critical dependencies; and the resolution of coordination issues within the project and with relevant stakeholders.

With the +IPPD addition, Integrated Project Management +IPPD establishes and maintains the shared vision of the project and an integrated team structure for the project and then establishes integrated teams to perform the work of the project, ensuring the appropriate collaboration across teams.

Although risk identification and monitoring are covered in the Project Planning and Project Monitoring and Control process areas, the Risk Management process area takes a continuing, forward-looking approach to managing risks with activities that include identification of risk parameters, risk assessments, and risk mitigation.

The Quantitative Project Management process area applies quantitative and statistical techniques to manage process performance and product quality. Quality and process-performance objectives for the project are based on the objectives established by the organization. The project’s defined process comprises, in part, process elements and subprocesses whose process performance can be predicted. At a minimum, the process variation experienced by subprocesses critical to achieving the project’s quality and process-performance objectives is understood. Corrective action is taken when special causes of process variation are identified. (See the definition of “special cause of process variation” in the glossary.)



[2] Integrated Project Management (IPM) has one goal that applies only when using CMMI with the IPPD group of additions.

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