Your First JavaServer Faces.

原创 2005年05月31日 14:24:00

沒事。。。太久沒有寫英文了。。。最近在看JSF。。。找個主題來練練英文。。。。

In this article, I’d like to introduce an easy application written by using JSF pages. This application would show a simple form with one text field and submit button. Users enter their name in the text field and submit the form and then they would see a welcome page with their name on it.

First, you should download the “JavaServer Faces Reference Implementation” from http://java.sun.com/j2ee/javaserverfaces/download.html. It’s a zipped file. After you download it and decompress it, look into the directory “lib”. Copy all the jar files into your web application’s “WEB-INF/lib” directory. You also need jstl.jar and standard.jar files. You could easily get them from the war file in the “samples” directory. Unzip one war file and look for jstl.jar and standard.jar in the “WEB-INF/lib” directory. Copy them into your web application’s “WEB-INF/lib” directory too. In Summary, You need the jar files.

jsf-impl.jarjsf-api.jarcommons-digester.jarcommons-collections.jarcommons-beanutils.jarjstl.jarstandard.jar


Now you need to define your web application in the “WEB-INF/web.xml” file. All JSF pages requested should be processed by a special servlet “FacesServlet”. You should define it in the “web.xml”.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?> <web-app xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/j2ee"     xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"     xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/j2ee http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/j2ee/web-app_2_4.xsd"     version="2.4">      <description>         JSF Demo    </description>     <display-name>JSF Demo</display-name>     <servlet>        <servlet-name>Faces Servlet</servlet-name>        <servlet-class>javax.faces.webapp.FacesServlet</servlet-class>        <load-on-startup>1</load-on-startup>    </servlet>        <servlet-mapping>        <servlet-name>Faces Servlet</servlet-name>        <url-pattern>*.faces</url-pattern>    </servlet-mapping>        <welcome-file-list>        <welcome-file>index.html</welcome-file>    </welcome-file-list> </web-app>


In the “web.xml”, we define all requested URL with suffix “.faces” should be processed by FacesServlet. In this first JSF example, I’d like to use JSP for the view technology. The FacesServlet would strip off the suffix “.faces” and load the pages with suffix “.jsp”. For example, if you request “/index.faces”, the “/index.jsp” would be processed in the end.

Now lets’ come out with the first JSF page, named with “pages/index.jsp”.

<%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %><%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %><html><head><title>JSF Demo</title></head><body>    <f:view>        <h:form>            <h3>Please enter your name.</h3>             name: <h:inputText value="#{user.name}"/><p>            <h:commandButton value="Login" action="login"/>        </h:form>    </f:view></body></html>


If this page, I use two JSF’s standard tag libraries, “core” and html“. The <f:view> tag creates the top-level view. Currently, just know its function is a little like the HTML’s <html> tag. All JSF’s tags are begun with it.
<h:form> creates a HTML form and <h:inputText> provide a text field. Take a look at the “#{user.name}”. It tells the JSF implementation to link the text field with the name property of a user object. We’ll see how to link them soon.

<h:commandButton> provide an submit button. What you should note is the action attribute. It’s used to specify the navigation rule. The navigation rules are defined in the faces-config.xml file. It should be located in “WEB-INF” directory. This application’s faces-config.xml file is shown below.

<?xml version="1.0"?><!DOCTYPE faces-config PUBLIC    "-//Sun Microsystems, Inc.//DTD JavaServer Faces Config 1.0//EN"    "http://java.sun.com/dtd/web-facesconfig_1_0.dtd"><faces-config>    <navigation-rule>        <from-view-id>/pages/index.jsp</from-view-id>        <navigation-case>            <from-outcome>login</from-outcome>            <to-view-id>/pages/welcome.jsp</to-view-id>        </navigation-case>    </navigation-rule>            <managed-bean>        <managed-bean-name>user</managed-bean-name>        <managed-bean-class>onlyfun.caterpillar.UserBean</managed-bean-class>        <managed-bean-scope>session</managed-bean-scope>    </managed-bean></faces-config>


See the <from-view-id>, it’s defined as “/pages/index.jsp”. It tells FacesServlet that while there’s a request from “/pages/index.jsp” with an action attribute “login”, defined in <from-outcome>, it should be navigated to “/pages/welcome.jsp”, defined in <to-view-id>.

You also see the <managed-bean>. It defines the bean used by the JSF pages. The bean is in session scope, defined in <managed-bean-scope>. The UserBean is defined like this.

package onlyfun.caterpillar;public class UserBean {    private String name;        public void setName(String name) {        this.name = name;    }        public String getName() {        return name;    }}


The bean’s name “user” is defined in <managed-bean-name>. You could use #{user.name} to get the bean’s name property in JSF pages. Just as you see in the “pages/index.jsp”.

OK! We still have one page “pages/welcome.jsp” not written. It’s shown below.

<%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun.com/jsf/core" prefix="f" %><%@ taglib uri="http://java.sun.com/jsf/html" prefix="h" %><html><head><title>JSF Demo</title></head><body>    <f:view>        <h3>Hello! <h:outputText value="#{user.name}"/>!</h3>        <h3>Welcome your JavaServer Faces!</h3>    </f:view></body></html>


The <h:outputText> is used to output the name property of user bean.

Now startup your Servlet container and point your browser to the application’s URL, such as http://localhost:8080/jsfDemo/pages/index.faces. The “pages/index.jsp” would be loaded first. After you enter your name in the text field of “pages/index.jsp” and click the submit button, your name would be stored in the user bean’s name property. Then the FacesServlet navigate from “pages/index.jsp” to “pages/welcome.jsp” according to navigation rules in the faces-config.xml. The “pages/welcome.jsp” would get the name property from the user bean and show it in the page.

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