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Android Loader机制

标签: androidloaderloader机制异步加载
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Android应用Loaders全面详解及源码浅析

加载器

LoaderCursor

public class LoaderCursor extends Activity {

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);

        FragmentManager fm = getFragmentManager();

        // Create the list fragment and add it as our sole content.
        if (fm.findFragmentById(android.R.id.content) == null) {
            CursorLoaderListFragment list = new CursorLoaderListFragment();
            fm.beginTransaction().add(android.R.id.content, list).commit();
        }
    }


    public static class CursorLoaderListFragment extends ListFragment
            implements OnQueryTextListener, OnCloseListener,
            LoaderManager.LoaderCallbacks<Cursor> {

        // This is the Adapter being used to display the list's data.
        SimpleCursorAdapter mAdapter;

        // The SearchView for doing filtering.
        SearchView mSearchView;

        // If non-null, this is the current filter the user has provided.
        String mCurFilter;

        @Override public void onActivityCreated(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
            super.onActivityCreated(savedInstanceState);

            // Give some text to display if there is no data.  In a real
            // application this would come from a resource.
            setEmptyText("No phone numbers");

            // We have a menu item to show in action bar.
            setHasOptionsMenu(true);

            // Create an empty adapter we will use to display the loaded data.
            mAdapter = new SimpleCursorAdapter(getActivity(),
                    android.R.layout.simple_list_item_2, null,
                    new String[] { Contacts.DISPLAY_NAME, Contacts.CONTACT_STATUS },
                    new int[] { android.R.id.text1, android.R.id.text2 }, 0);
            setListAdapter(mAdapter);

            // Start out with a progress indicator.
            setListShown(false);

            // Prepare the loader.  Either re-connect with an existing one,
            // or start a new one.
            getLoaderManager().initLoader(0, null, this);
        }

        public static class MySearchView extends SearchView {
            public MySearchView(Context context) {
                super(context);
            }

            // The normal SearchView doesn't clear its search text when
            // collapsed, so we will do this for it.
            @Override
            public void onActionViewCollapsed() {
                setQuery("", false);
                super.onActionViewCollapsed();
            }
        }

        @Override public void onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu, MenuInflater inflater) {
            // Place an action bar item for searching.
            MenuItem item = menu.add("Search");
            item.setIcon(android.R.drawable.ic_menu_search);
            item.setShowAsAction(MenuItem.SHOW_AS_ACTION_IF_ROOM
                    | MenuItem.SHOW_AS_ACTION_COLLAPSE_ACTION_VIEW);
            mSearchView = new MySearchView(getActivity());
            mSearchView.setOnQueryTextListener(this);
            mSearchView.setOnCloseListener(this);
            mSearchView.setIconifiedByDefault(true);
            item.setActionView(mSearchView);
        }

        public boolean onQueryTextChange(String newText) {
            // Called when the action bar search text has changed.  Update
            // the search filter, and restart the loader to do a new query
            // with this filter.
            String newFilter = !TextUtils.isEmpty(newText) ? newText : null;
            // Don't do anything if the filter hasn't actually changed.
            // Prevents restarting the loader when restoring state.
            if (mCurFilter == null && newFilter == null) {
                return true;
            }
            if (mCurFilter != null && mCurFilter.equals(newFilter)) {
                return true;
            }
            mCurFilter = newFilter;
            getLoaderManager().restartLoader(0, null, this);
            return true;
        }

        @Override public boolean onQueryTextSubmit(String query) {
            // Don't care about this.
            return true;
        }

        @Override
        public boolean onClose() {
            if (!TextUtils.isEmpty(mSearchView.getQuery())) {
                mSearchView.setQuery(null, true);
            }
            return true;
        }

        @Override public void onListItemClick(ListView l, View v, int position, long id) {
            // Insert desired behavior here.
            Log.i("FragmentComplexList", "Item clicked: " + id);
        }

        // These are the Contacts rows that we will retrieve.
        static final String[] CONTACTS_SUMMARY_PROJECTION = new String[] {
            Contacts._ID,
            Contacts.DISPLAY_NAME,
            Contacts.CONTACT_STATUS,
            Contacts.CONTACT_PRESENCE,
            Contacts.PHOTO_ID,
            Contacts.LOOKUP_KEY,
        };

        public Loader<Cursor> onCreateLoader(int id, Bundle args) {
            // This is called when a new Loader needs to be created.  This
            // sample only has one Loader, so we don't care about the ID.
            // First, pick the base URI to use depending on whether we are
            // currently filtering.
            Uri baseUri;
            if (mCurFilter != null) {
                baseUri = Uri.withAppendedPath(Contacts.CONTENT_FILTER_URI,
                        Uri.encode(mCurFilter));
            } else {
                baseUri = Contacts.CONTENT_URI;
            }

            // Now create and return a CursorLoader that will take care of
            // creating a Cursor for the data being displayed.
            String select = "((" + Contacts.DISPLAY_NAME + " NOTNULL) AND ("
                    + Contacts.HAS_PHONE_NUMBER + "=1) AND ("
                    + Contacts.DISPLAY_NAME + " != '' ))";
            return new CursorLoader(getActivity(), baseUri,
                    CONTACTS_SUMMARY_PROJECTION, select, null,
                    Contacts.DISPLAY_NAME + " COLLATE LOCALIZED ASC");
        }

        public void onLoadFinished(Loader<Cursor> loader, Cursor data) {
            // Swap the new cursor in.  (The framework will take care of closing the
            // old cursor once we return.)
            mAdapter.swapCursor(data);

            // The list should now be shown.
            if (isResumed()) {
                setListShown(true);
            } else {
                setListShownNoAnimation(true);
            }
        }

        public void onLoaderReset(Loader<Cursor> loader) {
            // This is called when the last Cursor provided to onLoadFinished()
            // above is about to be closed.  We need to make sure we are no
            // longer using it.
            mAdapter.swapCursor(null);
        }
    }

}

LoaderThrottle

public class LoaderThrottle extends Activity {
    // Debugging.
    static final String TAG = "LoaderThrottle";

    /**
     * The authority we use to get to our sample provider.
     */
    public static final String AUTHORITY = "com.example.android.apis.app.LoaderThrottle";

    /**
     * Definition of the contract for the main table of our provider.
     */
    public static final class MainTable implements BaseColumns {

        // This class cannot be instantiated
        private MainTable() {}

        /**
         * The table name offered by this provider
         */
        public static final String TABLE_NAME = "main";

        /**
         * The content:// style URL for this table
         */
        public static final Uri CONTENT_URI =  Uri.parse("content://" + AUTHORITY + "/main");

        /**
         * The content URI base for a single row of data. Callers must
         * append a numeric row id to this Uri to retrieve a row
         */
        public static final Uri CONTENT_ID_URI_BASE
                = Uri.parse("content://" + AUTHORITY + "/main/");

        /**
         * The MIME type of {@link #CONTENT_URI}.
         */
        public static final String CONTENT_TYPE
                = "vnd.android.cursor.dir/vnd.example.api-demos-throttle";

        /**
         * The MIME type of a {@link #CONTENT_URI} sub-directory of a single row.
         */
        public static final String CONTENT_ITEM_TYPE
                = "vnd.android.cursor.item/vnd.example.api-demos-throttle";
        /**
         * The default sort order for this table
         */
        public static final String DEFAULT_SORT_ORDER = "data COLLATE LOCALIZED ASC";

        /**
         * Column name for the single column holding our data.
         * <P>Type: TEXT</P>
         */
        public static final String COLUMN_NAME_DATA = "data";
    }

    /**
     * This class helps open, create, and upgrade the database file.
     */
   static class DatabaseHelper extends SQLiteOpenHelper {

       private static final String DATABASE_NAME = "loader_throttle.db";
       private static final int DATABASE_VERSION = 2;

       DatabaseHelper(Context context) {

           // calls the super constructor, requesting the default cursor factory.
           super(context, DATABASE_NAME, null, DATABASE_VERSION);
       }

       /**
        *
        * Creates the underlying database with table name and column names taken from the
        * NotePad class.
        */
       @Override
       public void onCreate(SQLiteDatabase db) {
           db.execSQL("CREATE TABLE " + MainTable.TABLE_NAME + " ("
                   + MainTable._ID + " INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,"
                   + MainTable.COLUMN_NAME_DATA + " TEXT"
                   + ");");
       }

       /**
        *
        * Demonstrates that the provider must consider what happens when the
        * underlying datastore is changed. In this sample, the database is upgraded the database
        * by destroying the existing data.
        * A real application should upgrade the database in place.
        */
       @Override
       public void onUpgrade(SQLiteDatabase db, int oldVersion, int newVersion) {

           // Logs that the database is being upgraded
           Log.w(TAG, "Upgrading database from version " + oldVersion + " to "
                   + newVersion + ", which will destroy all old data");

           // Kills the table and existing data
           db.execSQL("DROP TABLE IF EXISTS notes");

           // Recreates the database with a new version
           onCreate(db);
       }
   }

    /**
     * A very simple implementation of a content provider.
     */
    public static class SimpleProvider extends ContentProvider {
        // A projection map used to select columns from the database
        private final HashMap<String, String> mNotesProjectionMap;
        // Uri matcher to decode incoming URIs.
        private final UriMatcher mUriMatcher;

        // The incoming URI matches the main table URI pattern
        private static final int MAIN = 1;
        // The incoming URI matches the main table row ID URI pattern
        private static final int MAIN_ID = 2;

        // Handle to a new DatabaseHelper.
        private DatabaseHelper mOpenHelper;

        /**
         * Global provider initialization.
         */
        public SimpleProvider() {
            // Create and initialize URI matcher.
            mUriMatcher = new UriMatcher(UriMatcher.NO_MATCH);
            mUriMatcher.addURI(AUTHORITY, MainTable.TABLE_NAME, MAIN);
            mUriMatcher.addURI(AUTHORITY, MainTable.TABLE_NAME + "/#", MAIN_ID);

            // Create and initialize projection map for all columns.  This is
            // simply an identity mapping.
            mNotesProjectionMap = new HashMap<String, String>();
            mNotesProjectionMap.put(MainTable._ID, MainTable._ID);
            mNotesProjectionMap.put(MainTable.COLUMN_NAME_DATA, MainTable.COLUMN_NAME_DATA);
        }

        /**
         * Perform provider creation.
         */
        @Override
        public boolean onCreate() {
            mOpenHelper = new DatabaseHelper(getContext());
            // Assumes that any failures will be reported by a thrown exception.
            return true;
        }

        /**
         * Handle incoming queries.
         */
        @Override
        public Cursor query(Uri uri, String[] projection, String selection,
                String[] selectionArgs, String sortOrder) {

            // Constructs a new query builder and sets its table name
            SQLiteQueryBuilder qb = new SQLiteQueryBuilder();
            qb.setTables(MainTable.TABLE_NAME);

            switch (mUriMatcher.match(uri)) {
                case MAIN:
                    // If the incoming URI is for main table.
                    qb.setProjectionMap(mNotesProjectionMap);
                    break;

                case MAIN_ID:
                    // The incoming URI is for a single row.
                    qb.setProjectionMap(mNotesProjectionMap);
                    qb.appendWhere(MainTable._ID + "=?");
                    selectionArgs = DatabaseUtils.appendSelectionArgs(selectionArgs,
                            new String[] { uri.getLastPathSegment() });
                    break;

                default:
                    throw new IllegalArgumentException("Unknown URI " + uri);
            }


            if (TextUtils.isEmpty(sortOrder)) {
                sortOrder = MainTable.DEFAULT_SORT_ORDER;
            }

            SQLiteDatabase db = mOpenHelper.getReadableDatabase();

            Cursor c = qb.query(db, projection, selection, selectionArgs,
                    null /* no group */, null /* no filter */, sortOrder);

            c.setNotificationUri(getContext().getContentResolver(), uri);
            return c;
        }

        /**
         * Return the MIME type for an known URI in the provider.
         */
        @Override
        public String getType(Uri uri) {
            switch (mUriMatcher.match(uri)) {
                case MAIN:
                    return MainTable.CONTENT_TYPE;
                case MAIN_ID:
                    return MainTable.CONTENT_ITEM_TYPE;
                default:
                    throw new IllegalArgumentException("Unknown URI " + uri);
            }
        }

        /**
         * Handler inserting new data.
         */
        @Override
        public Uri insert(Uri uri, ContentValues initialValues) {
            if (mUriMatcher.match(uri) != MAIN) {
                // Can only insert into to main URI.
                throw new IllegalArgumentException("Unknown URI " + uri);
            }

            ContentValues values;

            if (initialValues != null) {
                values = new ContentValues(initialValues);
            } else {
                values = new ContentValues();
            }

            if (values.containsKey(MainTable.COLUMN_NAME_DATA) == false) {
                values.put(MainTable.COLUMN_NAME_DATA, "");
            }

            SQLiteDatabase db = mOpenHelper.getWritableDatabase();

            long rowId = db.insert(MainTable.TABLE_NAME, null, values);

            // If the insert succeeded, the row ID exists.
            if (rowId > 0) {
                Uri noteUri = ContentUris.withAppendedId(MainTable.CONTENT_ID_URI_BASE, rowId);
                getContext().getContentResolver().notifyChange(noteUri, null);
                return noteUri;
            }

            throw new SQLException("Failed to insert row into " + uri);
        }

        /**
         * Handle deleting data.
         */
        @Override
        public int delete(Uri uri, String where, String[] whereArgs) {
            SQLiteDatabase db = mOpenHelper.getWritableDatabase();
            String finalWhere;

            int count;

            switch (mUriMatcher.match(uri)) {
                case MAIN:
                    // If URI is main table, delete uses incoming where clause and args.
                    count = db.delete(MainTable.TABLE_NAME, where, whereArgs);
                    break;

                    // If the incoming URI matches a single note ID, does the delete based on the
                    // incoming data, but modifies the where clause to restrict it to the
                    // particular note ID.
                case MAIN_ID:
                    // If URI is for a particular row ID, delete is based on incoming
                    // data but modified to restrict to the given ID.
                    finalWhere = DatabaseUtils.concatenateWhere(
                            MainTable._ID + " = " + ContentUris.parseId(uri), where);
                    count = db.delete(MainTable.TABLE_NAME, finalWhere, whereArgs);
                    break;

                default:
                    throw new IllegalArgumentException("Unknown URI " + uri);
            }

            getContext().getContentResolver().notifyChange(uri, null);

            return count;
        }

        /**
         * Handle updating data.
         */
        @Override
        public int update(Uri uri, ContentValues values, String where, String[] whereArgs) {
            SQLiteDatabase db = mOpenHelper.getWritableDatabase();
            int count;
            String finalWhere;

            switch (mUriMatcher.match(uri)) {
                case MAIN:
                    // If URI is main table, update uses incoming where clause and args.
                    count = db.update(MainTable.TABLE_NAME, values, where, whereArgs);
                    break;

                case MAIN_ID:
                    // If URI is for a particular row ID, update is based on incoming
                    // data but modified to restrict to the given ID.
                    finalWhere = DatabaseUtils.concatenateWhere(
                            MainTable._ID + " = " + ContentUris.parseId(uri), where);
                    count = db.update(MainTable.TABLE_NAME, values, finalWhere, whereArgs);
                    break;

                default:
                    throw new IllegalArgumentException("Unknown URI " + uri);
            }

            getContext().getContentResolver().notifyChange(uri, null);

            return count;
        }
    }

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);

        FragmentManager fm = getFragmentManager();

        // Create the list fragment and add it as our sole content.
        if (fm.findFragmentById(android.R.id.content) == null) {
            ThrottledLoaderListFragment list = new ThrottledLoaderListFragment();
            fm.beginTransaction().add(android.R.id.content, list).commit();
        }
    }

    public static class ThrottledLoaderListFragment extends ListFragment
            implements LoaderManager.LoaderCallbacks<Cursor> {

        // Menu identifiers
        static final int POPULATE_ID = Menu.FIRST;
        static final int CLEAR_ID = Menu.FIRST+1;

        // This is the Adapter being used to display the list's data.
        SimpleCursorAdapter mAdapter;

        // If non-null, this is the current filter the user has provided.
        String mCurFilter;

        // Task we have running to populate the database.
        AsyncTask<Void, Void, Void> mPopulatingTask;

        @Override public void onActivityCreated(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
            super.onActivityCreated(savedInstanceState);

            setEmptyText("No data.  Select 'Populate' to fill with data from Z to A at a rate of 4 per second.");
            setHasOptionsMenu(true);

            // Create an empty adapter we will use to display the loaded data.
            mAdapter = new SimpleCursorAdapter(getActivity(),
                    android.R.layout.simple_list_item_1, null,
                    new String[] { MainTable.COLUMN_NAME_DATA },
                    new int[] { android.R.id.text1 }, 0);
            setListAdapter(mAdapter);

            // Start out with a progress indicator.
            setListShown(false);

            // Prepare the loader.  Either re-connect with an existing one,
            // or start a new one.
            getLoaderManager().initLoader(0, null, this);
        }

        @Override public void onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu, MenuInflater inflater) {
            menu.add(Menu.NONE, POPULATE_ID, 0, "Populate")
                    .setShowAsAction(MenuItem.SHOW_AS_ACTION_IF_ROOM);
            menu.add(Menu.NONE, CLEAR_ID, 0, "Clear")
                    .setShowAsAction(MenuItem.SHOW_AS_ACTION_IF_ROOM);
        }

        @Override public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) {
            final ContentResolver cr = getActivity().getContentResolver();

            switch (item.getItemId()) {
                case POPULATE_ID:
                    if (mPopulatingTask != null) {
                        mPopulatingTask.cancel(false);
                    }
                    mPopulatingTask = new AsyncTask<Void, Void, Void>() {
                        @Override protected Void doInBackground(Void... params) {
                            for (char c='Z'; c>='A'; c--) {
                                if (isCancelled()) {
                                    break;
                                }
                                StringBuilder builder = new StringBuilder("Data ");
                                builder.append(c);
                                ContentValues values = new ContentValues();
                                values.put(MainTable.COLUMN_NAME_DATA, builder.toString());
                                cr.insert(MainTable.CONTENT_URI, values);
                                // Wait a bit between each insert.
                                try {
                                    Thread.sleep(250);
                                } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                                }
                            }
                            return null;
                        }
                    };
                    mPopulatingTask.executeOnExecutor(
                            AsyncTask.THREAD_POOL_EXECUTOR, (Void[])null);
                    return true;

                case CLEAR_ID:
                    if (mPopulatingTask != null) {
                        mPopulatingTask.cancel(false);
                        mPopulatingTask = null;
                    }
                    AsyncTask<Void, Void, Void> task = new AsyncTask<Void, Void, Void>() {
                        @Override protected Void doInBackground(Void... params) {
                            cr.delete(MainTable.CONTENT_URI, null, null);
                            return null;
                        }
                    };
                    task.execute((Void[])null);
                    return true;

                default:
                    return super.onOptionsItemSelected(item);
            }
        }

        @Override public void onListItemClick(ListView l, View v, int position, long id) {
            // Insert desired behavior here.
            Log.i(TAG, "Item clicked: " + id);
        }

        // These are the rows that we will retrieve.
        static final String[] PROJECTION = new String[] {
            MainTable._ID,
            MainTable.COLUMN_NAME_DATA,
        };

        public Loader<Cursor> onCreateLoader(int id, Bundle args) {
            CursorLoader cl = new CursorLoader(getActivity(), MainTable.CONTENT_URI,
                    PROJECTION, null, null, null);
            cl.setUpdateThrottle(2000); // update at most every 2 seconds.
            return cl;
        }

        public void onLoadFinished(Loader<Cursor> loader, Cursor data) {
            mAdapter.swapCursor(data);

            // The list should now be shown.
            if (isResumed()) {
                setListShown(true);
            } else {
                setListShownNoAnimation(true);
            }
        }

        public void onLoaderReset(Loader<Cursor> loader) {
            mAdapter.swapCursor(null);
        }
    }
}
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