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this 指针

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///方法涉及两个对象时,要使用this指针
///一般来说,所有的类方法都将this指针设置为调用它的对象的地址。
///每个成员函数(包括构造函数和析构函数)都有一个this指针,this指针
///指向调用对象,若方法需要引用整个调用对象,则可使用表达式*this,
///现在可以将*this作为调用对象的别名。
/*
const Stock & Stock::topval(const Stock & s)const
{
    if(s.total_val > total_val)
        return s;
    else
        return *this;
}
*/
///返回类型为引用意味着返回的是调用对象本身,而不是副本。

///stock20.h
#ifndef STOCK20_H_INCLUDED
#define STOCK20_H_INCLUDED

#include<string>
class Stock
{
private:
    std::string company;
    int shares;
    double share_val;
    double total_val;
    void set_tot()
    {
        total_val = shares * share_val;
    }
public:
    Stock();
    Stock(const std::string & co, long n = 0,double pr = 0.0);
    ~Stock();
    void buy(long num, double price);
    void sell(long num, double price);
    void update(double price);
    void show() const;
    const Stock & topval(const Stock & s) const;
};

#endif // STOCK20_H_INCLUDED
///stock20.cpp
#include <iostream>
#include"stock20.h"
using namespace std;

Stock::Stock()
{

    company = "no name";
    shares = 0;
    share_val = 0.0;
    total_val = 0.0;
}
Stock::Stock(const string & co, long n, double pr)
{

    company = co;
     if(n<0)
    {
        cout <<"Number of shares can't be negative;"
            << company << "shares set to 0.\n";
        shares = 0;
    }
    else
        shares = n;
    share_val = pr;
    set_tot();
}
///class destructor
Stock::~Stock()
{
}
///other methods
void Stock::buy(long num, double price)
{
    if(num<0)
    {
        cout <<"Number of shares purchased can't be negative;"
            << "Transaction is aborted .\n";
    }
    else
    {
        shares += num;
        share_val = price;
        set_tot();
    }
}
void Stock::sell(long num, double price)
{
    if(num<0)
    {
        cout << "Numbers of shares sold can't be negative;"
             << "Transaction is aborted.\n";
    }
    else if (num > shares)
    {
        cout <<"You can't sell more than you have; "
             << "Transaction is aborted.\n";
    }
    else
    {
        shares -= num;
        share_val = price;
        set_tot();
    }
}
void Stock::update(double price)
{
    share_val = price;
    set_tot();
}
/*void Stock::show()
{
    cout <<"Company: " << company
        << " Shares: " << shares << "\n"
        << "Shares Price: $ " << share_val
        << " Total Worth: $ " <<total_val
        << endl;
}*/
void Stock::show() const///
{
    using std::cout;
    using std::ios_base;
    ///set format to #.###
    ios_base::fmtflags orig =
        cout.setf(ios_base::fixed, ios_base::floatfield);
    std::streamsize prec = cout.precision(3);
    cout <<"Company: " << company
        << " Shares: " << shares << "\n"
        << "Shares Price: $ " << share_val;
    ///set format to #.##
    cout.precision(2);
    cout << " Total Worth: $ " <<total_val<< endl;
    ///restore original format
    cout.setf(orig, ios_base::floatfield);
    cout.precision(prec);
}
const Stock & Stock::topval(const Stock & s)const
{
    if(s.total_val > total_val)
        return s;
    else
        return *this;
}

///usestock20.cpp
#include<iostream>
#include"stock20.h"

const int STKS = 4;
int main()
{
    Stock stocks[STKS] =
    {
        Stock("NanoSmart", 12, 20.00);
        Stock("Boffo Objects", 200, 2.0);
        Stock("Moonlight", 130, 3.25);
        Stock("oppa", 183,26.0);
    };
    cout << "Stock holdings:\n";
    int st;
    for(st = 0; st < STKS; st++)
        stocks[st].show();
    const Stock * top = &stocks[0];
    for(st=1; st<STKS; st++)
        top = &top->topval(stocks[st]);
    cout << "\nMost valuable holding:\n";
    top->show();
    return 0;

}


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