图解SQL子查询实例

原创 2016年08月30日 23:31:52

1 创建示例表

先创建示例表;

-------------------------
-- Create Customers table
-------------------------
CREATE TABLE Customers
(
  cust_id      char(10)  NOT NULL ,
  cust_name    char(50)  NOT NULL ,
  cust_address char(50)  NULL ,
  cust_city    char(50)  NULL ,
  cust_state   char(5)   NULL ,
  cust_zip     char(10)  NULL ,
  cust_country char(50)  NULL ,
  cust_contact char(50)  NULL ,
  cust_email   char(255) NULL 
);

--------------------------
-- Create OrderItems table
--------------------------
CREATE TABLE OrderItems
(
  order_num  int          NOT NULL ,
  order_item int          NOT NULL ,
  prod_id    char(10)     NOT NULL ,
  quantity   int          NOT NULL ,
  item_price decimal(8,2) NOT NULL 
);

----------------------
-- Create Orders table
----------------------
CREATE TABLE Orders
(
  order_num  int      NOT NULL ,
  order_date datetime NOT NULL ,
  cust_id    char(10) NOT NULL 
);

------------------------
-- Create Products table
------------------------
CREATE TABLE Products
(
  prod_id    char(10)      NOT NULL ,
  vend_id    char(10)      NOT NULL ,
  prod_name  char(255)     NOT NULL ,
  prod_price decimal(8,2)  NOT NULL ,
  prod_desc  varchar(1000) NULL 
);

-----------------------
-- Create Vendors table
-----------------------
CREATE TABLE Vendors
(
  vend_id      char(10) NOT NULL ,
  vend_name    char(50) NOT NULL ,
  vend_address char(50) NULL ,
  vend_city    char(50) NULL ,
  vend_state   char(5)  NULL ,
  vend_zip     char(10) NULL ,
  vend_country char(50) NULL 
);

----------------------
-- Define primary keys
----------------------
ALTER TABLE Customers WITH NOCHECK ADD CONSTRAINT PK_Customers PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED (cust_id);
ALTER TABLE OrderItems WITH NOCHECK ADD CONSTRAINT PK_OrderItems PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED (order_num, order_item);
ALTER TABLE Orders WITH NOCHECK ADD CONSTRAINT PK_Orders PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED (order_num);
ALTER TABLE Products WITH NOCHECK ADD CONSTRAINT PK_Products PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED (prod_id);
ALTER TABLE Vendors WITH NOCHECK ADD CONSTRAINT PK_Vendors PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED (vend_id);

----------------------
-- Define foreign keys
----------------------
ALTER TABLE OrderItems ADD
CONSTRAINT FK_OrderItems_Orders FOREIGN KEY (order_num) REFERENCES Orders (order_num),
CONSTRAINT FK_OrderItems_Products FOREIGN KEY (prod_id) REFERENCES Products (prod_id);
ALTER TABLE Orders ADD 
CONSTRAINT FK_Orders_Customers FOREIGN KEY (cust_id) REFERENCES Customers (cust_id);
ALTER TABLE Products ADD
CONSTRAINT FK_Products_Vendors FOREIGN KEY (vend_id) REFERENCES Vendors (vend_id);

---------------------------
-- Populate Customers table
---------------------------
INSERT INTO Customers(cust_id, cust_name, cust_address, cust_city, cust_state, cust_zip, cust_country, cust_contact, cust_email)
VALUES('1000000001', 'Village Toys', '200 Maple Lane', 'Detroit', 'MI', '44444', 'USA', 'John Smith', 'sales@villagetoys.com');
INSERT INTO Customers(cust_id, cust_name, cust_address, cust_city, cust_state, cust_zip, cust_country, cust_contact)
VALUES('1000000002', 'Kids Place', '333 South Lake Drive', 'Columbus', 'OH', '43333', 'USA', 'Michelle Green');
INSERT INTO Customers(cust_id, cust_name, cust_address, cust_city, cust_state, cust_zip, cust_country, cust_contact, cust_email)
VALUES('1000000003', 'Fun4All', '1 Sunny Place', 'Muncie', 'IN', '42222', 'USA', 'Jim Jones', 'jjones@fun4all.com');
INSERT INTO Customers(cust_id, cust_name, cust_address, cust_city, cust_state, cust_zip, cust_country, cust_contact, cust_email)
VALUES('1000000004', 'Fun4All', '829 Riverside Drive', 'Phoenix', 'AZ', '88888', 'USA', 'Denise L. Stephens', 'dstephens@fun4all.com');
INSERT INTO Customers(cust_id, cust_name, cust_address, cust_city, cust_state, cust_zip, cust_country, cust_contact)
VALUES('1000000005', 'The Toy Store', '4545 53rd Street', 'Chicago', 'IL', '54545', 'USA', 'Kim Howard');

-------------------------
-- Populate Vendors table
-------------------------
INSERT INTO Vendors(vend_id, vend_name, vend_address, vend_city, vend_state, vend_zip, vend_country)
VALUES('BRS01','Bears R Us','123 Main Street','Bear Town','MI','44444', 'USA');
INSERT INTO Vendors(vend_id, vend_name, vend_address, vend_city, vend_state, vend_zip, vend_country)
VALUES('BRE02','Bear Emporium','500 Park Street','Anytown','OH','44333', 'USA');
INSERT INTO Vendors(vend_id, vend_name, vend_address, vend_city, vend_state, vend_zip, vend_country)
VALUES('DLL01','Doll House Inc.','555 High Street','Dollsville','CA','99999', 'USA');
INSERT INTO Vendors(vend_id, vend_name, vend_address, vend_city, vend_state, vend_zip, vend_country)
VALUES('FRB01','Furball Inc.','1000 5th Avenue','New York','NY','11111', 'USA');
INSERT INTO Vendors(vend_id, vend_name, vend_address, vend_city, vend_state, vend_zip, vend_country)
VALUES('FNG01','Fun and Games','42 Galaxy Road','London', NULL,'N16 6PS', 'England');
INSERT INTO Vendors(vend_id, vend_name, vend_address, vend_city, vend_state, vend_zip, vend_country)
VALUES('JTS01','Jouets et ours','1 Rue Amusement','Paris', NULL,'45678', 'France');

--------------------------
-- Populate Products table
--------------------------
INSERT INTO Products(prod_id, vend_id, prod_name, prod_price, prod_desc)
VALUES('BR01', 'BRS01', '8 inch teddy bear', 5.99, '8 inch teddy bear, comes with cap and jacket');
INSERT INTO Products(prod_id, vend_id, prod_name, prod_price, prod_desc)
VALUES('BR02', 'BRS01', '12 inch teddy bear', 8.99, '12 inch teddy bear, comes with cap and jacket');
INSERT INTO Products(prod_id, vend_id, prod_name, prod_price, prod_desc)
VALUES('BR03', 'BRS01', '18 inch teddy bear', 11.99, '18 inch teddy bear, comes with cap and jacket');
INSERT INTO Products(prod_id, vend_id, prod_name, prod_price, prod_desc)
VALUES('BNBG01', 'DLL01', 'Fish bean bag toy', 3.49, 'Fish bean bag toy, complete with bean bag worms with which to feed it');
INSERT INTO Products(prod_id, vend_id, prod_name, prod_price, prod_desc)
VALUES('BNBG02', 'DLL01', 'Bird bean bag toy', 3.49, 'Bird bean bag toy, eggs are not included');
INSERT INTO Products(prod_id, vend_id, prod_name, prod_price, prod_desc)
VALUES('BNBG03', 'DLL01', 'Rabbit bean bag toy', 3.49, 'Rabbit bean bag toy, comes with bean bag carrots');
INSERT INTO Products(prod_id, vend_id, prod_name, prod_price, prod_desc)
VALUES('RGAN01', 'DLL01', 'Raggedy Ann', 4.99, '18 inch Raggedy Ann doll');
INSERT INTO Products(prod_id, vend_id, prod_name, prod_price, prod_desc)
VALUES('RYL01', 'FNG01', 'King doll', 9.49, '12 inch king doll with royal garments and crown');
INSERT INTO Products(prod_id, vend_id, prod_name, prod_price, prod_desc)
VALUES('RYL02', 'FNG01', 'Queen doll', 9.49, '12 inch queen doll with royal garments and crown');

------------------------
-- Populate Orders table
------------------------
INSERT INTO Orders(order_num, order_date, cust_id)
VALUES(20005, '2012-05-01', '1000000001');
INSERT INTO Orders(order_num, order_date, cust_id)
VALUES(20006, '2012-01-12', '1000000003');
INSERT INTO Orders(order_num, order_date, cust_id)
VALUES(20007, '2012-01-30', '1000000004');
INSERT INTO Orders(order_num, order_date, cust_id)
VALUES(20008, '2012-02-03', '1000000005');
INSERT INTO Orders(order_num, order_date, cust_id)
VALUES(20009, '2012-02-08', '1000000001');

----------------------------
-- Populate OrderItems table
----------------------------
INSERT INTO OrderItems(order_num, order_item, prod_id, quantity, item_price)
VALUES(20005, 1, 'BR01', 100, 5.49);
INSERT INTO OrderItems(order_num, order_item, prod_id, quantity, item_price)
VALUES(20005, 2, 'BR03', 100, 10.99);
INSERT INTO OrderItems(order_num, order_item, prod_id, quantity, item_price)
VALUES(20006, 1, 'BR01', 20, 5.99);
INSERT INTO OrderItems(order_num, order_item, prod_id, quantity, item_price)
VALUES(20006, 2, 'BR02', 10, 8.99);
INSERT INTO OrderItems(order_num, order_item, prod_id, quantity, item_price)
VALUES(20006, 3, 'BR03', 10, 11.99);
INSERT INTO OrderItems(order_num, order_item, prod_id, quantity, item_price)
VALUES(20007, 1, 'BR03', 50, 11.49);
INSERT INTO OrderItems(order_num, order_item, prod_id, quantity, item_price)
VALUES(20007, 2, 'BNBG01', 100, 2.99);
INSERT INTO OrderItems(order_num, order_item, prod_id, quantity, item_price)
VALUES(20007, 3, 'BNBG02', 100, 2.99);
INSERT INTO OrderItems(order_num, order_item, prod_id, quantity, item_price)
VALUES(20007, 4, 'BNBG03', 100, 2.99);
INSERT INTO OrderItems(order_num, order_item, prod_id, quantity, item_price)
VALUES(20007, 5, 'RGAN01', 50, 4.49);
INSERT INTO OrderItems(order_num, order_item, prod_id, quantity, item_price)
VALUES(20008, 1, 'RGAN01', 5, 4.99);
INSERT INTO OrderItems(order_num, order_item, prod_id, quantity, item_price)
VALUES(20008, 2, 'BR03', 5, 11.99);
INSERT INTO OrderItems(order_num, order_item, prod_id, quantity, item_price)
VALUES(20008, 3, 'BNBG01', 10, 3.49);
INSERT INTO OrderItems(order_num, order_item, prod_id, quantity, item_price)
VALUES(20008, 4, 'BNBG02', 10, 3.49);
INSERT INTO OrderItems(order_num, order_item, prod_id, quantity, item_price)
VALUES(20008, 5, 'BNBG03', 10, 3.49);
INSERT INTO OrderItems(order_num, order_item, prod_id, quantity, item_price)
VALUES(20009, 1, 'BNBG01', 250, 2.49);
INSERT INTO OrderItems(order_num, order_item, prod_id, quantity, item_price)
VALUES(20009, 2, 'BNBG02', 250, 2.49);
INSERT INTO OrderItems(order_num, order_item, prod_id, quantity, item_price)
VALUES(20009, 3, 'BNBG03', 250, 2.49);


示例表的创建和插入数据脚本可从此页底部下载;

http://www.forta.com/books/0672336073/

以下是Customers和Orders表的情况;


2 独立单值子查询(独立标量子查询)

         子查询返回的是单个值,而不是数据集

select * 
  from customers as C
  where C.cust_id=(
  select O.cust_id from Orders as O where O.order_num = 20008
 );



注:使用单值独立子查询时,一定要保证子查询返回的是单个值,而不是数据集;
       若返回的是数据集,则会出现如下状况:

3 独立多值子查询

         子查询返回的是数据集

select * 
 from customers as C
 where C.cust_id IN(
  select O.cust_id from Orders as O where O.order_num between 20005 and 20007
 ); 


4 相关子查询

      相关子查询最基本的执行逻辑是:将外部表中的 “每一行” 逐行代入到子查询中   (理解相关子查询的关键)

select * 
  from Customers as C
  where exists (
     select * from  Orders as O
     where O.cust_id=C.cust_id and (O.order_num between 20005 and 20008)
 ); 


5 作为计算字段使用子查询

统计顾客名字,顾客所在的州,顾客的订单数;

select cust_name,cust_state,
(select COUNT(*) from Orders where Orders.cust_id=Customers.cust_id) as Orders
from Customers
order by cust_name;

第三列是子查询,统计每个顾客的订单数;

第三列的子查询单独执行情况如下;

select COUNT(*) from Orders where cust_id='1000000001';


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