二叉树的一些操作

原创 2007年10月03日 02:22:00
以下是二叉树的一些操作,在vc6.0下编译通过!运行时要建立一个data.txt,做为建立二叉树的初始数据。若节点的左或右孩子为空,用#代替左或右孩子。

/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *Head file of the BTree.cpp
 *
 *Author: Tao Yunxin
 *History: 2007/04/02
 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------*/ 

#include "stdafx.h"
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

#include <fstream>
#include <iomanip>
#include <math.h>
#include <malloc.h>
#include <time.h>
#include <assert.h>

const int MAXSIZE = 10;

typedef struct BTNode
{
 char data;
 struct BTNode *lchild;
 struct BTNode *rchild;
}*pBTree;

ifstream in("data.txt");

 /*-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *Function definition of BTree.cpp
 *
 *Author: Tao Yunxin
 *History: 2007/04/02
 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
#include "Head.h"

//Pre order create the bi-tree
bool CreateBiTree(pBTree *T) //or BTNode **T ---is also right!
{
 pBTree p;
 char ch;
 in>>ch; //read file

 if (ch == '#')
 {
  p = NULL;
 }
 else
 {
  p = new BTNode;
  if (p == NULL)
  {
   cout<<"memory exhausted!"<<endl;
   exit(1);
  }
  p->data = ch;
  if ( !CreateBiTree( &(p->lchild) ) )
  {
   return false;
  }
  if ( !CreateBiTree( &(p->rchild) ) )
  {
   return false;
  }
 }

 *T = p; //lay the result in T rather than p
 return true;
}

//Any binary tree store in data[] according orderly, creating the binary tree from data[]
//comparing with pBTree *T, pBTree &T is simple and more understandable
void CreateFrArr(/*pBTree *T*/pBTree &T, char data[], int n, int i)
{
 pBTree p;

 if (i > n-1)
 {
  p = NULL;
 }
 else
 {
  if (data[i] == '#')
  {
   p = NULL;
  }
  else
  {
   p = new BTNode;
   if (p == NULL)
   {
    cout<<"memory exhausted!"<<endl;
    exit(1);
   }
   p->data = data[i];
   CreateFrArr( /*&*/p->lchild, data, n, 2*i+1 );
   CreateFrArr( /*&*/p->rchild, data, n, 2*i+2 );
  }
 }
 
 T = p; //*T = p;
}

//return the height of bi-tree
int Height(const pBTree p)
{
 if (p == NULL)
 {
  return 0;
 }
 else
 {
  int h;
  h = Height(p->lchild) > Height(p->rchild) ? Height(p->lchild) : Height(p->rchild);
  return h+1;
 }
}

//Calculating total number of node in binary tree
int NodeNum(const pBTree t)
{
 if (t == NULL)
 {
  return 0;
 }
 else
 {
  return NodeNum(t->lchild) + NodeNum(t->rchild) + 1;
 }
}

//Calculating number of node who has only a child
int OneChildNum(const pBTree t)
{
 int n = 0;

 if (t == NULL)
 {
  return 0;
 }
 //operator priority: first ==,then &&, last ||
 else if ( (t->lchild == NULL && t->rchild != NULL)
        || (t->lchild != NULL && t->rchild == NULL) )
 {
  n = 1;
 }

 return OneChildNum(t->lchild) + OneChildNum(t->rchild) + n;
}

//Calculating the leaf number of the binary tree
int LeafNum(const pBTree t)
{
 if (t == NULL)
 {
  return 0;
 }
 else if (t->lchild==NULL && t->rchild==NULL)
 {
  return 1;
 }
 else
 {
  return LeafNum(t->lchild) + LeafNum(t->rchild);
 }
}

//Pre order traverse the tree recursively
void PreOrder(const BTNode *p)
{
 if (p != NULL)
 {
  cout<<setw(2)<<p->data; //visiting the root node
  PreOrder(p->lchild); //visiting the left child tree
  PreOrder(p->rchild); //visiting the right child tree
 }
}

//In order traverse the tree recursively
void InOrder(const pBTree p)
{
 if (p != NULL)
 {
  InOrder(p->lchild);
  cout<<setw(2)<<p->data;
  InOrder(p->rchild);
 }
}

//Post order traverse the tree recursively
void PostOrder(const pBTree p)
{
 if (p != NULL)
 {
  PostOrder(p->lchild); 
  PostOrder(p->rchild);
  cout<<setw(2)<<p->data;
 }
}

//Pre order traverse the tree un-recursively
void PreOrderN(const pBTree t)
{
 pBTree stack[MAXSIZE], p;
 int top = -1;

 if (t != NULL)
 {
  top++;
  stack[top] = t;
  while (top > -1)
  {
   p = stack[top];
   top--;
   cout<<setw(2)<<p->data;

   if (p->rchild != NULL)
   {
    top++;
    stack[top] = p->rchild;
   }
   if (p->lchild != NULL)
   {
    top++;
    stack[top] = p->lchild;
   }
  }//end while
 }//end if
}

//In order traverse the tree un-recursively
void InOrderN(const pBTree t, int depth)
{
 pBTree *stack ; //depth = height+1
 stack = new pBTree[depth];
 pBTree p;
 int top = -1;

 if (t != NULL)
 {
  top++;
  stack[top] = t;

  while (top > -1)
  {
   while (stack[top] != NULL)
   {
    p = stack[top];
    top++;
    stack[top] = p->lchild;
   }
   top--; //NULL pointer pop stack
   if (top > -1)
   {
    p = stack[top];
    cout<<setw(2)<<p->data;
    stack[top] = p->rchild;
   }
  }//end while
 }//end if

 delete []stack;
}

//Post order traverse the tree un-recursively
void PostOrderN(const pBTree t, int depth)
{
 pBTree *stack; //depth = height
 stack = new pBTree[depth];
 pBTree p;
 int top = -1;
 p = t;

 do
 {
  while (p != NULL)
  {
   top++;
   stack[top] = p;
   p = p->lchild;
  }

  while ((top >- 1) && (stack[top]->rchild == p))
  {
   p = stack[top];
   top--;
   cout<<setw(2)<<p->data;
  }
  
  if (top > -1)
  {
   p = stack[top]->rchild;
  }
 }while (top > -1);

 delete []stack;
}

//Level order traverse the tree
void LevelTrav(const pBTree t, int length)
{
 pBTree *queue;
 queue = new pBTree[length]; //length is the number of node in binary tree
 pBTree p;
 int front = 0,rear = 0;

 if (t != NULL)
 {
  queue[rear++] = t;
  
  while (front < rear)
  {
   p = queue[front];
   front++;
   cout<<setw(2)<<p->data;

   if (p->lchild != NULL)
   {
    queue[rear] = p->lchild;
    rear++;
   }
   if (p->rchild != NULL)
   {
    queue[rear] = p->rchild;
    rear++;
   }
  }//end while
 }//end if

 delete []queue;
}

//Pre-order display binary tree using recursively
void PreDisp(const pBTree t)
{
 if(t != NULL)
 {
  cout<<t->data;

  if (t->lchild != NULL || t->rchild != NULL)
  {
   cout<<"(";
   PreDisp(t->lchild);

   if (t->rchild != NULL)
   {
    cout<<",";
   }

   PreDisp(t->rchild);
   cout<<")";
  }
 }
}

//Releasing the memory space of the binary tree
void Release(pBTree t)
{
 if (t != NULL)
 {
  Release(t->lchild);
  Release(t->rchild);
  delete t;
 }

 t = NULL;
}

//Judging whether t1 and t2 is alike
bool Like(const pBTree t1, const pBTree t2)
{
 //assert(t1 != NULL && t2 != NULL);

 if (t1==NULL && t2==NULL)
 {
  return true;
 }
 else if (t1==NULL || t2==NULL)
 {
  return false;
 }
 else
 {
  return Like(t1->lchild, t2->lchild) && Like(t1->rchild, t2->rchild);
 }
}

/*-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *some operation of binary tree
 *
 *Author: Tao Yunxin
 *History: 2007/04/02
 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------*/

#include "stdafx.h"

#ifndef BTREE_H
#define BTREE_H
#include "BTree.h"
#endif

int _tmain(int argc, _TCHAR* argv[])
{
 pBTree biTree = NULL;
 pBTree biTree2 = NULL;

 //It is used to test "assert"
 //Like(biTree, biTree2);

 bool flag;
 int heigh, num;
 char *data;

 clock_t start, end;
 time_t start2, end2;
 start2 = time(0); //#define NULL 0

 cout<<"size of BTNode: "<<sizeof(BTNode)<<endl;
 cout<<"size of pBTree: "<<sizeof(pBTree)<<endl;
 cout<<"---------------------------------------------"<<endl;
 cout<<"Creating the binary tree from the array!"<<endl;
 cout<<"please input the height of the binary tree:"<<endl;

 cin>>heigh;
 num = (int)pow((double)2, heigh) - 1;
 //data = new char[num];
 data = (char *)malloc(num); //we can allocate space using new or malloc
 cout<<"please intput "<<num<<" node:"<<endl;
 //Input: abc#de#
 for(int i=0; i<num; i++)
 {
  cin>>data[i];
 }

 start = clock();

 CreateFrArr( /*&*/biTree2, data, num, 0 );

 cout<<"The height of bi-tree: "<<Height(biTree2)<<endl;
 cout<<"Total number of node: "<<NodeNum(biTree2)<<endl;
 cout<<"One child number: "<<OneChildNum(biTree2)<<endl;
 cout<<"Leaf Number: "<<LeafNum(biTree2)<<endl;
 cout<<"Pre-order display binary tree:"<<endl;
 PreDisp(biTree2);


 cout<<"/n---------------------------------------------/n/n"<<endl;
 cout<<"Creating the binary tree from the file!"<<endl;
 if (!in)
 {
  cerr<<"cannot open input file!"<<endl;
  return -1;
 }
 flag = CreateBiTree(&biTree);
 if (flag)
 {
  cout<<"Creating the binary tree succ!/n"<<endl;
 }
 else
 {
  cerr<<"Creating the binary tree failure!/n"<<endl;
 }

 cout<<"The height of bi-tree: "<<Height(biTree)<<endl;
 cout<<"Number of node: "<<NodeNum(biTree)<<endl;
 cout<<"One child number: "<<OneChildNum(biTree)<<endl;
 cout<<"Leaf Number: "<<LeafNum(biTree)<<endl;
 cout<<"Pre-order display binary tree:"<<endl;
 PreDisp(biTree);
 cout<<"/n---------------------------------------------"<<endl;

 cout<<"Pre order traverse the bi-tree recursively:"<<endl;
 PreOrder(biTree);
 cout<<"/nPre order traverse the bi-tree recursively:"<<endl;
 PreOrderN(biTree);
 cout<<"/n---------------------------------------------"<<endl;

 cout<<"/nIn order traverse the bi-tree recursively:"<<endl;
 InOrder(biTree);
 cout<<"/nIn order traverse the bi-tree un-recursively:"<<endl;
 InOrderN(biTree, Height( biTree ) + 1);
 cout<<"/n---------------------------------------------"<<endl;

 cout<<"/nPost order traverse the bi-tree recursively:"<<endl;
 PostOrder(biTree);
 cout<<"/nPost order traverse the bi-tree un-recursively:"<<endl;
 PostOrderN(biTree, Height(biTree));
 cout<<"/n---------------------------------------------"<<endl;

 cout<<"/nLevel traverse the bi-tree:"<<endl;
 LevelTrav(biTree, NodeNum(biTree));
 cout<<"/n---------------------------------------------"<<endl;

 cout<<"/nbiTree and biTree2 similar ? "<<endl;
 if (Like(biTree, biTree2))
 {
  cout<<"yes";
 }
 else
 {
  cout<<"no";
 }
 cout<<"/n---------------------------------------------"<<endl;

 //delete []data;
 free(data);
 data = NULL;
 Release(biTree);
 Release(biTree2);
 biTree = NULL;
 biTree2 = NULL;
 cout<<"Releasing space succ!/n"<<endl;
 
 end = clock(); 

 end2 = time(0);
 printf("/1: The different is %6.3f/n", (double)(end-start));
 printf( "The creating operation used %f seconds/n",
   (double)(end-start) / CLOCKS_PER_SEC );
 printf( "The total operation used %f seconds/n", difftime(end2, start2) );
 
 char buf[32];
 time_t tNow = time(NULL);
 //We can use the function strftime( ) to covert the time to the format we want

 strftime( buf, 32, "%Y/%m/%d   %H:%M:%S", localtime(&tNow) );
 printf("Current time: ");
 cout<<buf<<endl;
 system("PAUSE");
}

 
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