C Knowledge

转载 2007年10月10日 16:22:00
@C Programming Topics
:C declarations
^Complex C Declarations

	int i;			i as an int
	int *i; 		i as a pointer to an int
	int **i;		i is a pointer to a pointer to an int
	int *(*i)();		i is a pointer to a function returning a
				  pointer to int
	int *(*i[])();		i is an array of pointers to functions
				  returning pointers to an int
	int *i[5];		i is an array of 5 pointers to int
	int (*i)[5];		i is a pointer to an array of 5 ints
	int *i();		i is a function returning a pointer to an int
	int (*i)();		i is a pointer to a function returning int
	int *(*(*i)())[5]	i is a pointer to a function returning a
				  pointer to an array of 5 pointers to an int

:C errors (MSC):MSC errors
^Microsoft C Compiler Fatal Errors

	C1000	unknown fatal error; contact Microsoft
	C1001	internal compiler error; contact Microsoft
	C1002	compiler out of heap space in C2.EXE
	C1003	error count exceeded; stopping compilation
	C1004	unexpected end-of-file found; disk full or unmatched #if
	C1005	string too big for buffer
	C1006	compiler intermediate file create/write error
	C1007	invalid option on compiler command line
	C1008	no source file specified
	C1009	macros nested too deeply
	C1010	macro expansion exceeded available space
	C1011	macro definition too large
	C1012	unmatched parenthesis in preprocessor directive
	C1014	nesting of #include's exceed 10-level nesting limit
	C1016	#ifdef & #ifndef directives expect an identifier
	C1018	unexpected #elif;  #elif without #if directive
	C1019	unexpected #else;  #else without #if directive
	C1020	unexpected #endif;  #endif without #if directive
	C1021	invalid preprocessor command
	C1022	expected #endif;  #if directive not terminated by #endif
	C1023	can't open specified source file
	C1024	can't open specified include file
	C1026	parser stack overflow; module too complex
	C1027	DGROUP default data allocation exceeds 64K
	C1028	modules far data segment allocation exceeds 64K (QC)
	C1031	function calls nested too deeply
	C1032	can't open object listing file
	C1033	can't open assembly language output file
	C1035	expression too complex; must be simplified
	C1036	can't open source listing file
	C1037	can't open object file
	C1039	unrecoverable heap overflow in Pass 3 (post-optimizer)
	C1040	unexpected EOF in source file; file disappeared
	C1041	can't open intermediate file; no free file handles
	C1042	can't open intermediate file; invalid TMP environment var
	C1043	can't open intermediate file; unknown error
	C1044	no disk space available for intermediate file
	C1047	compiler option was specified too many times
	C1048	unknown option specified
	C1049	invalid numerical argument
	C1050	code segment too large; within 36 bytes of 64K
	C1052	#if/#ifdef nested too deeply;  max of 32 levels
	C1053	struct/union nested too deeply; max of 15
	C1054	initializers nested too deeply; max from 10 to 15 levels
	C1055	out of keys; file has too many symbols
	C1056	out of macro expansion space; macro to large/complex
	C1057	unexpected EOF in macro expansion or missing ')'
	C1059	compiler has run out of near heap space
	C1060	compiler has run out of far heap space
	C1062	error writing preprocessor output file for /P option
	C1063	compiler stack overflow; module too complex
	C1064	identifier too long causing token to overflow internal buffer
	C1068	can't open file specified file
	C1069	file write error on specified file; disk space low
	C1070	mismatched #if/#endif pair; missing #endif
	C1071	unexpected EOF found in comment; missing end of comment
	C1072	can't read indicated file
	C1090	data allocation exceeds 64K on _based allocation
	C1015	can't open include file (check name, searchpath and FILES=)
	C1126	automatic allocation (local variable) exceeds size
	C1127	segment redefinition; overwritten by specified segment

^Microsoft C Compiler Nonfatal Errors

	C2015	too many characters in constant; escape sequence too large
	C2016	missing closing single quotation mark on code line
	C2017	illegal escape sequence; occurred outside of string
	C2018	unknown character found in source file
	C2019	expected preprocessor directive; # followed by non-directive
	C2021	expected exponent value but found non-numeric character
	C2022	octal value following '/' is too large for a single character
	C2025	given identifier redefines enum, struct or union tag
	C2026	given identifier already used as enum constant
	C2027	given identifier refers to undefined enum, struct or union
	C2028	struct/union member needs to be inside a struct/union
	C2030	identifier used more than once in struct or union tag
	C2031	function can't be use as struct or union member
	C2033	bit field can't be declared as a pointer or use indirection
	C2034	type of host bit field is too small for number of bits
	C2035	given structure or union has undefined size
	C2037	undefined struct or union identifier on left of -> or .
	C2038	identifier is not a struct or union member
	C2055	expected formal-parameter list instead of argument-type list
	C2056	illegal expression; possibly from previous unreported problem
	C2057	expected constant expression
	C2058	expected integral constant expression
	C2059	invalid token caused a syntax error
	C2060	syntax error; EOF found before expected token
	C2061	identifier caused syntax error
	C2062	unexpected type
	C2063	identifier is not a function but used as such
	C2064	term does not evaluate to a function pointer
	C2065	identifier not defined
	C2066	illegal cast to function type
	C2067	illegal cast to array type
	C2068	illegal cast type used in expression
	C2069	cast of void term to non-void is invalid
	C2070	illegal sizeof operand; must be expression or type name
	C2071	illegal storage class for identifier
	C2072	attempt to initialize a function identifier
	C2092	arrays of functions illegal; use array of ptrs to function
	C2093	can't use address of auto variable as static initializer
	C2094	label was undefined in function
	C2095	void argument cannot be passed to function; (void *) may
	C2096	struct & union comparison is illegal; compare members
	C2097	illegal initialization
	C2098	expected address as initialization expression
	C2099	non-constant initializer
	C2100	illegal indirection; * applied to a non-pointer value
	C2101	address of operator '&' used on constant; requires lvalue
	C2102	address of operator '&' requires lvalue
	C2103	address of operator '&' can't be used on a register variable
	C2104	address of operator '&' used on bit field not allowed
	C2105	operator needs lvalue
	C2106	left side of an operation must be lvalue
	C2107	subscript applied to expression didn't evaluate to pointer
	C2108	non-integral expression used as array subscript
	C2109	subscript used on non-array variable
	C2127	allocation for function parameters exceeds 32K
	C2128	array crosses 2 segments & element size not power of 2
	C2129	static function referenced was never defined
	C2130	#line expected string containing file name; found other
	C2131	more than one memory attribute applied to and identifier
	C2132	syntax error : unexpected identifier
	C2133	attempt to declare an unsized array as a local variable
	C2134	struct or union too large; exceeded 64k
	C2136	prototype must have a valid type for each variable
	C2137	use of empty character constant '' is illegal
	C2139	more than one type used in a variable declaration
	C2140	argument can't be a function
	C2141	enum constant value out of int range
	C2143	expected 'token1' before 'token2' or missing ')', '}' or ';'
	C2144	expected 'token' before 'type' or missing ')', '}' or ';'
	C2145	expected 'token' before identifier or declaration missing ';'
	C2146	expected 'token' before identifier
	C2147	increment of index or array pointer with unknown base type
	C2162	token following stringizing operator # isn't formal parameter
	C2163	function in pragma not available as intrinsic function
	C2164	intrinsic function not declared before use wit /Oi option
	C2165	_pascal, _cdecl, _???? keywords can't modify pointers to data
	C2166	attempt to modify item declared as const; lvalue is constant
	C2167	too many parameters in call to an intrinsic function
	C2168	too few parameters in call to an intrinsic function
	C2169	function definition for function already declared intrinsic
	C2170	intrinsic pragma used for function without intrinsic form
	C2171	unary operator used on illegal operand type
	C2172	non-pointer argument passed to a function expecting pointer
	C2173	non-pointer argument passed to a function expecting pointer
	C2174	cant pass parameter with void type to function
	C2176	static huge data not supported by /qc; use halloc()
	C2177	constant too large for data type
	C2178	storage class for same_seg pragma variables must be extern
	C2179	same_seg pragma variable class has changed from extern
	C2207	middle member of struct/union has zero-sized array
	C2208	enum, struct or union defined w/o members using /Za option
	C2209	type cast used in _based construct must be (_segment)
	C2210	base in _based declarator must be near/far data pointer
	C2211	item cast in _based declarator can't be a function
	C2212	_based not available for functions or pointers to functions
	C2213	symbol used as base must be type _segment, near far pointer
	C2214	_based pointer based on void can't be de-referenced; use :>
	C2215	:> operator only for objects based on void
	C2216	given function attributes are incompatible
	C2217	function attribute requires another attributes also
	C2218	type in _based construct must be void
	C2219	const/volatile appeared where type or qualifier not allowed
	C2220	no object file generated; warning treated as error due to /WX
	C2221	left operand of '.' is pointer to struct/union, must use '->'
	C2222	left operand of '->' is struct or union, must use '.'
	C2223	left operand of '->' must be pointer struct or union
	C2411	identifier is not a member of the specified struct or union
	C2412	identifier redefined within current function
	C2413	alignment size used with ALIGN directive missing or invalid
	C2414	illegal number of operands in assembly code; see /G1 & /G2
	C2415	improper operand type
	C2416	illegal opcode for processor in assembly code; see /G1 & /G2
	C2417	divisor used within the given context is zero
	C2418	in-line asm identifier referenced as register and isn't
	C2419	divisor argument to mod is zero in given context
	C2420	given identifier is illegal in this context
	C2421	PTR must not be used with register operand in this context
	C2422	illegal segment override used in given context
	C2424	given token used to form improper expression in this context
	C2425	token used fto form non-constant expression in this context
	C2426	given token is illegal operator in this context
	C2427	jump referencing label is out of range
	C2429	FAR PTR can't be use on jmp or call to label

^Microsoft C Command-Line Errors

	D2000	unknown CL command line error; contact Microsoft
	D2001	too many symbols predefined with /D; max is 30
	D2002	memory-model specification conflict; only 1 allowed
	D2003	missing source file name for CL command
	D2008	option specified too many times
	D2011	more than one /FP option specified; only 1 allowed
	D2012	too many linker flags in command; max of 128 flags/files
	D2013	incomplete model specification in /A:
	D2018	can't open linker response file
	D2019	can't overwrite source with object file; output = input
	D2020	/Gc requires extended keywords be enabled via /Ze
	D2021	invalid numerical argument; numeric args must be < 65534
	D2022	can't open help file for /HELP
	D2027	CL could not execute one of the compiler components
	D2028	too many open files; can't dup/redirect specified stream
	D2030	internal compiler component error; contact Microsoft
	D2031	too many flags/files in command; max of 128 arguments to CL

^Microsoft C Command-Line Warning

	D4000	unknown command line warning in CL; contact Microsoft
	D4001	listing overrides assembly output; /Fc and /Fa used together
	D4002	unknown flag ignored by CL command
	D4003	multiple processors selected for code generation
	D4005	CL could not locate compiler component
	D4007	/C must be used in conjunction with /P or /E or /EP
	D4009	threshold valid for far/huge data models only; /Gt ignored
	D4011	preprocessor listing specified; source listing not generated
	D4012	function prototyping specified; source listing not generated
	D4013	combined listing /Fc overrides object listing /Fl
	D4014	invalid value for option; default value used
	D4018	.DEF files supported in OS/2 only (/Lr /Lc)
	D4019	string too long for /ND, /NT, /NM, /St, /Ss option of CL

^Microsoft Link Errors (incomplete list)

	L2002	fixup overflow (probably incompatible memory models .OBJs)

^Microsoft C Floating-Point Math Errors

	M6101	invalid operation occurred; usually NAN or infinity problem
	M6102	denormal; significance loss with very small generated number
	M6103	attempt to divide by zero in floating-point operation
	M6104	overflow in floating-point operation
	M6105	underflow occurred in floating-point operation
	M6106	inexact; loss of precision occurred in FP operation
	M6107	unemulated/unsupported 8087/287/387 instruction executed
	M6108	square root operand somehow became negative; C won't allow
	M6110	coprocessor or emulator stack overflow
	M6111	stack underflow due to unretrieved double return values

^Microsoft C Run-Time Errors

	R6000	stack overflow; stack needs enlarged or problem program
	R6001	null pointer assignment, NULL segment modified
	R6002	floating-point support not linked into executable
	R6005	not enough memory to load child process (EXEC)
	R6006	target executable is not a valid executable (EXEC)
	R6007	invalid environment on exec of child process (EXEC)
	R6008	not enough space for argument vector after program loads
	R6009	not enough space for environment after program loads
	R6010	abnormal program termination
	R6012	illegal null near-pointer use
	R6013	illegal out of range far-pointer use
	R6016	not enough space for thread data
	R6017	unexpected multithread lock error

:cl:MSC options
^Microsoft C Options (v6.0)

%	CL [options] [filenames] [libraries link-options]

	/AT	  Tiny Memory Model; combined code and data limited to 64K
	/AS	  Small Memory Model; code and data limited to 64K each
	/AM	  Medium Memory Model; data is limited to 64K
	/AC	  Compact Memory Model; code is limited to 64K
	/AL	  Large Memory Model; unlimited code and data but arrays
		  are limited to 64K
	/AH	  Huge Memory Model; unlimited code, data and array size
	/Astring  where string is compose of the following:

%		  Code Pointer Control
		  s	all code pointers are near
		  l	all code pointers are far

%		  Data Pointer Control
		  n	all data pointers are near
		  f	all data pointer are far
		  h	all data pointers are huge

%		  Segment Setup Control
		  d	stack segment (SS) defaults to data segment (DS)
		  u	stack segment (SS) is not equal to data segment (DS);
			DS is loaded on function entry
		  w	stack segment (SS) is not equal to data segment (DS);
			DS is NOT loaded on function entry

	/B1[path] used to invoke the large version of the compiler C1L.EXE;
		  normally used when the compiler runs out of heap space
	/B2	  invokes large compiler version pass 2
	/B3	  invokes large compiler version pass 3
	/C	  preserves file comments when preprocessing a file
	/c	  do not link, create .OBJ file only
	/D defines string as a preprocessor constant.  If string is
		  of the form "ID=xxx" then "ID" represents the value "xxx"
		  If no equals sign is present, "ID" has the value 0.	If
		  an equals sign is present without a value, ID has the
		  value 1.
	/E	  output from preprocessor is written to stdout with
		  interspersed #line directives.
	/EP	  output from preprocessor is written to stdout without,
		  adding #line directives.
	/F  sets stack to  bytes.  Size must be hexadecimal.
	/Fa[file] generate assembly listing.  Filename defaults to source
		  file with .ASM extension.
	/Fb creates bound executable.  Should be used only with /Lp.
	/Fc[file] generates combined assembly/source listing.	The filename
		  defaults to the source file name with the .COD extension.
	/Fe creates the executable with specified name
	/Fl[file] generates object code listing.   Default file name is the
		  source file name with a .COD extension.
	/Fm[file] generate a link MAP file.  Default file name is the source
		  file name with the extension .MAP.
	/Fo generate and object file using the name .
	/FPa	  generates floating point calls and selects the alternate
		  math library.
	/FPc	  generates floating point calls and selects the emulation
	/FPc87	  generates floating point calls and selects the 80x87
	/FPi	  generates inline 80x87 instructions and selects the 80x87
		  library.  Default floating point option.
	/FPi87	  generates floating point calls and selects the 80x87
	/Fr[file] generates a standard PWB Source Browser Database.  The
		  default name is the source file with the .SBR extension.
	/FR[file] generates a standard PWB Source Browser Database.  The
		  default name is the source file with the .SBR extension.
	/Fs	  generate a source file listing with .LST extension.
	/Fx	  generate a cross reference listing with .CRF extension.
	/G0	  generate code using 8088/8086 instruction set
	/G1	  generate code using 80188/80186 instruction set
	/G2	  generate code using 80286 instruction set
	/Gc	  generate code using FORTRAN/PASCAL calling and naming
	/Gd	  generate code using standard C calling and naming
		  conventions (default)
	/Ge	  generate code using stack checking routines (default)
	/Gi	  incremental compile if used with /qc; only functions that
		  have changed are compiled;  implies /Li option
	/Gm	  strings are generated in the CONST segment
	/Gr	  _fastcall functions are enabled.   Parameters can be
		  passed via registers instead of on the stack
	/Gs	  suppress generation of stack checking code
	/Gt[num]  places data items larger than "num" bytes into different
		  segments. The default value for "num is 256 bytes.
	/Gw	  generate Windows functions entry/exit code
	/GW	  generates more efficient Windows functions entry/exit
		  code.  Use /Gw for callback routines.
	/H   external name length restriction (default 31)
	/HELP	  calls QuickHelp utility.  /help is also valid.
	/I  inserts  in front of current include search path
	/J	  all chars should be unsigned (default is signed)
	/Lc	  linker is to generate compatibility mode programs.
	/Li[num]  incremental link using ILINK instead of LINK.  Results
		  in larger EXE size.
	/Lp	  linker is to generate protected mode executable.
	/Lr	  linker is to create real mode executable.
	/link  passes library names in  to LINK
	/MA  passes  to MASM if .ASM files found on command line
	/MD	  creates Dynamic Link Library for OS/2;  The same as:
		  /ALw /FPi /G2 /DDLL /DMT.   No library search record is defined
	/ML	  links the C run-time library as part of the Dynamic Link
		  Library.  The library search record is set to LLIBCDLL.LIB.
	/MT	  enable multithread program support in OS/2
	/ND set data segment name to 
	/NM set module name to 
	/nologo   suppress sign-on banner display
	/NT set code segment name to 
	/O[opts]  where "opts" is a string containing the following:

		a   relax alias checking
		c   enable block level local common expressions
		d   disable all optimizations
		e   enable global register optimization
		g   enable global optimizations and global common
		i   enable generation of intrinsic functions
		l   enable loop optimization
		n   disable unsafe loop optimization (default)
		p   improve consistency in floating-point calculations
		r   disable inline returns from functions
		s   optimize for size
		t   optimize for speed (default)
		w   assume no aliasing except across function calls
		x   maximize optimization (/Ocegilt/Gs)
		z   enable maximum loop and global-register allocation

	/P	   preprocess source generating .I intermediate file
	/qc	   quick compile option.  Incompatible with the following
		   options: /Fa /Fc /Fl /FPa /FPc /FPc87 /Fs /Gm /H /Ow /Zc
	/Sl   set listing file line width to  (79-132, default 79)
	/Sp   set page length  (15-255, default 63)
	/Ss set source listing subtitle

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