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DataGridView使用技巧大全

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一、DataGridView 单元格验证

1、定义单元格验证
要求:验证错误后焦点不离开。
实现:
单元格的验证可以使用dgv_details_CellValidating事件。
验证不通过时调用e.Cancel = true;终止事件链,单元格将保持编辑状态。
调用dgv_details.CancelEdit();可以使单元格的内容会滚到修改前的值。
使用System.Windows.Forms.SendKeys.Send("^a");将全选单元格的内容。

2、单元格选中并开始编辑状态
实现:

//DataGridView获得焦点
dgv_details.Focus();
//DataGridView指定当前单元格
dgv_details.CurrentCell = dgv_details[0, 0];
//开始编辑状态
dgv_details.BeginEdit(false);
3、定制自动生成绑定了列
实现:

dgv_details.AutoGenerateColumns = false;
4、设置列的背景色
实现:

Color GridReadOnlyColor = Color.LightGoldenrodYellow;
dgv_details.Columns[1].DefaultCellStyle.BackColor = WinKeys.GridReadOnlyColor;
5、DataGridView单元格验证的设计的问题
问题:绑定还是不绑定?
1)绑定的优势:比较简单,代码少。
2)绑定得缺点:DataGridView中的数据受数据源的影响(主键约束、值类型约束)。不一至时会激发DataError事件,输入的内容无法保存到单元格中和数据源中。特殊的验证(比如长度、格式等)还是需要另外写代码实现。
关于增加行的问题。增加新行时多主键的验证有问题,而且验证不通过时会将新行全部删除。限制很多,很不方便。
3)非绑定的优势:验证等处理比较灵活。不受数据源的约束。
4)非绑定得缺点:显示和向数据库更新数据时需要比较多的代码实现,效率比较低。
5)总的感觉在处理验证比较麻烦的场合,我还是比较喜欢非绑定的方式。如果数据量大,验证比较简单的场合使用绑定模式比较好。


二、DataGridView重绘代码

1、CellFormatting事件,一般重绘单元格属性。

   private Bitmap highPriImage;
    private Bitmap mediumPriImage;
    private Bitmap lowPriImage;
private void dataGridView1_CellFormatting(object sender,
        System.Windows.Forms.DataGridViewCellFormattingEventArgs e)
    {
        // Set the background to red for negative values in the Balance column.
        if (dataGridView1.Columns[e.ColumnIndex].Name.Equals("Balance"))
        {
            Int32 intValue;
            if (Int32.TryParse((String)e.Value, out intValue) &&
                (intValue < 0))
            {
                e.CellStyle.BackColor = Color.Red;
                e.CellStyle.SelectionBackColor = Color.DarkRed;
            }
        }

        // Replace string values in the Priority column with images.
        if (dataGridView1.Columns[e.ColumnIndex].Name.Equals("Priority"))
        {
            // Ensure that the value is a string.
            String stringValue = e.Value as string;
            if (stringValue == null) return;

            // Set the cell ToolTip to the text value.
            DataGridViewCell cell = dataGridView1[e.ColumnIndex, e.RowIndex];
            cell.ToolTipText = stringValue;

            // Replace the string value with the image value.
            switch (stringValue)
            {
                case "high":
                    e.Value = highPriImage;
                    break;
                case "medium":
                    e.Value = mediumPriImage;
                    break;
                case "low":
                    e.Value = lowPriImage;
                    break;
            }
        }
    }
2、CellPainting事件,一般用于合并单元格用
Windows Forms DataGridView 没有提供合并单元格的功能,要实现合并单元格的功能就要在CellPainting事件中使用Graphics.DrawLine和 Graphics.DrawString 自己来“画”。
下面的代码可以对DataGridView第1列内容相同的单元格进行合并:

#region"合并单元格的测试"
private int? nextrow = null;
private int? nextcol = null;
private void dataGridView1_CellFormatting(object sender, System.Windows.Forms.DataGridViewCellFormattingEventArgs e)
{
    if (this.dataGridView1.Columns["description"].Index == e.ColumnIndex && e.RowIndex >= 0)
    {
        if (this.nextcol != null & e.ColumnIndex == this.nextcol)
        {
            e.CellStyle.BackColor = Color.LightBlue;
            this.nextcol = null;
        }
        if (this.nextrow != null & e.RowIndex == nextrow)
        {
            e.CellStyle.BackColor = Color.LightPink;
            this.nextrow = null;
        }
        if (e.RowIndex != this.dataGridView1.RowCount - 1)
        {
            if (e.Value.ToString() == this.dataGridView1.Rows[e.RowIndex + 1].Cells[e.ColumnIndex].Value.ToString())
            {
                e.CellStyle.BackColor = Color.LightPink;
                nextrow = e.RowIndex + 1;
            }
        }
    }
    if (this.dataGridView1.Columns["name"].Index == e.ColumnIndex && e.RowIndex >= 0)
    {
        if (e.Value.ToString() == this.dataGridView1.Rows[e.RowIndex].Cells[e.ColumnIndex + 1].Value.ToString())
        {
            e.CellStyle.BackColor = Color.LightBlue;
            nextcol = e.ColumnIndex + 1;
        }
    }
}
//==========================
       
//绘制单元格
private void dataGridView1_CellPainting(object sender, System.Windows.Forms.DataGridViewCellPaintingEventArgs e)
{

 

    //纵向合并
    if (this.dataGridView1.Columns["description"].Index == e.ColumnIndex && e.RowIndex >= 0)
    {

        using (
            Brush gridBrush = new SolidBrush(this.dataGridView1.GridColor),
            backColorBrush = new SolidBrush(e.CellStyle.BackColor))
        {
            using (Pen gridLinePen = new Pen(gridBrush))
            {
                // 擦除原单元格背景
                e.Graphics.FillRectangle(backColorBrush, e.CellBounds);
                ////绘制线条,这些线条是单元格相互间隔的区分线条,
                ////因为我们只对列name做处理,所以datagridview自己会处理左侧和上边缘的线条
                if (e.RowIndex != this.dataGridView1.RowCount - 1)
                {
                    if (e.Value.ToString() != this.dataGridView1.Rows[e.RowIndex + 1].Cells[e.ColumnIndex].Value.ToString())
                    {

                        e.Graphics.DrawLine(gridLinePen, e.CellBounds.Left, e.CellBounds.Bottom - 1,
                        e.CellBounds.Right - 1, e.CellBounds.Bottom - 1);//下边缘的线
                        //绘制值
                        if (e.Value != null)
                        {
                            e.Graphics.DrawString((String)e.Value, e.CellStyle.Font,
                                Brushes.Crimson, e.CellBounds.X + 2,
                                e.CellBounds.Y + 2, StringFormat.GenericDefault);
                        }
                    }
                }
                else
                {
                    e.Graphics.DrawLine(gridLinePen, e.CellBounds.Left, e.CellBounds.Bottom - 1,
                        e.CellBounds.Right - 1, e.CellBounds.Bottom - 1);//下边缘的线
                    //绘制值
                    if (e.Value != null)
                    {
                        e.Graphics.DrawString((String)e.Value, e.CellStyle.Font,
                            Brushes.Crimson, e.CellBounds.X + 2,
                            e.CellBounds.Y + 2, StringFormat.GenericDefault);
                    }
                }
                //右侧的线
                e.Graphics.DrawLine(gridLinePen, e.CellBounds.Right - 1,
                    e.CellBounds.Top, e.CellBounds.Right - 1,
                    e.CellBounds.Bottom - 1);

                e.Handled = true;
            }
        }
    }

    //横向合并
    if (this.dataGridView1.Columns["name"].Index == e.ColumnIndex && e.RowIndex >= 0)
    {

        using (
            Brush gridBrush = new SolidBrush(this.dataGridView1.GridColor),
            backColorBrush = new SolidBrush(e.CellStyle.BackColor))
        {
            using (Pen gridLinePen = new Pen(gridBrush))
            {
                // 擦除原单元格背景
                e.Graphics.FillRectangle(backColorBrush, e.CellBounds);

                if (e.Value.ToString() != this.dataGridView1.Rows[e.RowIndex].Cells[e.ColumnIndex + 1].Value.ToString())
                {

                    //右侧的线
                    e.Graphics.DrawLine(gridLinePen, e.CellBounds.Right - 1, e.CellBounds.Top,
                        e.CellBounds.Right - 1, e.CellBounds.Bottom - 1);
                    //绘制值
                    if (e.Value != null)
                    {
                        e.Graphics.DrawString((String)e.Value, e.CellStyle.Font,
                            Brushes.Crimson, e.CellBounds.X + 2,
                            e.CellBounds.Y + 2, StringFormat.GenericDefault);
                    }
                }

                //下边缘的线
                e.Graphics.DrawLine(gridLinePen, e.CellBounds.Left, e.CellBounds.Bottom - 1,
                                            e.CellBounds.Right - 1, e.CellBounds.Bottom - 1);
                e.Handled = true;
            }
        }

    }

}

#endregion
三、在GridView中如何格式化Money型字段(downmoon)?

        <asp:GridView ID="GridView1" runat="server" AutoGenerateColumns="False" DataKeyNames="PKID"
            DataMember="DefaultView" DataSourceID="SqlDataSource1">
            <Columns>
                <asp:BoundField DataField="PKID" HeaderText="PKID" InsertVisible="False" ReadOnly="True"
                    SortExpression="PKID" />
                
                <asp:TemplateField>
                        <HeaderTemplate>
                           amount</HeaderTemplate>
                        <ItemTemplate>
                            <asp:Label ID="txtMoney" Text='<%# Decimal.Parse(DataBinder.Eval(Container.DataItem,"amount").ToString())%>' runat="server" />
                        </ItemTemplate>
                    </asp:TemplateField>
                <asp:BoundField DataField="TestID" HeaderText="TestID" SortExpression="TestID" />
                <asp:BoundField DataField="testString" HeaderText="testString" SortExpression="testString" />
            </Columns>
        </asp:GridView>
这段代码中,
amount为Money型字段,无论如何只能显示成
1234.5600
而不能显示成
1,234.56

<asp:BoundField DataField="amount" HeaderText="amount" DataFormatString="{0:n2}" />
                   <asp:BoundField DataField="amount" HeaderText="amount" DataFormatString="{0:c2}" />
也不行!
后来在MSDN上找到了答案

<asp:BoundField DataField="amount" HeaderText="amount" DataFormatString="{0:#,###.00}" HtmlEncode="False" />
关键在于HtmlEncode="False"

http://blogs.msdn.com/danielfe/archive/2006/02/08/527628.aspx

(源文:http://blog.csdn.net/downmoon/archive/2007/11/01/1860611.aspx

四、DataGridView合并单元格 编辑单元格

同事的一个项目需要将DataGridView单元格中的内容分不同颜色显示,想了想只有重绘了。
这种方法还可以用做合并单元格。

参考代码:

private void dataGridView1_CellPainting(object sender, DataGridViewCellPaintingEventArgs e)
        {
            if (e.RowIndex == 0 && e.ColumnIndex >= 0)
            {
                int left = e.CellBounds.Left;
                int top = e.CellBounds.Top;
                int right = e.CellBounds.Right;
                int bottom = e.CellBounds.Bottom;
                e.Graphics.FillRectangle(new SolidBrush(Color.White), e.CellBounds);
                e.Handled = true;
                Brush gridBrush = new SolidBrush(this.dataGridView1.GridColor);
                Pen gridLinePen = new Pen(gridBrush);
                e.Graphics.DrawLine(gridLinePen, right - 1,
                           top, right - 1,
                           bottom - 1);
                e.Graphics.DrawLine(gridLinePen, left,
                           bottom - 1, right,
                           bottom - 1);

                Brush b1 = new SolidBrush(Color.Black);
                e.Graphics.DrawString((String)e.Value, e.CellStyle.Font,
                                        b1, left + 2,
                                        top + 1, StringFormat.GenericDefault);

                Brush b2 = new SolidBrush(Color.Red);
                e.Graphics.DrawString((String)e.Value, e.CellStyle.Font,
                                        b2, left + 2,
                                        top + 10, StringFormat.GenericDefault);
            }

            DataGridViewSelectedCellCollection dgvscc = this.dataGridView1.SelectedCells;
            foreach (DataGridViewCell dgvc in dgvscc)
            {
                    if (e.RowIndex == 0
                        && e.RowIndex == dgvc.RowIndex
                        && e.ColumnIndex == dgvc.ColumnIndex)
                    {
                        int left = e.CellBounds.Left;
                        int top = e.CellBounds.Top;
                        int right = e.CellBounds.Right;
                        int bottom = e.CellBounds.Bottom;
                        // 绘制背景,覆盖单元格区域
                        e.Graphics.FillRectangle(new SolidBrush(Color.FromArgb(10,36,106)), e.CellBounds);
                        
                        // 绘制边框
                        Brush gridBrush = new SolidBrush(this.dataGridView1.GridColor);
                        Pen gridLinePen = new Pen(gridBrush);
                        e.Graphics.DrawLine(gridLinePen, right - 1,
                                   top, right - 1,
                                   bottom - 1);
                        e.Graphics.DrawLine(gridLinePen, left,
                                   bottom - 1, right,
                                   bottom - 1);

                        // 绘制文字
                        Brush b1 = new SolidBrush(Color.White);
                        e.Graphics.DrawString((String)e.Value, e.CellStyle.Font,
                                                b1, left + 2,
                                                top + 1, StringFormat.GenericDefault);

                        Brush b2 = new SolidBrush(Color.White);
                        e.Graphics.DrawString((String)e.Value, e.CellStyle.Font,
                                                b2, left + 2,
                                                top + 10, StringFormat.GenericDefault);
                    }
            }

            e.Handled = true;            

        }

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