Linux系统中采用Atlas+Keepalived实现MySQL读写分离、负载均衡

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一、基础介绍

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1、背景描述

目前我们的高可用DB的代理层采用的是360开源的Atlas,从上线以来,已稳定运行2个多月。无论是从性能上,还是稳定性上,相比其他开源组件(amoebacobarMaxScaleMySQL-Proxy等),还是很出色的。


当初我们之所以选择Atlas,主要看中它有以下优点:

(1)、基于mysql-proxy-0.8.2进行修改,代码完全开源;

(2)、比较轻量级,部署配置也比较简单;

(3)、支持DB读写分离;

(4)、支持从DB读负载均衡,并自动剔除故障从DB

(5)、支持平滑上下线DB

(6)、具备较好的安全机制(IP过滤、账号认证);

(7)、版本更新、问题跟进、交流圈子都比较活跃。


在测试期间以及线上问题排查过程中,得到了360 Atlas作者朱超的热心解答,在此表示感谢。有关更多Atlas的介绍,我就不一一例举,可以参考以下链接:

https://github.com/Qihoo360/Atlas/blob/master/README_ZH.md


2、总体架构图

wKioL1Sw6iagbaHjAAJX6OZk-GM940.jpg


3、系统环境

CentOS 6.3 x86_64


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二、安装部署

==========================================================================================

1、需注意的地方

(1)、本次安装不使用系统默认的glib库,之前的yum安装只是为了先解决依赖库的问题;

(2)LUA库的版本不能太高,为5.1.x即可;

(3)glib库的版本也不能太高,为glib-2.32.x即可;

(4)、对于编译不成功的情况,注意查看下面的说明。


2GLIB依赖的基础库安装

# yum -y install *glib*


3LUA库安装

http://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/ncurses/ncurses-5.9.tar.gz

# tar xvzf ncurses-5.9.tar.gz

# cd ncurses-5.9

# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local

# make && make install


ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/readline/readline-6.2.tar.gz

# tar xvzf readline-6.2.tar.gz

# cd readline-6.2

# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local

# make && make install


http://www.lua.org/ftp/lua-5.1.5.tar.gz

# tar xvzf lua-5.1.5.tar.gz

# cd lua-5.1.5

# make linux install


注意:

修改当前目录下的“Makefile”中的INSTALL_TOP= /usr/localINSTALL_TOP= /usr/local/lua

主要是为了避免与系统自带的lua库发生冲突的可能


在“src/Makefile”文件中加入“-lncurses”,完整内容如下:

linux:

        $(MAKE) $(ALL) SYSCFLAGS="-DLUA_USE_LINUX" SYSLIBS="-Wl,-E -ldl-lncurses -lreadline"


4GLIB库安装

ftp://sourceware.org/pub/libffi/libffi-3.0.13.tar.gz

# tar xvzf libffi-3.0.13.tar.gz

# cd libffi-3.0.13

# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local

# make && make install


http://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/libiconv/libiconv-1.14.tar.gz

# tar xvzf libiconv-1.14.tar.gz

# cd libiconv-1.14

# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local

# make && make install


http://tukaani.org/xz/xz-5.0.5.tar.gz

# tar xvzf xz-5.0.5.tar.gz

# cd xz-5.0.5

# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local

# make && make install

# /sbin/ldconfig


http://ftp.gnome.org/pub/gnome/sources/glib/2.32/glib-2.32.4.tar.xz

# xz -d glib-2.32.4.tar.xz

# tar -xvf glib-2.32.4.tar

# cd glib-2.32.4

# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/glib-2.32.4 \

--with-libiconv=/usr/local \

LIBFFI_CFLAGS="-I/usr/local/include" \

LIBFFI_LIBS="-L/usr/local/lib -lffi"

# make && make install


注意:编译报错处理

(1)configure阶段

# vim ./glib/gconvert.c

注释掉第2628行的内容

注释掉从61行到67行的内容


# vim ./configure

7880行之上添加如下内容:

found_iconv=yes


(2)make阶段

# ln -s /usr/local/lib/libffi-3.0.13/include/ffi.h /usr/local/include

# ln -s /usr/local/lib/libffi-3.0.13/include/ffitarget.h /usr/local/include


glib库需要安装在单独的目录“/usr/local/glib-2.32.4”,也是为了避免与系统自带的glib库发生冲突的可能


5Atlas安装

(1)、其他基础组件安装

https://github.com/downloads/libevent/libevent/libevent-2.0.21-stable.tar.gz

# tar xvzf libevent-2.0.21-stable.tar.gz

# cd libevent-2.0.21-stable

# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local

# make && make install


http://www.openssl.org/source/openssl-1.0.1h.tar.gz

# tar xvzf openssl-1.0.1h.tar.gz

# cd openssl-1.0.1h

# ./config shared --prefix=/usr/local

# make && make install


(2)MySQL安装(无需启动)

http://wwwNaNake.org/files/v2.8/cmake-2.8.10.2.tar.gz

# tar -xvzf cmake-2.8.10.2.tar.gz

# cd cmake-2.8.10.2

# ./bootstrap --prefix=/usr/local

# gmake --jobs=`grep processor /proc/cpuinfo | wc -l`

# gmake install


http://downloads.mysql.com/archives/get/file/mysql-5.5.24.tar.gz

# tar -xvzf mysql-5.5.24.tar.gz

# cd mysql-5.5.24

# rm-f CMakeCache.txt

# cmake -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/usr/local/mysql \

-DMYSQL_UNIX_ADDR=/var/run/mysql/mysql.sock \

-DDEFAULT_CHARSET=utf8 \

-DDEFAULT_COLLATION=utf8_general_ci \

-DEXTRA_CHARSETS=all \

-DWITH_MYISAM_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \

-DWITH_INNOBASE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \

-DWITH_READLINE=1 \

-DENABLED_LOCAL_INFILE=1 \

-DWITH_EMBEDDED_SERVER=1 \

-DMYSQL_DATADIR=/data/dbdata/data \

-DMYSQL_TCP_PORT=3306

# make --jobs=`grep processor /proc/cpuinfo | wc -l`

# make install


(3)DB中间件安装

https://github.com/Qihoo360/Atlas/archive/2.2.1.tar.gz

# tar xvzf Atlas-2.2.1.tar.gz

# cd Atlas-2.2.1

# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql-proxy \

--with-lua=/usr/local/lua \

--with-mysql=/usr/local/mysql \

GLIB_CFLAGS="-I/usr/local/glib-2.32.4/include/glib-2.0" \

GLIB_LIBS="-L/usr/local/glib-2.32.4/lib/glib-2.0 -lglib-2.0" \

GMODULE_CFLAGS="-I/usr/local/glib-2.32.4/include" \

GMODULE_LIBS="-L/usr/local/glib-2.32.4/lib -lgmodule-2.0" \

GTHREAD_CFLAGS="-I/usr/local/glib-2.32.4/include" \

GTHREAD_LIBS="-L/usr/local/glib-2.32.4/lib -lgthread-2.0" \

LUA_CFLAGS="-I/usr/local/lua/include" \

LUA_LIBS="-L/usr/local/lua/lib -llua-5.1" \

CFLAGS="-DHAVE_LUA_H -O2" \

LDFLAGS="-L/usr/local/lib -L/usr/local/lib64 -lm -ldl -lcrypto"

# make && make install


注意:

编译报错处理

# ln -s /usr/local/glib-2.32.4/lib/glib-2.0/include/glibconfig.h /usr/local/glib-2.32.4/include/glib-2.0


# cd /usr/local

# mv mysql-proxy atlas-2.2.1 && ln -s atlas-2.2.1 mysql-proxy


6DB中间层配置

(1)、主配置

# vim /usr/local/mysql-proxy/conf/mysql-proxy.cnf

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[mysql-proxy]
admin-username = sysadmin
admin-password = admin2356!@()
  
proxy-backend-addresses = 10.222.5.224:3306
proxy-read-only-backend-addresses = 10.240.95.107:3306,10.240.95.108:3306
  
pwds = health_check1:/iZxz+0GRoA=,health_check2:/iZxz+0GRoA=
  
daemon = true
keepalive = true
  
event-threads = 16
  
log-level = message
log-path = /usr/local/mysql-proxy/log
sql-log = ON
  
proxy-address = 0.0.0.0:3306
admin-address = 10.209.6.101:3307
  
charset = utf8

(2)、启动脚本

# vim /etc/init.d/mysql-proxy

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#!/bin/sh
#
# mysql-proxy This script starts and stops the mysql-proxy daemon
#
# chkconfig: - 78 30
# processname: mysql-proxy
# description: mysql-proxy is a proxy daemon to mysql
# config: /usr/local/mysql-proxy/conf/mysql-proxy.cnf
# pidfile: /usr/local/mysql-proxy/log/mysql-proxy.pid
#
PATH=/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin
  
DAEMON="/usr/local/mysql-proxy/bin/mysql-proxy"
CONFIGFILE="/usr/local/mysql-proxy/conf/mysql-proxy.cnf"
PIDFILE="/usr/local/mysql-proxy/log/mysql-proxy.pid"
LOCKFILE="/var/lock/subsys/mysql-proxy"
PROG=`basename $DAEMON`
  
RETVAL=0
  
start() {
    echo -n $"Starting ${PROG}......"
    [ -x $DAEMON ] || exit 5
    [ -f $CONFIGFILE ] || exit 6
    ${DAEMON} --defaults-file=${CONFIGFILE} || echo -n "${PROG} already running"
  
    RETVAL=$?
    echo
    [[ $RETVAL -eq 0 ]] && touch $LOCKFILE
  
    return $RETVAL
}
  
stop() {
    echo -n $"Stopping ${PROG}......"
    if [[ `ps aux | grep bin/mysql-proxy grep -v grep wc -l` -gt 0 ]]; then
        kill -TERM `ps -A -oppid,pid,cmd | grep bin/mysql-proxy grep -v grep awk '{print $2}'`
    fi
  
    RETVAL=$?
    echo
    [[ $RETVAL -eq 0 ]] && rm -f $LOCKFILE $PIDFILE
  
    return $RETVAL
}
  
restart() {
    stop
    sleep 1
    start
}
  
case "$1" in
start)
    start
    ;;
  
stop)
    stop
    ;;
  
restart)
    restart
    ;;
  
condrestart)
    [[ -e $LOCKFILE ]] && restart
    ;;
  
*)
    echo "Usage: $0 {start|stop|restart|condrestart}"
    RETVAL=1
    ;;
esac
  
exit $RETVAL

# chmod +x /etc/init.d/mysql-proxy

# chmod 0660 /usr/local/mysql-proxy/conf/mysql-proxy.cnf

# service mysql-proxy start

# ps aux | grep mysql-prox[y]

wKiom1Sw7APBGLlPAABNGlf7ct0239.jpg


7Atlas高可用【Keepalived】环境安装

http://rpm5.org/files/popt/popt-1.14.tar.gz

# tar xvzf popt-1.14.tar.gz

# cd popt-1.14

# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local

# make && make install


http://www.carisma.slowglass.com/~tgr/libnl/files/libnl-3.2.24.tar.gz

# tar xvzf libnl-3.2.24.tar.gz

# cd libnl-3.2.24

# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local

# make && make install

# ln -s /usr/local/include/libnl3/netlink /usr/local/include

# /sbin/ldconfig


http://www.keepalived.org/software/keepalived-1.2.10.tar.gz

# tar xvzf keepalived-1.2.10.tar.gz

# cd keepalived-1.2.10

# ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/keepalived

# make && make install


# ln -s /usr/local/keepalived/sbin/keepalived /usr/sbin

# ln -s /usr/local/keepalived/etc/sysconfig/keepalived /etc/sysconfig

# ln -s /usr/local/keepalived/etc/rc.d/init.d/keepalived /etc/init.d

# chkconfig --add keepalived


8Atlas高可用【Keepalived】配置

# mkdir –p /etc/keepalived /data/scripts


(1)、主节点配置

# vim /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf

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global_defs {
    notification_email {
        lovezym5@126.com
    }
  
    notification_email_from lovezym5@126.com
    smtp_server 127.0.0.1
    smtp_connect_timeout 30
    router_id dbproxy1
}
  
vrrp_script chk_mysql_proxy_health {
    script "/data/scripts/keepalived_check_mysql_proxy.sh"
    interval 1
    weight -2
}
  
vrrp_instance VI_1 {
    state MASTER
    interface eth1
    virtual_router_id 51
    priority 100
    advert_int 1
    smtp_alert
  
    authentication {
        auth_type PASS
        auth_pass 123456
    }
  
    virtual_ipaddress {
        10.209.6.115
    }
  
    track_script {
        chk_mysql_proxy_health
    }
  
    notify_master "/data/scripts/notify.sh master"
    notify_bakcup "/data/scripts/notify.sh backup"
    notify_fault "/data/scripts/notify.sh fault"
}

(2)、备用节点配置

# vim /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf

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global_defs {
    notification_email {
        lovezym5@126.com
    }
  
    notification_email_from lovezym5@126.com
    smtp_server 127.0.0.1
    smtp_connect_timeout 30
    router_id dbproxy2
}
  
vrrp_script chk_mysql_proxy_health {
    script "/data/scripts/keepalived_check_mysql_proxy.sh"
    interval 1
    weight -2
}
  
vrrp_instance VI_1 {
    state BACKUP
    interface eth1
    virtual_router_id 51
    priority 90
    advert_int 1
    smtp_alert
  
    authentication {
        auth_type PASS
        auth_pass 123456
    }
  
    virtual_ipaddress {
        10.209.6.115
    }
  
    track_script {
        chk_mysql_proxy_health
    }
  
    notify_master "/data/scripts/notify.sh master"
    notify_bakcup "/data/scripts/notify.sh backup"
    notify_fault "/data/scripts/notify.sh fault"
}

(3)VIP切换通知脚本

# vim /data/scripts/notify.sh

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#!/bin/sh
PATH=/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin
  
KEEPALIVE_CONF="/etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf"
  
VIP=`grep -A 1 virtual_ipaddress ${KEEPALIVE_CONF} | tail -1 | sed 's/\t//g; s/ //g'`
ETH1_ADDR=`/sbin/ifconfig eth1 | awk '/inet addr:/{print $2}' awk -F: '{print $2}'`
  
MONITOR="/usr/local/oms/agent/alarm/BusMonitorAgent"
TOKEN="ha_monitor"
  
function notify() {
    TITLE="$ETH1_ADDR to be $1: $VIP floating"
    CONTENT="vrrp transition, $ETH1_ADDR changed to be $1"
    ${MONITOR} -c 2 -f ${TOKEN} -t "${TITLE}" -i "${CONTENT}"
}
  
case "$1" in
master)
    notify master
    exit 0
    ;;
  
backup)
    notify backup
    exit 0
    ;;
  
fault)
    notify fault
    exit 0
    ;;
  
*)
    echo 'Usage: `basename $0` {master|backup|fault}'
    exit 1
    ;;
esac

(4)DB中间层进程检查脚本

# vim /data/scripts/keepalived_check_mysql_proxy.sh

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#!/bin/sh
PATH=/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin
  
if [[ `pgrep mysql-proxy | wc -l` -eq 0 ]]; then
    /sbin/service mysql-proxy start && sleep 5
    [[ -z `pgrep mysql-proxy` ]] && /sbin/service keepalived stop
fi

# chmod +x /data/scripts/*.sh

# service keepalived start

wKioL1Sw72OBWcdcAABQovflyow736.jpg

# ip addr show eth1

wKiom1Sw7r3S6v6_AACfXZvxonQ064.jpg

# ps aux | grep keepalive[d]

wKiom1Sw7tnzsSOAAABqz91YIVo562.jpg


==========================================================================================

三、其他设置

==========================================================================================

1Atlas服务监控

# vim /usr/local/mysql-proxy/bin/check_service.sh

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#!/bin/sh
PATH=/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin
  
[[ $# -ne 3 ]] && echo "$0 端口号 协议类型 服务名" && exit 1
  
SRV_PORT=$1  ## 端口号
SRV_PROT=$2  ## 协议类型
SRV_NAME=$3  ## 服务名
  
MONITOR="/usr/local/oms/agent/alarm/BusMonitorAgent"
TOKEN="ha_monitor"
  
TITLE="${SRV_NAME}服务异常监控"
CONTENT="${SRV_NAME}服务发生异常,已自动拉起!"
  
## 是否已正确扫描
SCAN_FLAG=0
  
function RESTART_SRV_AND_ALERT() 
{
    local CUR_SRV_NAME
     
    [[ $# -ne 1 ]] && exit 1
    CUR_SRV_NAME=$1
     
    TMP_SRV_NAME=`echo ${CUR_SRV_NAME} | tr '[A-Z]' '[a-z]'`
    [[ ! -f /etc/init.d/${TMP_SRV_NAME} ]] && TMP_SRV_NAME="${TMP_SRV_NAME}d"
     
    killall -9 ${TMP_SRV_NAME}
     
    if [[ -z `ps aux | grep ${TMP_SRV_NAME} | grep -v grep` ]]; then
        /sbin/service ${TMP_SRV_NAME} start >/dev/null 2>&1
    fi
     
    ${MONITOR} -c 2 -f ${TOKEN} -t "${TITLE}" -i "${CONTENT}"
    rm -f `pwd`/connect_error.log
}
  
ETH1_ADDR=`/sbin/ifconfig eth1 | awk -F ':' '/inet addr/{print $2}' sed 's/[a-zA-Z ]//g'`
TMP_SRV_PROT=`echo ${SRV_PROT} | tr '[A-Z]' '[a-z]'`
 
if [[ "${TMP_SRV_PROT}" == "tcp" ]]; then
    PROT_OPT="S"
elif [[ "${TMP_SRV_PROT}" == "udp" ]]; then
    PROT_OPT="U"
else
    echo "未知的协议类型!" && exit 1
fi
  
## 最多扫描3次,成功一次即可,以避免网络抖动而导致误判
for ((i=0; i<3; i++)); do
    RETVAL=`/usr/bin/nmap -n -s${PROT_OPT} -p ${SRV_PORT} ${ETH1_ADDR} | grep open`
    [[ -n "${RETVAL}" ]] && SCAN_FLAG=1;break || sleep 10
done
  
## 1、针对Atlas服务端口不通的情况,也就是服务彻底挂掉
[[ ${SCAN_FLAG} -ne 1 ]] && RESTART_SRV_AND_ALERT ${SRV_NAME}
  
## 2、检查Atlas服务是否正常工作,也就是服务端口正常,但访问异常的情况【高权限DB用户】
mysqladmin -h${ETH1_ADDR} -uhealth_check1 -p123456 --connect-timeout=15 --shutdown-timeout=15 ping
[[ $? -ne 0 ]] && RESTART_SRV_AND_ALERT ${SRV_NAME}
  
## 3、检查Atlas服务是否正常工作,也就是服务端口正常,高权限DB用户访问也正常,但低权限
##    DB用户访问异常的情况【低权限DB用户】
mysqladmin -h${ETH1_ADDR} -uhealth_check2 -p123456 --connect-timeout=15 --shutdown-timeout=15 ping
[[ $? -ne 0 ]] && RESTART_SRV_AND_ALERT ${SRV_NAME}

2Atlas访问日志切割

# vim /data/scripts/cut_and_clear_access_log.sh

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#!/bin/sh
# 切割Atlas的访问日志,同时清理15天之前的日志
#
PATH=/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin
  
## mysql-proxy日志路径
LOGPATH="/usr/local/mysql-proxy/log"
  
[[ `/sbin/ip addr show eth1 | grep inet | wc -l` -eq 2 ]] || exit 
cd ${LOGPATH}
  
## 日志切割
HISTORY_LOG_PATH=`date -d '-1 hour' +"%Y-%m-%d/sql_mysql-proxy_%H.log"`
[[ -d `dirname ${HISTORY_LOG_PATH}` ]] || mkdir -p `dirname ${HISTORY_LOG_PATH}`
cp -a sql_mysql-proxy.log ${HISTORY_LOG_PATH}
  
echo > sql_mysql-proxy.log
  
## 日志清理
HISTORY_LOG_PATH=`date -d '15 days ago' +'%Y-%m-%d'`
[[ -d ${HISTORY_LOG_PATH} ]] && rm -rf ${HISTORY_LOG_PATH}

3crontab内容添加

# touch /var/lock/check_service.lock

# echo 'touch /var/lock/check_service.lock' >> /etc/rc.d/rc.local

# crontab -uroot -e

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* * * * * (flock --timeout=0 /var/lock/check_service.lock /usr/local/mysql-proxy/bin/check_service.sh 3306 tcp mysql-proxy >/dev/null 2>&1)
00 * * * * /data/scripts/cut_and_clear_access_log.sh >/dev/null 2>&1

4、平滑设置功能

# mysql -h10.209.6.101 -P3307 -usysadmin -p'admin2356!@()'

wKioL1Sw8S_gXZOuAALgQK7R39c195.jpg



本文出自 “人生理想在于坚持不懈” 博客,请务必保留此出处http://sofar.blog.51cto.com/353572/1601552

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