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WAP

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什么是WAP?
WAP是WIRELESS APPLICATION PROTOCAL(无线应用协议)的简称,它是开发移动网络上类似互联网应用的一系列规范的组合。WAP协议与现有通信的互联网协议类似,但专为小屏幕、窄带的用户装置(如移动电话)优化。 WAP协议是公开的、全球性的标准,由有兴趣参加WAP FORUM的成员共同讨论、制定和拥有, 它使无线装置可心轻易、实时地交流信息和服务。
WAP用途是什么?
根据瑞典AU-SYSTEM公司无线解决方案概念发展部经理Anders Holm博士,最近在我国主办的一场WAP训练讲座会上表示,WAP是一个全球统一的“免执照”无线网际网络协议,让无线器材用户,尤其是流动电话用户,能够透过该项协议上网享受网际网络的好处。
为什么出现WAP?
因为网际网络不断出现新的附加价值服务,例如网际网络传真、网际网络电话、电子邮件、电子商业、网际网络音乐、网际网络影视和下载软体等。目前的流动网络(Mobile Network)已无法应付这些苛刻要求。因此,资讯工艺业界研制出WAP,让使用流动网络的用户(泛指流动电话用户)能够享受上述的服务。
为什么流动电话必须采用WAP上网?
虽然现在已有人以流动电话网络代替有线电话网络,连接至现有网际网络供应商(ISP)的入口点,或称场点(Point of Presence,PoP)上网浏览。不过,速度缓慢(通常只有9.6kbps)而效率也都不理想。加上流动电话有多种限制,所以必须使用专为突破这些限制而设的WAP技术。
流动电话上网有什么限制?
流动电话上网的限制很多,譬如:记忆体容量小、微处理器运算能力低、显示荧幕小、键盘按钮和无线接收天线频宽受限等。这一切都使流动电话用户不能享受目前有线网际网络用户所能享有的优点。
什么是WAP主要特征?
博士指出,WAP涵盖了4大主要领域,分别是专门为流动器材创建服务而设的“标志语言”(Markup Language)和“脚本语言”(Script Language)、专供减少所需频宽和可能潜在阻碍的“袖珍协议组”(Lightweight Protocol Stack),以及允许登录电脑电话通讯相关功能的“无线电脑电话通讯应用程序结构”(Wireless Telephony Applications Framework)。
采用WAP上网有什么优点?
人们完全可以实现“普及运算时代”随时随地随心所欲的上网。如果您还对“无线”的优点毫无了解,那么请看看您的电脑机箱后,那一大团“剪不断,理还乱”的电线,你就会明白无线上网的好处。
是谁最早研制WAP?
在1997年,流动电话制造商和电讯业的大头头们,爱立信(Ericsson)、摩多罗拉(Motorola)、诺基亚(Nokia)和Unwired Planet最早成立一个WAP论坛,合力研制WAP。
WAP论坛目前有多少会员?
至今,超过300家资讯工艺公司或机构已经加入WAP论坛成为会员,包括全球软体霸王微软公司(Microsoft)。
WAP论坛目标是什么?
成立WAP论坛的主要目的是要建立开放式WAP标准。此外,开发无线网络科技和消除无线网络限制也是WAP论坛的任务。该论坛也负责继续改善和扩展现有标准。
WAP可提供什么服务?
基本上,WAP可几乎可以提供所有文本式(Text)的服务,不过,暂时还不能提供包涵图象与彩色显示网页。WAP的服务可简单分成5大领域即:WAP入口网站、资讯服务、电子商务、客户服务、企业内联网附加服务和改善与增加现有流动电话服务。
WAP的未来发展趋势?
WAP的未来发展将集中于改善现在使用中的WAP 1.2版本。未来的主要发展附加功能有:可根据不同流动电话显示荧幕调整内容显示方式的“用户器材形象识辨系统”及建立流动电话使用精明卡的标准等。
WAP经过什么阶段的开发过程?
自1997年7月26日成立WAP论坛后,于1998年4月30日就推出1.0版本的WAP。不过,现在已不再使用1.0版本。随后在1999年6月30日批准首个1.1版本。这也是首个实用的WAP标准。1999年10月,超过200家公司加入成为WAP论坛会员。1999年12月推出1.2版本。
蓝牙与WAP有何关系?
蓝牙主要是设备之间的本地连接技术。很多有关蓝牙的应用也牵涉到WAP的无线应用。许多蓝牙成员亦是WAP成员。未来的手持无线设备希望同时含有蓝牙和WAP技术。二者解决的问题不同。
STK(SIM Tool Kit)是不是WAP的竞争技术?
STK是一种以SIM卡为核心的应用技术,仅用于GSM、SMS和USSD传输,应用均由SIM卡执行。WAP独立于各种网络技术,传输的内容和服务由网络服务器执行。二者有重叠之处,在同时有HTML操作的情况下,WAP是一种更好的选择。STK的主要供商同时也是WAP的成员,现正为开发二者的接口而努力。SIM卡在未来有一个作用,可用于WAP加密和存储个人化/特定营运商内容。
WAP怎样将电话技术与互联网服务结合起来?
WAP 1.1版包含一种可选择的标准WTA(WIRELESS TELEPHONY APPLICATIONS),使WML和WMLScript可处理接收和拔出电话。营运商可通过简单编程和一个WTA服务器,开发语音和互联网结合的服务。
WML可不可以使有WAP功能的装置拔打电话?
WAP手机的电话功能可通过WIRELESS TELEPHONY APPLICATION INTERFACE(WTAI)进行。例如: WMLScript: WTAPublic.MakeCall("9287787")
WAP安全吗?
安全。WAP包含了名为WTLS的适用于移动环境的认证和加密标准。
GSM的WAP数据承载类型是什么?
可以是SMS(Short Message Service)或是CSD(Circuit Switched Data)。后者的频宽更大。
WML与XML有何不同?
XML语言由W3C制定的META语言,是为特定应用程序加入其它语言的一系列规则。XML不直接加密内容,而由XML规定的特定标识语言进行加密。WML完全遵循XML规则,是无线应用的一种特定语言,因此是XML其中一种应用。
从哪里可以得到WAP GATEWAY?
NOKIA开发了一个专门的WAP网关和服务器。

详情请访问http://www.nokia.com/corporate/wap
是不是一定要WAP GATEWAY?
不一定。如果你只提供单纯的WAP内容,可以用现有的网络服务器,只改变MIME类型就可以;移动用户通过网络营运商的GATEWAY连接到你的服务器上。WAP GATEWAY是移动系统的一部分,用来执行应用有其优越性,你可以看到某些信息,如拔号人的电话号码、身份或者有可能知道拔出地点。
WAP GATEWAY是什么?
是移动网络中的构成软件,连接互联网和局域网,以使支持WAP的手机获得网上内容和应用。一些WAP GATEWAY还可以将HTML文件转换成WML文件。
WAP为什么不采用现有的互联网标准?
WAP是在采用现有的互联网标准。WAP体系的建立是为移动装置提供互联网服务。此外,WAP仍然采用了如XML,UDP和IP等互联网标准。无线应用协议是在如HTTP和TLS等互联网标准的基础上进行优化,更适用于有突出限制的无线环境。它利用二进位制进行数据压缩,配合无线环境下较长的反应延迟和中等以下的带宽;它可应付间断的覆盖,并在可使用或不可使用IP的无线传输中发挥作用。WML语言使用户可在小屏幕、小键盘的手持设备上进行单手操作,并为智能电话和通信设备提供内置的全图象的双线显示。
GPRS会不会与WAP的竞争?
不会。WAP可应用于GPRS。GPRS在更底层(网络层至IP层),WAP在高一些的层面上运作。两种标准的协同已包含在WAP标准中。
更高带宽的第三代网络仍需要WAP吗?
就算是带宽增加了,带宽的使用不会变成零成本,原因如终端的电力消耗更大,射频方面的成本更高,射频频变谱资源的利用程度更大和网络负荷增加等。原来的限制因素在第三代仍然存在,如间断的信号覆盖、细小的屏幕、低功率的设备、各类不同的数据模式、制式和终端等,说明有必要继续优化无线环境中的设备和系统资源。如果WAP在2.5代的大众化市场取得成功,那么第三代就仅仅是为同样的应用解决了系统负荷的问题。
WAP可在GPRS上运行吗?
可以。GPRS是一种新的数据包传输的无线服务。它会使WAP的传输速度大大提高,比在GSM的SMS和CSD基础上的WAP速度更快。
WAP可运行于哪些移动网络?
WAP在设计上保证了足够的弹性,可运行于很多不同网络技术上,包括GSM,PDC,CDPD,CDMA,TDMA,PHS,DECT,以及未来的第三代移动标准。
哪些操作系统与WAP兼容?
WAP是一种通信协议和应用环境,可在很多操作系统内工作,如PalmOS, EPOC, Windows CE, FLEXOS, OS/9, JavaOS等。它为不同种类的设备提供相互沟通的途径。
WAP用户端必须使用哪些操作系统?
可能主要使用EPOC,WINDOWS CE,PALMOS或其它系统。
WAP适不适合多媒体服务?
WAP为现有的无线通信设备而设计。WAP需额外增加一个相对很小的记忆容量,在普通应用产品基础上添加WAP功能应不会涉及设计上的重大改变。WAP产品的规模化生产使其价格可为普通用户接受。
哪些用户装置会使用WAP?
WAP标准不假定何种用户装置类型,只假定装置的大小和频宽限制。典型的是手持设备, 包括移动电话、个人数据助理(PDA)或传呼机。使这些设备支持WAP功能不会大幅提高其生产成本。
WAP适合哪些用途?
大部分在互联网上成功的互动服务可望在WAP世界中进行,例如信息服务,新闻、报价、线上购物、互动游戏和广告等等;WAP也同样可用于企业内部应用,如公司电话指南,或使在办公室以外的人员索取数据或资料;无线接入还应带来其它机会,如与位置有关的服务或复杂的电话应用,比如,渡假人士可以从手机上找到合适的餐馆,随即自动致电订位。
WAP FORUM是什么?
WAP FORUM是由多个会员组成的行业协会。它制定了WAP的标准。其主要目标为联合无线通信行业的各个不同领域的公司,保证产品的兼容性和行业的发展。WAP FORUM会员代表了占世界移动电话市场九成以上的制造商、覆盖用户超过一亿人数的营运商、主要的基础设施供应商,以及为无线通信行业提供解决方案的软件开发人员和组织。

请参http://www.wapforum.org/
i-mode将取代WAP吗?
这是不可能的。WAP是目前全球唯一一个得到广泛认可、开放、公开的国际标准。其成员包括全球95%的手机生产厂家、运营商、系统开发商。WAP商用系统建设才开展一年多,就有139家运营商安装了WAP系统,会员单位发展到近600家。支持的终端种类达17种,注册的开发商有30万家,WAP/WML网页有440万个。而i-mode运行了快两年了,全球也只有NTT DoCoMo公司一家使用。

  其次,WAP采用基于XML的WML语言,而i-mode 采用Compact HTML语言。XML语言是未来互联网世界的下一代语言,基于XML的WML在较长一段时间里将是最合适的移动互联网页面描述语言。

  按照WAPForum首席执行官Goldman的说法,“i- mode的下一代技术正朝着WAP的方向发展,大家很快就会看到,一种融合WAP和i-mode特征的技术将不久面世。我们可以很肯定地说WAP绝不会采用CHTML作为语言规范,因为它并非建立在XML基础上”。
WAP技术是否正走向没落?
无论从WAP标准还是业界的支持来说,WAP并没有走向没落。从1999年的250个成员发展到今天的591个成员,事实证明WAP正受到越来越多的肯定,它没有没落,反而正在高水平地发展。同时i-mode的成功也恰恰说明了移动互联网商业模式的成功。

  WAP自身也在不断发展完善,正在制定中的WAP 下一版本将支持彩色图形、动画、大文件下载、多媒体、基于位置的服务、设备供应、先进的人机界面数据同步等。下一代的WAP还包括 XHTML 和 IP ,同时保持 100% 的向后兼容。而且WAPForum拥有众多会员的支持,规范一经制定就会成为全球通用的标准。
WAP技术将随着3G的到来而消失?
在无线环境下,WML 浏览器是必要的,因为它提供了最优化的设计:包括独特的人机接口 (“一指" 浏览)、小屏幕 (任何一种表示语言都需要重新格式化)、位置信息的提供、与电话应用相结合、非浏览模式“Pushed" 信息,同时WAP也提供内容服务需要的标准和平台支持。

  无论现在还是将来,频谱资源都不是免费的。未来3G的数据传输速率最大为384kbps,带宽不足使TCP和HTTP在GPRS网络上无能为力,但WAP却在GPRS网络上具有光明的将来。以HTTP 1.0为例,每一对连接都将占用一条信道,这将造成经常性的网络阻塞,但WAP却可以更好地利用宽带资源。

  此外,WAP是小屏幕浏览器的最佳选择,而轻便和小屏幕仍然是未来手机的发展趋势。
飞利浦530手机关于收发邮件及WAP的精简解说
上网,首先要开通GPRS。具体开通办法各地可能不同,最简单的是打1860去问。联通用户不可开通GPRS,移动的动感地带和全球通可以。开通后,手机设定-》网络-》GPRS登陆选择 中拨动OK键上下移动选择是“始终在线”还是“需要时打开”(两种设定的优点和缺点详见说明书)。在530上启动了GPRS后屏幕左上角会显示“GPRS”字样。

  530和网络连接主要是两种形式:登陆WAP和登陆电子邮箱。

  一,登陆WAP:用530浏览WAP网页。开启该功能的方法:1,在手机设定的左边,选择WAP;2,长按拨出键(绿色的那个)。进入后看到几个选项。第一个是你的主页。第二个是收藏夹,我的机器内置了两个链接:Ringer 和 Picture,都是SOHU的;我的感觉是比较好登陆而且下载比较快;可以用这个来试是否开通了GPRS,如果顺利下载了一个铃声或图片就说明没问题。第四个“设置”中的“缓存”选项要注意,每次上网后在此清除缓存,否则会占用内存空间。第五个“弹入式收件箱”可以自动接收一些信息;如果你在屏幕上看到一个红色的@标志那说明你的弹入式收件箱里有信息了,查看以后就没有了。要注意的有两点:一是要想正常上网,不要改动机器原来的设置,全部用默认的,不然就不一定能上了;二是再新的网页出来后不要着急按OK,先上下拨动,等能动了以后再按OK,不然点中了什么链接是有可能增夹加不必要的费用哦。最后要注意的是:不要随便定制任何服务;不清楚的服务不要点,否则无意中定了以后又不知道如何取消就要花很多的费用的。

  二,登陆e-mail。进入手机设定,短信-》电子邮件,有两个邮件的选择,随便选一个;进入手机设定-》邮件服务器,设置:

  邮件地址:你使用的邮箱的地址,建议使用:123@163.com(假设你的邮箱是123@163.com)

  smtp地址:发送邮件的smtp服务器地址,建议使用:smtp.163.com

  pop3地址:收取邮件的pop3服务器地址,建议使用:pop3.163.com

  账户名:输入你的账户的名字,比如123

  密码:输入你邮箱的密码

  POP3端口:默认设为110

  SMTP端口:默认设为25

  DNS地址:默认0.0.0.0

  其余的项目均用默认设置。

  进入“高级设定”

  smtp认证:选择使用认证。上网设置里,GPRS设定里APN要填cmnet

  到此全部完成。然后进入“打开邮箱”即可直接看到你邮箱中收件箱中的邮件。在此又有个建议:建议把你邮箱中的收件箱中腾空,因为在手机上看不到是谁发的,只能看到发件人的地址,所以邮件少几个可以方便识别。推荐使用网易的邮箱,又是免费的;我使用着非常稳定,速度也快,如果别的邮箱不能正常使用那就用这个。邮件大小如果大于50KB则不能收看。

  用530上邮箱最大的用处是,可以把你放在邮箱里的文件下到手机上,尤其是在没有红外的情况下更是很方便,而且不贵,按GPRS流量收费。

  最后有几个要注意的地方,一是GPRS的流量显示一直以来我都不明白是怎么显示的,后来终于发现其实是用WAP上网无法显示流量;但用e-mail下载邮件后可以显示上一次下载的大小,大家可以试下看。二是在邮箱输入中很多朋友问怎么输入“@”,其实很简单,连续按“1”键即可。
How can I display different languages in WAP pages?
Insert this string to the xml-header: encoding="utf-8". The full header will then look like <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>. Now your text will be encoded with UTF-8 encoding. Note that not all devices support all languages - always check that the device in question supports that specific language.
Where can I find information about the screen sizes, maximum WML deck sizes, etc., of Nokia devices?
Please see the documents Browser Characteristics in Nokia GSM Devices and Browser MIME Types in Nokia GSM Devices in the Documents section of the Browsing page on the Forum Nokia Web site www.forum.nokia.com/browsing
How can I identify the type of the end user's WAP browser on the server side?
The User Agent String is sent in the HTTP headers with every request. This string identifies the device model and Java™ version, but contains limited information about other capabilities. If content developers desire to customize content for specific devices, this is the most convenient, and universally available, mechanism.
What is UAProf ?
The User Agent Profile (UAProf) is an XML document stored independently on a publicly accessible web server. The URL for the profile is sent as one of the HTTP headers in each request. The profile itself contains detailed information about supported content types, screen size, RAM, ROM, etc. Using UAProf information, the content server can deliver content most suited to the capabilities of the device.

Nokia recommends that developers use UAProf to customize their services for Nokia devices. Developers can either use the UAProf architecture to do this or manually pull the information out of the UAProf files, create their own database from this, and use the user agent header to display the correct content. The list of available UAProf files for Nokia devices can be found at http://nds.nokia.com/uaprof/uaprof_list.txt and UAProf files can be accessed at http://nds1.nds.nokia.com/uaprof/<filename_here>. For further information about UAProf, see the document Introduction to User Agent Profile at www.forum.nokia.com/documents.

Content developers who do not customize content based on the user-agent string or UAProf should design forms and input elements that are easy to complete using the standard touch-tone keys combined with predictive text entry.
Can I request the MSISDN number of the subscriber from the WAP gateway ?
Nokia's WAP gateway sends the MSISDN number in the HTTP header. The parameter is called X-Nokia-MSISDN. It should be noted that even though Nokia’s WAP gateway is able to send the MSISDN number in the HTTP header, not all operators allow this to happen. Ultimately, your ability to use the MSISDN number depends on the local operator(s).
Can I offer precompiled WML pages ?
The WML page can be in a compiled form already in the origin server. However, it needs to go through the WAP gateway because the HTTP request/responses are converted into the WAP request/responses and reversed at this point. The transfer is more efficient and no time is needed for encoding in the WAP gateway when the pages are already compiled. A WAP gateway may also cache the compiled pages and thus reduce the encoding overhead.
Can I assign tasks and labels to the buttons in Nokia WAP devices ?
Devices may have either two or three softkeys. In devices that have two softkeys, the left softkey contains options that execute commands and go deeper into the menu structure. Some example functions are Select, OK, and Options.

The right softkey is used as a no/negative key. It contains options that cancel commands, delete text, and go backwards in the menu structure. Examples include Back, Exit, and Clear.

In devices that have a third softkey, the middle softkey provides direct access to the default highlighted option, such as opening a browser link. The user can directly perform that function by pressing the middle softkey.
What is the cache management policy in Nokia WAP devices?
Data is kept in the cache according to the HTTP caching rules. If no caching controls have been defined, the data is cached until the cache is cleared manually or it is removed because the cache is full.

Control of cache storing
The cache storing in the client can be controlled using HTTP headers or by having HTTP-EQUIV meta tags in the WML content. If no caching is preferred, it is recommended to use the following meta tag: <meta http-equiv="Cache-Control" content="no-cache"/>.
What is the recommended content size for Series 40 devices?
All Series 40 devices support documents up to 32 KB in size, including an external style sheet or embedded images. No single text block (paragraph) should be larger than 10 KB, and tables should not be nested more than two levels deep. Some Series 40 devices support documents up to 100 KB in size (including images). In cases where an external style sheet or embedded image exceeds the limit of total content size for a document, the primary document will be displayed with an icon indicating images that failed to load, and formatted according to the style attributes present in the primary document. It is therefore recommended that if larger content sizes are used, the primary document (excluding images and external style sheet) is always less than 32 KB in size. This will ensure that the content, including links, will be displayed, even on devices with a 32 KB total maximum content size.
How is session handling arranged in Nokia WAP devices ?
There are many ways to implement session handling:
Cookies (WAP gateway may handle the cookies on behalf of the WAP terminal.)
The WML parameters. These variables are controlled by the browser and can be passed back to the server.
URL encoded. The session ID is added to the links in pages generated by the server.
Identifiers added in HTTP header by the WAP gateway. It could be either the MSISDN or the IP number. This implementation should be used with care since it may vary between different WAP gateways.
How do Nokia WAP devices set up a WTLS session ?
The browser settings indicate whether WTLS should be used or not. If security is required from a service provider, the WAP gateway must deny any connections on unsecured channels or at least deny requests for sensitive content via unsecured channels.
Secure or insecure connections ?
When delivering data to a device with a TCP/IP stack, the choice of secure or insecure connection is under the control of the content developer. Using the https: scheme (or an upgrade HTTP heading in response to a request using http:) will result in an HTTPS (secure) socket. Use of the http: scheme for a request will result in an insecure socket. On devices with a WAP stack, http: and https: are treated as synonyms, and the security of the connection is based on the value of the “Security” item in the “Connection Settings”. It is advisable to provide some warning or suggestion regarding this security setting when delivering sensitive or private information to devices with a WAP stack.
Do Nokia WAP devices support server and/or client authentication ?
Only server authentication is supported.
What can I do with WTAI Public Library functions ?
With Wireless Telephony Applications Interface (WTAI) Public Library functions you can:

Make a call while browsing (MakeCall)
Send DTMF tones (SendDTMF)
Save numbers and names to the phone book from a WML page (AddPBEntry)
What is the Mobile Wallet application ?
The wallet inside a mobile device is the first step towards Personal Trusted Devices. The mobile wallet application enables users to make convenient mobile transactions via WAP browsers. The mobile wallet application allows users to store sensitive information such as passwords, credit card names and numbers, account numbers, etc. in a secure manner and retrieve them when needed to fill in input fields during browsing. The mobile wallet application is based on existing open technologies: WAP and Electronic Commerce Modeling Language (ECML).

Most models with XHTML support include Mobile Wallet 1.0. Recent devices have an improved version called Wallet 2.0, which adds support for access cards and OTA card downloading.
What is WIM ?
Wireless Identity Module (WIM) is a security module on the device, which is used for authenticated payments. Its main function is to enable digital signatures. All the security information needed for digital signatures and WTLS client authentication, such as the keys and the certificates, are stored in the security module. For more information about wallet and WIM, please see the Mobile Commerce page in the Technologies section of the Forum Nokia Web site www.forum.nokia.com/technologies.
How does the Push Service Indication work ?
The Service Indication content type enables an alert message to be sent to users. A Service Indication must contain at least the text to be displayed to the user and a URL address of content that may be dynamically generated for each push message in the application server

The following are examples of a push message in hex and HTTP forms:

HEX:

Header:

0605040B8423F0

User data:

42061B03AE81EA456E636F64696E672D766 57273696F6E00312E32008DA302

056A0045C60D0366696E6E6169722E66692 F77617000010346696E6E616972000101

HTTP:

POST /PGW/ HTTP/1.1
Content-Type: multipart/related; boundary=multipart-boundary; type="application/xml"
Authorization: Basic abcd 1234
User-Agent: Java/1.4.1
Host: 10.11.12.13:5080
Accept: text/html, image/gif, image/jpeg, *; q=.2, */*; q=.2
Connection: keep-alive
Content-Length: 624

--multipart-boundary
Content-type: application/xml

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!DOCTYPE pap PUBLIC "-//WAPFORUM//DTD PAP 1.0//EN" "http://www.wapforum.org/DTD/pap_1.0.dtd" >
<pap product-name="Mobile Zoo Push Initiator">
<push-message push-id="1053611763751:0">
<address address-value="WAPPUSH=+35840123123/TYPE=PLMN@10.11.12.13"/>
</push-message>
</pap>

--multipart-boundary
Content-type: text/vnd.wap.si

<?xml version="1.0"?><!DOCTYPE si PUBLIC "-//WAPFORUM//DTD SI 1.0//EN" "http://www.wapforum.org/DTD/si.dtd"><si>
<indication href="http://www.testserver.com/wap">Service 1</indication>
</si>
What is SAR ?
The Segmentation and Reassembly (SAR) functionality is an optional feature in the Wireless Transport Protocol (WTP) layer defined by the OMA. SAR is used to split large WTP messages into a number of smaller datagrams and selectively retransmit failed datagrams. The use of SAR improves over-the-air efficiency for downloading large messages to the device and makes content downloading, for example, a Java™ MIDlet download, and MMS transfer faster and more reliable. To use SAR, it must be supported by both of the communicating parties, typically the WAP gateway and the WAP browser.
How does file download work ?
Images can be used for links, enhancing visual appearance, list markers, and to represent text where the desired fonts and styles may not be available on the client. Processing images requires network requests and RAM so care should be taken to use the lowest possible resolution and number of images. WBMP (Wireless Bitmap) is the black-and-white image format specified by the WAP Forum and is widely supported, however, JPEG (Jet Propulsion Encapsulated Graphics) and GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) are also supported by the Nokia XHTML Browser, and are compact color image formats capable of providing substantially more visual appeal on color terminals.
How can images enhance markup ?
Images can be used for links, enhancing visual appearance, list markers, and to represent text where the desired fonts and styles may not be available on the client. Processing images requires network requests and RAM so care should be taken to use the lowest possible resolution and number of images. WBMP (Wireless Bitmap) is the black-and-white image format specified by the WAP Forum and is widely supported, however, JPEG (Jet Propulsion Encapsulated Graphics) and GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) are also supported by the Nokia XHTML Browser, and are compact color image formats capable of providing substantially more visual appeal on color terminals.
Which font does the Series 40 XHTML Browser support ?
Within the Series 40 XHTML Browser in most countries, one font family (sans-serif) in three font sizes (8px, 11px and 13px) is supported. On terminals destined for sale in China, Japan, and other APAC countries, only 11px and 13px sizes are available. For each of these (two or three) sizes bold and italic styles are available. Bold-italic is not generally available. Other font families, sizes, weight, and styles are mapped as appropriate onto available fonts. For these six possible combinations, all two-byte Unicode characters are supported.

The user may be able to set the default size for "normal" fonts through a browser application appearance setting. In the cases where the user has selected "small" as the default font size, only the 8px and 11px sizes are used. If the user has selected “large” as the default, only the 11px and 13px sizes are used. Consequently, content developers should rely on no more than three distinct font sizes when designing documents, and the most conservative strategy would include only relying on two different font sizes.

On color displays the same set of colors are available for fonts as are available for images. It is therefore recommended that content developers use (Web-safe) colors, rather than style, weight, or size, to distinguish sections of text.
Which factors affect the download speed ?
Network speeds vary tremendously, as do effective download speeds. Multiple small requests will be faster on Circuit-Switched-Data (CSD) connections, whereas fewer larger requests will be faster on General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) connections. Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), Wide-band CDMA (WCDMA) and EDGE connections will all have different throughput characteristics. Since the content developer cannot easily determine the network connection type, it is recommended that every effort be made to keep the content contained in a fairly small number of individual files (ten or less), balancing the number of requests against the size of any individual file.
WAP业务是否有三天免费,以后再扣费么?
没有。直接扣费。
适配一般都用那些声音格式?
4 16 24 32 40 64和弦mid
amr
16 40 64mmf
mp3
0
0

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