Interactive Python：Mini-project # 7 - Spaceship
Mini-project description - Spaceship
In our last two mini-projects, we will build a 2D space game RiceRocks that is inspired by the classic arcade game Asteroids (1979). Asteroids is a relatively simple game by today's standards, but was still immensely popular during its time. (Joe spent countless quarters playing it.) In the game, the player controls a spaceship via four buttons: two buttons that rotate the spaceship clockwise or counterclockwise (independent of its current velocity), a thrust button that accelerates the ship in its forward direction and a fire button that shoots missiles. Large asteroids spawn randomly on the screen with random velocities. The player's goal is to destroy these asteroids before they strike the player's ship. In the arcade version, a large rock hit by a missile split into several fast moving small asteroids that themselves must be destroyed. Occasionally, a flying saucer also crosses the screen and attempts to destroy the player's spaceship. Searching for "asteroids arcade" yields links to multiple versions of Asteroids that are available on the web (including an updated version by Atari, the original creator of Asteroids).
Mini-project development processFor this mini-project, you will implement a working spaceship plus add a single asteroid and a single missile. We have provided art for your game so its look and feel is that of a more modern game. You should begin by loading the program template.The program template includes all necessary image and audio files. Unfortunately, no audio format is supported by all major browsers so we have decided to provided sounds in the
mp3format which is supported by Chrome (but not by Firefox on some systems). (
oggversions are also available.) We highly recommend using Chrome for the last two weeks of the class. We have found that Chrome typically has better performance on games with more substantial drawing requirements and standardization on a common browser will make peer assessing projects more reliable.
Phase one - Spaceship
In this phase, you will implement the control scheme for the spaceship.This includes a complete Spaceship class and the appropriate keyboard handlers to control the spaceship. Your spaceship should behave as follows:
- The left and right arrows should control the orientation of your spaceship. While the left arrow is held down, your spaceship should turn counter-clockwise. While the right arrow is down, your spaceship should turn clockwise. When neither key is down, your ship should maintain its orientation. You will need to pick some reasonable angular velocity at which your ship should turn.
- The up arrow should control the thrusters of your spaceship. The thrusters should be on when the up arrow is down and off when it is up. When the thrusters are on, you should draw the ship with thrust flames. When the thrusters are off, you should draw the ship without thrust flames.
- When thrusting, the ship should accelerate in the direction of its forward vector. This vector can be computed from the orientation/angle of the ship using the provided helper function
angle_to_vector. You will need to experiment with scaling each component of this acceleration vector to generate a reasonable acceleration.
- Remember that while the ship accelerates in its forward direction, but the ship always moves in the direction of its velocity vector. Being able to accelerate in a direction different than the direction that you are moving is a hallmark of Asteroids.
- Your ship should always experience some amount of friction. (Yeah, we know, "Why is there friction in the vacuum of space?". Just trust us there is in this game.) This choice means that the velocity should always be multiplied by a constant factor less than one to slow the ship down. It will then come to a stop eventually after you stop the thrusters.
- Modify the draw method for the Ship class to draw the ship image (without thrust flames) instead of a circle. This method should incorporate the ship's position and angle. Note that the angle should be in radians, not degrees. Since a call to the ship's draw method already exists in the draw handler, you should now see the ship image. Experiment with different positions and angles for the ship.
- Implement an initial version of the update method for the ship. This version should update the position of the ship based on its velocity. Since a call to the update method also already exists in the draw handler, the ship should move in response to different initial velocities.
- Modify the update method for the ship to increment its angle by its angular velocity.
- Make your ship turn in response to the left/right arrow keys. Add keydown and keyup handlers that check the left and right arrow keys. Add methods to the Ship class to increment and decrement the angular velocity by a fixed amount. (There is some flexibility in how you structure these methods.) Call these methods in the keyboard handlers appropriately and verify that you can turn your ship as you expect.
- Modify the keyboard handlers to turn the ship's thrusters on/off. Add a method to the Ship class to turn the thrusters on/off (you can make it take a Boolean argument which is True or False to decide if they should be on or off).
- Modify the ship's draw method to draw the thrust image when it is on. (The ship image is tiled and contains both images of the ship.)
- Modify the ship's thrust method to play the thrust sound when the thrust is on. Rewind the sound when the thrust turns off.
- Add code to the ship's update method to use the given helper function
angle_to_vectorto compute the forward vector pointing in the direction the ship is facing based on the ship's angle.
- Next, add code to the ship's update method to accelerate the ship in the direction of this forward vector when the ship is thrusting. You will need to update the velocity vector by a small fraction of the forward acceleration vector so that the ship does not accelerate too fast.
- Then, modify the ship's update method such that the ship's position wraps around the screen when it goes off the edge (use modular arithmetic!).
- Up to this point, your ship will never slow down. Finally, add friction to the ship's update method as shown in the "Acceleration and Friction" video by multiplying each component of the velocity by a number slightly less than 1 during each update.
Phase two - Rocks
To implement rocks, we will use the provided Sprite class. Note that the update method for the sprite will be very similar to the update method for the ship. The primary difference is that the ship's velocity and rotation are controlled by keys, whereas sprites have these set randomly when they are created. Rocks should screen wrap in the same manner as the ship.
In the template, the global variable
created at the start with zero velocity. Instead, we want to create version of
every second in the timer handler. Next week, we will add multiple rocks. This week, the ship will not die if it hits a rock. We'll add that next week. To implement rocks, we suggest the following:
- Complete the Sprite class (as shown in the "Sprite class" video) by modifying the draw handler to draw the actual image and the update handler to make the sprite move and rotate. Rocks do not accelerate or experience friction, so
the sprite update method should be simpler than the ship update method. Test this by giving
a_rockdifferent starting parameters and ensuring it behaves as you expect.
- Implement the timer handler
rock_spawner. In particular, set
a_rockto be a new rock on every tick. (Don't forget to declare
a_rockas a global in the timer handler.) Choose a velocity, position, and angular velocity randomly for the rock. You will want to tweak the ranges of these random numbers, as that will affect how fun the game is to play. Make sure you generated rocks that spin in both directions and, likewise, move in all directions.
To implement missiles, we will use the same sprite class as for rocks. Missiles will always have a zero angular velocity. They will also have a lifespan (they should disappear after a certain amount of time or you will eventually have missiles all over the place), but we will ignore that this week. Also, for now, we will only allow a single missile and it will not yet blow up rocks. We'll add more next week.
Your missile should be created when you press the spacebar, not on a timer like rocks. They should screen wrap just as the ship and rocks do. Otherwise, the process is very similar:
- Add a
shootmethod to your ship class. This should spawn a new missile (for now just replace the old missile in
a_missile). The missile's initial position should be the tip of your ship's "cannon". Its velocity should be the sum of the ship's velocity and a multiple of the ship's forward vector.
- Modify the keydown handler to call this shoot method when the spacebar is pressed.
- Make sure that the missile sound is passed to the sprite initializer so that the shooting sound is played whenever you shoot a missile.
Our user interface for RiceRocks simply shows the number of lives remaining and the score. This week neither of those elements ever change, but they will next week. Add code to the draw event handler to draw these on the
canvas. Use the
variables as the current lives remaining and score.
# program template for Spaceship import simplegui import math import random # globals for user interface WIDTH = 800 HEIGHT = 600 score = 0 lives = 3 time = 0.5 class ImageInfo: def __init__(self, center, size, radius = 0, lifespan = None, animated = False): self.center = center self.size = size self.radius = radius if lifespan: self.lifespan = lifespan else: self.lifespan = float('inf') self.animated = animated def get_center(self): return self.center def get_size(self): return self.size def get_radius(self): return self.radius def get_lifespan(self): return self.lifespan def get_animated(self): return self.animated # art assets created by Kim Lathrop, may be freely re-used in non-commercial projects, please credit Kim # debris images - debris1_brown.png, debris2_brown.png, debris3_brown.png, debris4_brown.png # debris1_blue.png, debris2_blue.png, debris3_blue.png, debris4_blue.png, debris_blend.png debris_info = ImageInfo([320, 240], [640, 480]) debris_image = simplegui.load_image("http://commondatastorage.googleapis.com/codeskulptor-assets/lathrop/debris2_blue.png") # nebula images - nebula_brown.png, nebula_blue.png nebula_info = ImageInfo([400, 300], [800, 600]) nebula_image = simplegui.load_image("http://commondatastorage.googleapis.com/codeskulptor-assets/lathrop/nebula_blue.png") # splash image splash_info = ImageInfo([200, 150], [400, 300]) splash_image = simplegui.load_image("http://commondatastorage.googleapis.com/codeskulptor-assets/lathrop/splash.png") # ship image ship_info = ImageInfo([45, 45], [90, 90], 35) ship_image = simplegui.load_image("http://commondatastorage.googleapis.com/codeskulptor-assets/lathrop/double_ship.png") # missile image - shot1.png, shot2.png, shot3.png missile_info = ImageInfo([5,5], [10, 10], 3, 50) missile_image = simplegui.load_image("http://commondatastorage.googleapis.com/codeskulptor-assets/lathrop/shot2.png") # asteroid images - asteroid_blue.png, asteroid_brown.png, asteroid_blend.png asteroid_info = ImageInfo([45, 45], [90, 90], 40) asteroid_image = simplegui.load_image("http://commondatastorage.googleapis.com/codeskulptor-assets/lathrop/asteroid_blue.png") # animated explosion - explosion_orange.png, explosion_blue.png, explosion_blue2.png, explosion_alpha.png explosion_info = ImageInfo([64, 64], [128, 128], 17, 24, True) explosion_image = simplegui.load_image("http://commondatastorage.googleapis.com/codeskulptor-assets/lathrop/explosion_alpha.png") # sound assets purchased from sounddogs.com, please do not redistribute soundtrack = simplegui.load_sound("http://commondatastorage.googleapis.com/codeskulptor-assets/sounddogs/soundtrack.mp3") missile_sound = simplegui.load_sound("http://commondatastorage.googleapis.com/codeskulptor-assets/sounddogs/missile.ogg") missile_sound.set_volume(.5) ship_thrust_sound = simplegui.load_sound("http://commondatastorage.googleapis.com/codeskulptor-assets/sounddogs/thrust.ogg") explosion_sound = simplegui.load_sound("http://commondatastorage.googleapis.com/codeskulptor-assets/sounddogs/explosion.mp3") # helper functions to handle transformations def angle_to_vector(ang): return [math.cos(ang), math.sin(ang)] def dist(p,q): return math.sqrt((p - q) ** 2+(p - q) ** 2) # Ship class class Ship: def __init__(self, pos, vel, angle, image, info): self.pos = [pos,pos] self.vel = [vel,vel] self.thrust = False self.angle = angle self.angle_vel = 0 self.image = image self.image_center = info.get_center() self.image_size = info.get_size() self.radius = info.get_radius() def draw(self,canvas): if self.thrust: self.image_center=135 else: self.image_center=45 canvas.draw_image(self.image, self.image_center, self.image_size, self.pos, self.image_size,self.angle) def update(self): self.vel*=0.98 self.vel*=0.98 self.pos+=self.vel self.pos%=WIDTH self.pos+=self.vel self.pos%=HEIGHT self.angle+=self.angle_vel if self.thrust: ship_thrust_sound.play() else: ship_thrust_sound.rewind() if self.thrust: foward=angle_to_vector(self.angle) self.vel+=foward/10 self.vel+=foward/10 def shoot(self): global a_missile foward=angle_to_vector(self.angle) tmppos=[self.pos+45*foward,self.pos+45*foward] tmpvel=[self.vel+foward*3,self.vel+foward*3] a_missile = Sprite(tmppos, tmpvel, 0, 0, missile_image, missile_info, missile_sound) missile_sound.play() # Sprite class class Sprite: def __init__(self, pos, vel, ang, ang_vel, image, info, sound = None): self.pos = [pos,pos] self.vel = [vel,vel] self.angle = ang self.angle_vel = ang_vel self.image = image self.image_center = info.get_center() self.image_size = info.get_size() self.radius = info.get_radius() self.lifespan = info.get_lifespan() self.animated = info.get_animated() self.age = 0 if sound: sound.rewind() sound.play() def draw(self, canvas): canvas.draw_image(self.image, self.image_center, self.image_size, self.pos, self.image_size,self.angle) def update(self): self.pos+=self.vel self.pos%=WIDTH self.pos+=self.vel self.pos%=HEIGHT self.angle+=self.angle_vel def draw(canvas): global time # animiate background time += 1 center = debris_info.get_center() size = debris_info.get_size() wtime = (time / 8) % center canvas.draw_image(nebula_image, nebula_info.get_center(), nebula_info.get_size(), [WIDTH / 2, HEIGHT / 2], [WIDTH, HEIGHT]) canvas.draw_image(debris_image, [center - wtime, center], [size - 2 * wtime, size], [WIDTH / 2 + 1.25 * wtime, HEIGHT / 2], [WIDTH - 2.5 * wtime, HEIGHT]) canvas.draw_image(debris_image, [size - wtime, center], [2 * wtime, size], [1.25 * wtime, HEIGHT / 2], [2.5 * wtime, HEIGHT]) # draw ship and sprites my_ship.draw(canvas) a_rock.draw(canvas) a_missile.draw(canvas) canvas.draw_text('lives:'+str(lives), (50, 50), 24, "Red") canvas.draw_text('score:'+str(score), (50, 100), 24, "Red") # update ship and sprites my_ship.update() a_rock.update() a_missile.update() # timer handler that spawns a rock def rock_spawner(): global a_rock a_rock = Sprite([random.random()*WIDTH, random.random()*HEIGHT], [random.random(), random.random()], random.random()*2*math.pi, random.random()*0.1, asteroid_image, asteroid_info) def keydown(key): if key==simplegui.KEY_MAP['left']: my_ship.angle_vel=-0.1 elif key==simplegui.KEY_MAP['right']: my_ship.angle_vel=0.1 elif key==simplegui.KEY_MAP['up']: my_ship.thrust=True elif key==simplegui.KEY_MAP['space']: my_ship.shoot() def keyup(key): if key==simplegui.KEY_MAP['left']: my_ship.angle_vel=0 elif key==simplegui.KEY_MAP['right']: my_ship.angle_vel=0 elif key==simplegui.KEY_MAP['up']: my_ship.thrust=False # initialize frame frame = simplegui.create_frame("Asteroids", WIDTH, HEIGHT) # initialize ship and two sprites my_ship = Ship([WIDTH / 2, HEIGHT / 2], [0, 0], 0, ship_image, ship_info) a_rock = Sprite([WIDTH / 3, HEIGHT / 3], [1, 1], 0, 0, asteroid_image, asteroid_info) a_missile = Sprite([2 * WIDTH / 3, 2 * HEIGHT / 3], [-1,1], 0, 0, missile_image, missile_info, missile_sound) # register handlers frame.set_draw_handler(draw) frame.set_keydown_handler(keydown) frame.set_keyup_handler(keyup) timer = simplegui.create_timer(1000.0, rock_spawner) # get things rolling timer.start() frame.start()