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# Appendix B Trigonometry（附录B 三角函数）

“Life is good for only two things, discovering mathematics and teaching mathematics.”
-Simeon Poisson

## B.1 Definitions（定义）

Fundamental trigonometric functions:sinϕ=pycosϕ=pxtanϕ=sinϕcosϕ=pypx(B.1)

MacLaurin serices:sinϕ=ϕϕ33!+ϕ55!ϕ77!++(1)nϕ2n+1(2n+1)!+cosϕ=1ϕ22!+ϕ44!ϕ66!++(1)nϕ2n(2n)!+tanϕ=ϕ+ϕ33+2ϕ515++(1)n122n(22n1)(2n)!B2nϕ2n1+(B.2)

Inverses of trigonometric functions:py=sinϕϕ=arcsinpy,1py1,π2ϕπ2px=cosϕϕ=arccospx,1px1,0ϕπpypx=tanϕϕ=arctanpypx,pypx,π2ϕπ2(B.3)

Trigonometric derivatives:dsinϕdϕ=cosϕdcosϕdϕ=sinϕdtanϕdϕ=1cos2ϕ=1+tan2ϕdarcsintdt=11t2darccostdt=11t2darctantdt=11+t2(B.4)

## B.2 Trigonometric Laws and Formulae

Right triangle laws:sinα=accosα=bctanα=sinαcosα=ab(B.5)

Pythagorean relation:c2=a2+b2(B.6)

Law of sines:Law of cosines:Law of tangents:sinαa=sinβb=sinγcc2=a2+b22abcosγa+bab=tanα+β2tanαβ2(B.7)

Newton's formula :Mollweide's formula :b+ca=cosβγ2sinα2bca=sinβγ2cosα2(B.8)

Trigonometric identity:cos2ϕ+sin2ϕ=1(B.6)

Double angle relations:sin2ϕ=2sinϕcosϕ=2tanϕ1+tan2ϕcos2ϕ=cos2ϕsin2ϕ=12sin2ϕ=2cos2ϕ1=1tan2ϕ1+tan2ϕtan2ϕ=2tanϕ1tan2ϕ(B.10)

Multiple angle relations:sin(nϕ)=2sin((n1)ϕ)cosϕsin((n2)ϕ)cos(nϕ)=2cos((n1)ϕ)cosϕcos((n2)ϕ)tan(nϕ)=tan((n1)ϕ)+tanϕ1tan((n1)ϕ)tanϕ(B.11)

Angle sum relations:sin(ϕ+ρ)=sinϕcosρ+cosϕsinρcos(ϕ+ρ)=cosϕcosρsinϕsinρtan(ϕ+ρ)=tanϕ+tanρ1tanϕtanρ(B.12)

Angle difference relations:sin(ϕρ)=sinϕcosρcosϕsinρcos(ϕρ)=cosϕcosρ+sinϕsinρtan(ϕρ)=tanϕtanρ1+tanϕtanρ(B.13)

Product relations:sinϕsinρ=12(cos(ϕρ)cos(ϕ+ρ))cosϕcosρ=12(cos(ϕρ)+cos(ϕ+ρ))sinϕcosρ=12(sin(ϕρ)+sin(ϕ+ρ))(B.14)

Function sums and differences:sinϕ+sinρ=2sinϕ+ρ2cosϕρ2cosϕ+cosρ=2cosϕ+ρ2cosϕρ2tanϕ+tanρ=sin(ϕ+ρ)cosϕcosρsinϕsinρ=2cosϕ+ρ2sinϕρ2cosϕcosρ=2sinϕ+ρ2sinϕρ2tanϕtanρ=sin(ϕρ)cosϕcosρ(B.15)

Half-angle relations:sinϕ2=±1cosϕ2cosϕ2=±1+cosϕ2tanϕ2=±1cosϕ1+cosϕ=1cosϕsinϕ=sinϕ1+cosϕ(B.15)

Graphics Gems一书中的第一章提供了计算机图形学中其他的非常实用的几何定理。在CRC Standard Mathematical Tables and Formulas第31版中包含了该附录中的所有定理公式，以及更多附录中没有提到的部分。

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