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UNIX环境高级编程之----多线程同步学习

标签: unix线程多线程同步互斥信号量
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线程的最大特点是资源的共享性,但资源共享中的同步问题是多线程编程的难点。linux下提供了多种方式来处理线程同步,最常用的是互斥锁、条件变量和信号量

  1、互斥锁(mutex

   通过锁机制实现线程间的同步。同一时刻只允许一个线程执行一个关键部分的代码。

int pthread_mutex_init(pthread_mutex_t *mutex,const pthread_mutex_attr_t*mutexattr);
int pthread_mutex_lock(pthread_mutex *mutex);
int pthread_mutex_destroy(pthread_mutex *mutex);
int pthread_mutex_unlock(pthread_mutex *

(1)先初始化锁init()或静态赋值pthread_mutex_tmutex=PTHREAD_MUTEX_INITIALIER

attr_t有:

PTHREAD_MUTEX_TIMED_NP:其余线程等待队列

PTHREAD_MUTEX_RECURSIVE_NP:嵌套锁,允许线程多次加锁,不同线程,解锁后重新竞争

PTHREAD_MUTEX_ERRORCHECK_NP:检错,与一同,线程请求已用锁,返回EDEADLK;

PTHREAD_MUTEX_ADAPTIVE_NP:适应锁,解锁后重新竞争

(2)加锁,lock,trylock,lock阻塞等待锁,trylock立即返回EBUSY

(3)解锁,unlock需满足是加锁状态,且由加锁线程解锁

(4)清除锁,destroy(此时锁必需unlock,否则返回EBUSY,//Linux下互斥锁不占用内存资源

看例子:

#include<iostream> 
#include <unistd.h> 
#include <pthread.h> 
using namespace std; 

pthread_mutex_t mutex = PTHREAD_MUTEX_INITIALIZER; 

int tmp; 

void* thread(void *arg) 
{ 
    cout << "thread id is " << pthread_self() << endl; 

    pthread_mutex_lock(&mutex); 

    tmp = 12; 

    cout << "Now a is " << tmp << endl; 

    pthread_mutex_unlock(&mutex); 

    return NULL; 
} 

int main() 
{ 
    pthread_t id; 

    cout << "main thread id is " << pthread_self() << endl; 

    tmp = 3; 

    cout << "In main func tmp = " << tmp << endl; 

    if (!pthread_create(&id, NULL, thread, NULL)) 

    { 
        cout << "Create thread success!" << endl; 
    } 
    else 
    { 
        cout << "Create thread failed!" << endl; 
    } 

    pthread_join(id, NULL); 

    pthread_mutex_destroy(&mutex); 

    return 0; 

}

编译方式1:g++ test.cpp -o test -lpthread

make方式:

ALL= test
LIB= -lpthread
objects= test.o
$(ALL) : $(objects)
        g++ -o $@ $(objects) $(LIB)
$(objects):%.o:%.cpp
        $(CC)  -c  $< -o $@
.PHONY : clean
clean:
        rm $(objects)

运行结果:./test

[uglychen@chenxun linux_chen]$ ./test 
main thread id is 3086866128
In main func tmp = 3
Create thread success!
thread id is 3086863248
Now a is 12


2、条件变量(cond

    利用线程间共享的全局变量进行同步的一种机制。条件变量上的基本操作有:触发条件(当条件变为 true );等待条件,挂起线程直到其他线程触发条件。

int pthread_cond_init(pthread_cond_t *cond,pthread_condattr_t *cond_attr);   
int pthread_cond_wait(pthread_cond_t *cond,pthread_mutex_t *mutex);
int pthread_cond_timewait(pthread_cond_t *cond,pthread_mutex *mutex,const timespec *abstime);
int pthread_cond_destroy(pthread_cond_t *cond);
int pthread_cond_signal(pthread_cond_t *cond);
int pthread_cond_broadcast(pthread_cond_t *cond);  //解除所有线程的阻塞


(1)初始化.init()或者pthread_cond_t cond=PTHREAD_COND_INITIALIER(前者为动态初始化,后者为静态初始化);属性置为NULL

(2)等待条件成立.pthread_wait,pthread_timewait.wait()释放锁,并阻塞等待条件变量为真,timewait()设置等待时间,仍未signal,返回ETIMEOUT(加锁保证只有一个线程wait)

(3)激活条件变量:pthread_cond_signal,pthread_cond_broadcast(激活所有等待线程)

(4)清除条件变量:destroy;无线程等待,否则返回EBUSY

对于

int pthread_cond_wait(pthread_cond_t *cond, pthread_mutex_t *mutex);
int pthread_cond_timedwait(pthread_cond_t *cond, pthread_mutex_t *mutex, const struct timespec *abstime);

一定要在mutex的锁定区域内使用

    如果要正确的使用pthread_mutex_lockpthread_mutex_unlock,请参考

pthread_cleanup_push和pthread_cleanup_pop宏,它能够在线程被cancel的时候正确的释放mutex

    另外,posix1标准说,pthread_cond_signalpthread_cond_broadcast无需考虑调用线程是否是mutex的拥有者,也就是说,可以在lockunlock以外的区域调用。如果我们对调用行为不关心,那么请在lock区域之外调用吧。

说明:

    (1)pthread_cond_wait 自动解锁互斥量(如同执行了pthread_unlock_mutex),并等待条件变量触发。这时线程挂起,不占用CPU时间,直到条件变量被触发(变量为ture)。在调用 pthread_cond_wait之前,应用程序必须加锁互斥量。pthread_cond_wait函数返回前,自动重新对互斥量加锁(如同执行了pthread_lock_mutex)

    (2)互斥量的解锁和在条件变量上挂起都是自动进行的。因此,在条件变量被触发前,如果所有的线程都要对互斥量加锁,这种机制可保证在线程加锁互斥量和进入等待条件变量期间,条件变量不被触发。条件变量要和互斥量相联结,以避免出现条件竞争——个线程预备等待一个条件变量,当它在真正进入等待之前,另一个线程恰好触发了该条件(条件满足信号有可能在测试条件和调用pthread_cond_wait函数(block)之间被发出,从而造成无限制的等待)。

(3)pthread_cond_timedwait 和 pthread_cond_wait 一样,自动解锁互斥量及等待条件变量,但它还限定了等待时间。如果在abstime指定的时间内cond未触发,互斥量mutex被重新加锁,且pthread_cond_timedwait返回错误ETIMEDOUTabstime 参数指定一个绝对时间,时间原点与 time 和 gettimeofday 相同:abstime = 0 表示 19701100:00:00 GMT

(4)pthread_cond_destroy 销毁一个条件变量,释放它拥有的资源。进入 pthread_cond_destroy 之前,必须没有在该条件变量上等待的线程。

    (5)条件变量函数不是异步信号安全的,不应当在信号处理程序中进行调用。特别要注意,如果在信号处理程序中调用 pthread_cond_signal 或 pthread_cond_boardcast 函数,可能导致调用线程死锁。


看例子1:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <pthread.h>
#include "stdlib.h"
#include "unistd.h"

pthread_mutex_t mutex;
pthread_cond_t cond;

void hander(void *arg)
{
    free(arg); 
    (void)pthread_mutex_unlock(&mutex);
}

void *thread1(void *arg)
{
     pthread_cleanup_push(hander, &mutex); 
     while(1) 
     { 
         printf("thread1 is running\n"); 
         pthread_mutex_lock(&mutex); 
         pthread_cond_wait(&cond,&mutex); 
         printf("thread1 applied the condition\n"); 
         pthread_mutex_unlock(&mutex); 
         sleep(4); 
     } 
     pthread_cleanup_pop(0); 
} 

void *thread2(void *arg)
{ 
    while(1) 
    { 
        printf("thread2 is running\n"); 
        pthread_mutex_lock(&mutex); 
        pthread_cond_wait(&cond,&mutex); 
        printf("thread2 applied the condition\n"); 
        pthread_mutex_unlock(&mutex); 
        sleep(1); 
    }
}

int main()
{
     pthread_t thid1,thid2; 
     printf("condition variable study!\n"); 
     pthread_mutex_init(&mutex,NULL); 
     pthread_cond_init(&cond,NULL); 
     pthread_create(&thid1,NULL,thread1,NULL); 
     pthread_create(&thid2,NULL,thread2,NULL); 
     sleep(1); 
     do 
     { 
         pthread_cond_signal(&cond); 
     }while(1); 
     sleep(20); 
     pthread_exit(0); 
     return 0;
}

make:

ALL= pthread
LIB= -lpthread
objects= testpthread1.o
$(ALL) : $(objects)
        g++ -o $@ $(objects) $(LIB)
$(objects):%.o:%.cpp
        $(CC)  -c  $< -o $@
.PHONY : clean
clean:
        rm $(objects)
运行结果:

[uglychen@chenxun linux_chen]$ ./pthread 
condition variable study!
thread1 is running
thread2 is running
thread1 applied the condition
thread2 applied the condition
thread2 is running
thread2 applied the condition
thread2 is running
thread2 applied the condition
thread2 is running
thread2 applied the condition
thread1 is running
thread1 applied the condition
thread2 is running
thread2 applied the condition
thread2 is running
thread2 applied the condition
thread2 is running
thread2 applied the condition
thread2 is running
thread2 applied the condition

...............................




看例子2:

#include <pthread.h> 
#include <unistd.h> 
#include "stdio.h"
#include "stdlib.h"

static pthread_mutex_t mtx = PTHREAD_MUTEX_INITIALIZER; 
static pthread_cond_t cond = PTHREAD_COND_INITIALIZER; 

struct node 
{
     int n_number; 
     struct node *n_next; 
} *head = NULL; 

/*[thread_func]*/ 
static void cleanup_handler(void *arg) 
{
     printf("Cleanup handler of second thread.\n"); 
     free(arg); 
     (void)pthread_mutex_unlock(&mtx); 
} 

static void *thread_func(void *arg) 
{
     struct node *p = NULL; 
     pthread_cleanup_push(cleanup_handler, p); 
     while (1) 
     { 
         //这个mutex主要是用来保证pthread_cond_wait的并发性
         pthread_mutex_lock(&mtx); 
         while (head == NULL) 
         { 
         //这个while要特别说明一下,单个pthread_cond_wait功能很完善,为何
         //这里要有一个while (head == NULL)呢?因为pthread_cond_wait里的线 
         //程可能会被意外唤醒,如果这个时候head != NULL,则不是我们想要的情况。 
         //这个时候,应该让线程继续进入pthread_cond_wait 
         // pthread_cond_wait会先解除之前的pthread_mutex_lock锁定的mtx, 
         //然后阻塞在等待对列里休眠,直到再次被唤醒(大多数情况下是等待的条件成立 
         //而被唤醒,唤醒后,该进程会先锁定先pthread_mutex_lock(&mtx);,再读取资源 
         //用这个流程是比较清楚的/*block-->unlock-->wait() return-->lock*/ 
         pthread_cond_wait(&cond, &mtx); 
         p = head; 
         head = head->n_next; 
         printf("Get %d from front of queue\n", p->n_number);
         free(p); 
          } 
          pthread_mutex_unlock(&mtx); //临界区数据操作完毕,释放互斥锁 
     } 
     pthread_cleanup_pop(0); 
     return 0; 
} 

int main(void) 
{
     pthread_t tid; 
     int i; 
     struct node *p; 
     //子线程会一直等待资源,类似生产者和消费者,但是这里的消费者可以是多个消费者,而 
     //不仅仅支持普通的单个消费者,这个模型虽然简单,但是很强大
     pthread_create(&tid, NULL, thread_func, NULL); 
     sleep(1); 
     for (i = 0; i < 10; i++) 
     { 
         p = (struct node*)malloc(sizeof(struct node)); 
         p->n_number = i; 
         pthread_mutex_lock(&mtx); //需要操作head这个临界资源,先加锁, 
         p->n_next = head; 
         head = p; 
         pthread_cond_signal(&cond); 
         pthread_mutex_unlock(&mtx); //解锁 
         sleep(1); 
     } 
     printf("thread 1 wanna end the line.So cancel thread 2.\n"); 
     
     //关于pthread_cancel,有一点额外的说明,它是从外部终止子线程,子线程会在最近的取消点,退出 
     //线程,而在我们的代码里,最近的取消点肯定就是pthread_cond_wait()了。 
     pthread_cancel(tid); 
     pthread_join(tid, NULL); 
     printf("All done -- exiting\n"); 
     return 0; 
}

make:

ALL= pthread
LIB= -lpthread
objects= testpthread2.o
$(ALL) : $(objects)
        g++ -o $@ $(objects) $(LIB)
$(objects):%.o:%.cpp
        $(CC)  -c  $< -o $@
.PHONY : clean
clean:
        rm $(objects)
运行结果:

[uglychen@chenxun linux_chen]$ ./pthread 
Get 0 from front of queue
Get 1 from front of queue
Get 2 from front of queue
Get 3 from front of queue
Get 4 from front of queue
Get 5 from front of queue
Get 6 from front of queue
Get 7 from front of queue
Get 8 from front of queue
Get 9 from front of queue
thread 1 wanna end the line.So cancel thread 2.
Cleanup handler of second thread./nAll done -- exiting


3、信号量

    如同进程一样,线程也可以通过信号量来实现通信,虽然是轻量级的。

    信号量函数的名字都以"sem_"打头。线程使用的基本信号量函数有四个。

#include

int sem_init (sem_t *sem , int pshared, unsigned int value);

    这是对由sem指定的信号量进行初始化,设置好它的共享选项(linux 只支持为0,即表示它是当前进程的局部信号量),然后给它一个初始值VALUE

两个原子操作函数:

int sem_wait(sem_t *sem);

int sem_post(sem_t *sem);

    这两个函数都要用一个由sem_init调用初始化的信号量对象的指针做参数。

sem_post:给信号量的值加1

sem_wait:给信号量减1;对一个值为0的信号量调用sem_wait,这个函数将会等待直到有其它线程使它不再是0为止。

int sem_destroy(sem_t *sem);

    这个函数的作用是再我们用完信号量后都它进行清理。归还自己占有的一切资源。


看例子:

#include <stdlib.h> 
#include <stdio.h> 
#include <unistd.h> 
#include <pthread.h> 
#include <semaphore.h> 
#include <errno.h> 
    
#define return_if_fail(p) if((p) == 0){printf ("[%s]:func error!/n", __func__);return;} 
    
typedef struct _PrivInfo 
{ 
  sem_t s1; 
  sem_t s2; 
  time_t end_time; 
}PrivInfo; 
    
static void info_init (PrivInfo* thiz); 
static void info_destroy (PrivInfo* thiz); 
static void* pthread_func_1 (PrivInfo* thiz); 
static void* pthread_func_2 (PrivInfo* thiz); 
    
int main (int argc, char** argv) 
{ 
  pthread_t pt_1 = 0; 
  pthread_t pt_2 = 0; 
  int ret = 0; 
  PrivInfo* thiz = NULL; 
      
  thiz = (PrivInfo* )malloc (sizeof (PrivInfo)); 
  if (thiz == NULL) 
  { 
    printf ("[%s]: Failed to malloc priv./n"); 
    return -1; 
  } 
    
  info_init (thiz); 
    
  ret = pthread_create (&pt_1, NULL, (void*)pthread_func_1, thiz); 
  if (ret != 0) 
  { 
    perror ("pthread_1_create:"); 
  } 
    
  ret = pthread_create (&pt_2, NULL, (void*)pthread_func_2, thiz); 
  if (ret != 0) 
  { 
     perror ("pthread_2_create:"); 
  } 
    
  pthread_join (pt_1, NULL); 
  pthread_join (pt_2, NULL); 
    
  info_destroy (thiz); 
      
  return 0; 
} 
    
static void info_init (PrivInfo* thiz) 
{ 
  return_if_fail (thiz != NULL); 
    
  thiz->end_time = time(NULL) + 10; 
      
  sem_init (&thiz->s1, 0, 1); 
  sem_init (&thiz->s2, 0, 0); 
    
  return; 
} 
    
static void info_destroy (PrivInfo* thiz) 
{ 
  return_if_fail (thiz != NULL); 
    
  sem_destroy (&thiz->s1); 
  sem_destroy (&thiz->s2); 
    
  free (thiz); 
  thiz = NULL; 
    
  return; 
} 
    
static void* pthread_func_1 (PrivInfo* thiz) 
{ 
  return_if_fail (thiz != NULL); 
    
  while (time(NULL) < thiz->end_time) 
  { 
    sem_wait (&thiz->s2); 
    printf ("pthread1: pthread1 get the lock./n"); 
    
    sem_post (&thiz->s1); 
    printf ("pthread1: pthread1 unlock/n"); 
    
    sleep (1); 
  } 
    
  return; 
} 
    
static void* pthread_func_2 (PrivInfo* thiz) 
{ 
  return_if_fail (thiz != NULL); 
    
  while (time (NULL) < thiz->end_time) 
  { 
    sem_wait (&thiz->s1); 
    printf ("pthread2: pthread2 get the unlock./n"); 
    
    sem_post (&thiz->s2); 
    printf ("pthread2: pthread2 unlock./n"); 
    
    sleep (1); 
  } 
    
  return; 
}






参考:

1】 http://www.cnblogs.com/feisky/archive/2009/11/12/1601824.html

2】 http://www.cnblogs.com/mydomain/archive/2011/07/10/2102147.html

3】 线程函数介绍

http://www.unix.org/version2/whatsnew/threadsref.html

4】 http://www.yolinux.com/TUTORIALS/LinuxTutorialPosixThreads.html

5】 线程常用函数简介

http://www.rosoo.net/a/201004/8954.html

6】 条件变量

http://blog.csdn.net/hiflower/article/details/2195350

7】条件变量函数说明

http://blog.csdn.net/hairetz/article/details/4535920

 

本文来自博文:

http://www.cnblogs.com/mydomain/archive/2011/08/14/2138455.html

















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