Linux下ALSA声卡编程

转载 2012年03月28日 18:18:54

一. 介绍

      ALSA 标准是一个先进的linux声音体系。它包含内核驱动集合,API库和工具对Linux声音进行支持。ALSA 包含一系列内核驱动对不同的声卡进行支持,还提供了libasound的API库。用这些进行写程序不需要打开设备等操作,所以编程人员在写程序的时候不会被底层的东西困扰。与此相反OSS/Free 驱动在内核层次调用,需要指定设备名和调用ioctl。为提供向后兼容, ALSA 提供内核模块模仿 OSS/Free 驱动,所以大多数的程序不需要改动。 ALSA 拥有调用插件的能力对新设备提供扩展,包括那些用软件模拟出来的虚拟设备。 ALSA 还提供一组命令行工具包括  mixer, sound file player 和工具控制一些特别的声卡的特别的作用。

 

二.ALSA 体系:

ALSA API 被主要分为以下几种接口:

l         控制接口:提供灵活的方式管理注册的声卡和对存在的声卡进行查询。

l         PCM接口:提供管理数字音频的捕捉和回放。

l         原始 MIDI 接口: 支持 MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface), 一种标准电子音乐指令集。 这些 API 提供访问声卡上的 MIDI 总线。这些原始借口直接工作在 The  MIDI 事件上,程序员只需要管理协议和时间。

l         记时接口: 为支持声音的同步事件提供访问声卡上的定时器。

l         音序器接口:一个比原始MIDI接口高级的MIDI编程和声音同步高层接口。它可以处理很多的MIDI协议和定时器。

l         混音器接口:控制发送信号和控制声音大小的声卡上的设备。

 

三.声卡的缓存和数据的传输:

      一块声卡有一个声卡内存用来存储记录的样本。当它被写满时就产生中断。内核驱动就使用DMA将数据传输到内存中。同样地,当在播放时就将内存中的声音样本使用DMA传到声卡的内存中!

      声卡的缓存是环状的,这里只讨论应用程序中的内存结构:ALSA将数据分成连续的片段然后传到按单元片段传输。

 

四:典型的声音程序结构:

        open interface for capture or playback

        set hardware parameters

        (access mode, data format, channels, rate, etc.)

        while there is data to be processed:

        read PCM data (capture)

        or write PCM data (playback)

        close interface

 

五.一些例子:

1.显示一些PCM的类型和格式:

 

#include <iostream>

#include <alsa/asoundlib.h>

 

int main()

{

       std::cout << "ALSA library version: " << SND_LIB_VERSION_STR << std::endl;

 

       std::cout << "PCM stream types: " << std::endl;

 

       for (int val=0; val <= SND_PCM_STREAM_LAST; ++val)

              std::cout << snd_pcm_stream_name((snd_pcm_stream_t)val) << std::endl;

       std::cout << std::endl;

 

       std::cout << "PCM access types: " << std::endl;

       for (int val=0; val <= SND_PCM_ACCESS_LAST; ++val)

              std::cout << snd_pcm_access_name((snd_pcm_access_t)val) << std::endl;

       std::cout << std::endl;

 

       std::cout << "PCM subformats: " << std::endl;

       for (int val=0; val <= SND_PCM_SUBFORMAT_LAST; ++val)

              std::cout << snd_pcm_subformat_name((snd_pcm_subformat_t)val) << " (" << snd_pcm_subformat_description((snd_pcm_subformat_t)val) << ")" << std::endl;

       std::cout << std::endl;

 

       std::cout << "PCM states: " << std::endl;

       for (int val=0; val <= SND_PCM_STATE_LAST; ++val)

              std::cout << snd_pcm_state_name((snd_pcm_state_t)val) << std::endl;

       std::cout << std::endl;

 

 

       std::cout << "PCM formats: " << std::endl;

       for (int val=0; val <= SND_PCM_FORMAT_LAST; ++val)

              std::cout << snd_pcm_format_name((snd_pcm_format_t)val) << " (" << snd_pcm_format_description((snd_pcm_format_t)val) << ")" << std::endl;

       std::cout << std::endl;

      

}

 

2.打开PCM设备和设置参数

 

#include <iostream>

#include <alsa/asoundlib.h>

 

int main()

{

       int                               rc;

       snd_pcm_t*                         handle;

       snd_pcm_hw_params_t*      params;

       unsigned int                  val, val2;

       int                               dir;

       snd_pcm_uframes_t             frames;

 

       if ( (rc = snd_pcm_open(&handle, "default", SND_PCM_STREAM_PLAYBACK, 0)) < 0)

       {

              std::cerr << "unable to open pcm devices: " << snd_strerror(rc) << std::endl;

              exit(1);

       }

 

       snd_pcm_hw_params_alloca(&params);

 

       snd_pcm_hw_params_any(handle, params);

 

       snd_pcm_hw_params_set_access(handle, params, SND_PCM_ACCESS_RW_INTERLEAVED);

 

       snd_pcm_hw_params_set_format(handle, params, SND_PCM_FORMAT_S16_LE);

 

       snd_pcm_hw_params_set_channels(handle, params, 2);

 

       val = 44100;

 

       snd_pcm_hw_params_set_rate_near(handle, params, &val, &dir);

 

       if ( (rc = snd_pcm_hw_params(handle, params)) < 0)

       {

              std::cerr << "unable to set hw parameters: " << snd_strerror(rc) << std::endl;

              exit(1);

       }

 

       std::cout << "PCM handle name = " << snd_pcm_name(handle) << std::endl;

 

       std::cout << "PCM state = " << snd_pcm_state_name(snd_pcm_state(handle)) << std::endl;

 

       snd_pcm_hw_params_get_access(params, (snd_pcm_access_t *)&val);

 

       std::cout << "access type = " << snd_pcm_access_name((snd_pcm_access_t)val) << std::endl;

 

       snd_pcm_hw_params_get_format(params, (snd_pcm_format_t*)(&val));

      

       std::cout << "format = '" << snd_pcm_format_name((snd_pcm_format_t)val) << "' (" << snd_pcm_format_description((snd_pcm_format_t)val) << ")" << std::endl;

 

      snd_pcm_hw_params_get_subformat(params, (snd_pcm_subformat_t *)&val);

      std::cout << "subformat = '" <<

    snd_pcm_subformat_name((snd_pcm_subformat_t)val) << "' (" << snd_pcm_subformat_description((snd_pcm_subformat_t)val) << ")" << std::endl;

 

      snd_pcm_hw_params_get_channels(params, &val);

      std::cout << "channels = " << val << std::endl;

 

      snd_pcm_hw_params_get_rate(params, &val, &dir);

      std::cout << "rate = " << val << " bps" << std::endl;

 

       snd_pcm_hw_params_get_period_time(params, &val, &dir);

      std::cout << "period time = " << val << " us" << std::endl;

 

      snd_pcm_hw_params_get_period_size(params, &frames, &dir);

      std::cout << "period size = " << static_cast<int>(frames) << " frames" << std::endl;

 

       snd_pcm_hw_params_get_buffer_time(params, &val, &dir);

      std::cout << "buffer time = " << val << " us" << std::endl;

      

       snd_pcm_hw_params_get_buffer_size(params, (snd_pcm_uframes_t *) &val);

      std::cout << "buffer size = " << val << " frames" << std::endl;

 

      snd_pcm_hw_params_get_periods(params, &val, &dir);

      std::cout << "periods per buffer = " << val << " frames" << std::endl;

 

       snd_pcm_hw_params_get_rate_numden(params, &val, &val2);

      std::cout << "exact rate = " << val/val2 << " bps" << std::endl;

      

      val = snd_pcm_hw_params_get_sbits(params);

      std::cout << "significant bits = " << val << std::endl;

 

      snd_pcm_hw_params_get_tick_time(params, &val, &dir);

      std::cout << "tick time = " << val << " us" << std::endl;

 

      val = snd_pcm_hw_params_is_batch(params);

      std::cout << "is batch = " << val << std::endl;

 

      val = snd_pcm_hw_params_is_block_transfer(params);

      std::cout << "is block transfer = " << val << std::endl;

 

      val = snd_pcm_hw_params_is_double(params);

      std::cout << "is double = " << val << std::endl;

 

       val = snd_pcm_hw_params_is_half_duplex(params);

      std::cout << "is half duplex = " << val << std::endl;

 

       val = snd_pcm_hw_params_is_joint_duplex(params);

      std::cout << "is joint duplex = " << val << std::endl;

 

       val = snd_pcm_hw_params_can_overrange(params);

      std::cout << "can overrange = " << val << std::endl;

 

      val = snd_pcm_hw_params_can_mmap_sample_resolution(params);

      std::cout << "can mmap = " << val << std::endl;

 

      val = snd_pcm_hw_params_can_pause(params);

      std::cout << "can pause = " << val << std::endl;

 

       val = snd_pcm_hw_params_can_resume(params);

      std::cout << "can resume = " << val << std::endl;

 

      val = snd_pcm_hw_params_can_sync_start(params);

      std::cout << "can sync start = " << val << std::endl;

 

      snd_pcm_close(handle);

 

      return 0;

}

 

3.一个简单的声音播放程序

 

#include <iostream>

#include <alsa/asoundlib.h>

 

int main()

{

       long                             loops;

       int                               rc;

       int                                       size;

       snd_pcm_t*                         handle;

       snd_pcm_hw_params_t*      params;

       unsigned int                  val;

       int                               dir;

       snd_pcm_uframes_t             frames;

       char*                                  buffer;

 

       if ( (rc = snd_pcm_open(&handle, "default", SND_PCM_STREAM_PLAYBACK, 0)) < 0)

       {

              std::cerr << "unable to open pcm device: " << snd_strerror(rc) << std::endl;

              exit(1);

       }

 

       snd_pcm_hw_params_alloca(&params);

 

       snd_pcm_hw_params_any(handle, params);

 

       snd_pcm_hw_params_set_access(handle, params, SND_PCM_ACCESS_RW_INTERLEAVED);

 

       snd_pcm_hw_params_set_format(handle, params, SND_PCM_FORMAT_S16_LE);

 

       snd_pcm_hw_params_set_channels(handle, params, 2);

 

       val = 44100;

 

       snd_pcm_hw_params_set_rate_near(handle, params, &val, &dir);

 

       frames = 32;

       snd_pcm_hw_params_set_period_size_near(handle, params, &frames, &dir);

 

       if ( (rc = snd_pcm_hw_params(handle, params)) < 0)

       {

              std::cerr << "unable to set hw paramseters: " << snd_strerror(rc) << std::endl;

              exit(1);

       }

 

       snd_pcm_hw_params_get_period_size(params, &frames, &dir);

       size = frames * 4;

       buffer = new char[size];

 

       snd_pcm_hw_params_get_period_time(params, &val, &dir);

 

       loops = 5000000 / val;

 

       while (loops > 0) {

              loops--;

              if ( (rc = read(0, buffer, size)) == 0)

              {

                     std::cerr << "end of file on input" << std::endl;

                     break;

              }

              else if (rc != size)

                     std::cerr << "short read: read " << rc << " bytes" << std::endl;

 

              if ( (rc = snd_pcm_writei(handle, buffer, frames)) == -EPIPE)

              {

                     std::cerr << "underrun occurred" << std::endl;

                     snd_pcm_prepare(handle);

              }

              else if (rc < 0)

                     std::cerr << "error from writei: " << snd_strerror(rc) << std::endl;

              else if (rc != (int)frames)

                     std::cerr << "short write, write " << rc << " frames" << std::endl;

       }

 

       snd_pcm_drain(handle);

       snd_pcm_close(handle);

       free(buffer);

 

       return 0;

}

4.一个简单的记录声音的程序

 

#include <iostream>

#include <alsa/asoundlib.h>

 

int main()

{

       long                             loops;

       int                                       rc;

       int                                       size;

       snd_pcm_t*                         handle;

       snd_pcm_hw_params_t*      params;

       unsigned int                  val;

       int                                       dir;

       snd_pcm_uframes_t             frames;

       char*                                  buffer;

 

       if ( (rc = snd_pcm_open(&handle, "default", SND_PCM_STREAM_CAPTURE, 0)) < 0)

       {

              std::cerr << "unable to open pcm device: " << snd_strerror(rc) << std::endl;

              exit(1);

       }

 

       snd_pcm_hw_params_alloca(&params);

 

       snd_pcm_hw_params_any(handle, params);

 

       snd_pcm_hw_params_set_access(handle, params, SND_PCM_ACCESS_RW_INTERLEAVED);

 

       snd_pcm_hw_params_set_format(handle, params, SND_PCM_FORMAT_S16_LE);

 

       snd_pcm_hw_params_set_channels(handle, params, 2);

 

       val = 44100;

       snd_pcm_hw_params_set_period_size_near(handle, params, &frames, &dir);

 

       if ( (rc = snd_pcm_hw_params(handle, params)) < 0)

       {

              std::cerr << "unable to set hw parameters: " << snd_strerror(rc) << std::endl;

              exit(1);

       }

 

       snd_pcm_hw_params_get_period_size(params, &frames, &dir);

 

       size = frames * 4;

       buffer = new char[size];

 

       snd_pcm_hw_params_get_period_time(params, &val, &dir);

 

       loops = 5000000 / val;

 

       while (loops > 0)

       {

              loops --;

              rc = snd_pcm_readi(handle, buffer, frames);

              if (rc == -EPIPE)

              {

                     std::cerr << "overrun occurred" << std::endl;

                     snd_pcm_prepare(handle);

              }

              else if (rc < 0)

                     std::cerr << "error from read: " << snd_strerror(rc) << std::endl;

              else if ( rc != (int)frames)

                     std::cerr << "short read, read " << rc << " frames" << std::endl;

              rc = write(1, buffer, size);

              if (rc != size)

                     std::cerr << "short write: wrote " << rc << " bytes" << std::endl;

       }

 

       snd_pcm_drain(handle);

       snd_pcm_close(handle);

       free(buffer);

      

       return 0;

}

 

编译的参数:g++ xxx.cpp -o xxx -lasound


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