# Hard-题目44：30. Substring with Concatenation of All Words

You are given a string, s, and a list of words, words, that are all of the same length. Find all starting indices of substring(s) in s that is a concatenation of each word in words exactly once and without any intervening characters.
For example, given:
s: “barfoothefoobarman”
words: [“foo”, “bar”]
You should return the indices: [0,9].
(order does not matter).

s: “barfoothefoobarman”
words: [“foo”, “bar”]

public class Solution {
public List<Integer> findSubstring(String s, String[] words) {
int N = s.length();
List<Integer> indexes = new ArrayList<Integer>(s.length());
if (words.length == 0) {
return indexes;
}
int M = words[0].length();
if (N < M * words.length) {
return indexes;
}
int last = N - M + 1;

//map each string in words array to some index and compute target counters
Map<String, Integer> mapping = new HashMap<String, Integer>(words.length);
int [][] table = new int[2][words.length];
int failures = 0, index = 0;
for (int i = 0; i < words.length; ++i) {
Integer mapped = mapping.get(words[i]);
if (mapped == null) {
++failures;
mapping.put(words[i], index);
mapped = index++;
}
++table[0][mapped];
}

//find all occurrences at string S and map them to their current integer, -1 means no such string is in words array
int [] smapping = new int[last];
for (int i = 0; i < last; ++i) {
String section = s.substring(i, i + M);
Integer mapped = mapping.get(section);
if (mapped == null) {
smapping[i] = -1;
} else {
smapping[i] = mapped;
}
}

//fix the number of linear scans
for (int i = 0; i < M; ++i) {
//reset scan variables
int currentFailures = failures; //number of current mismatches
int left = i, right = i;
Arrays.fill(table[1], 0);
//here, simple solve the minimum-window-substring problem
while (right < last) {
while (currentFailures > 0 && right < last) {
int target = smapping[right];
if (target != -1 && ++table[1][target] == table[0][target]) {
--currentFailures;
}
right += M;
}
while (currentFailures == 0 && left < right) {
int target = smapping[left];
if (target != -1 && --table[1][target] == table[0][target] - 1) {
int length = right - left;
//instead of checking every window, we know exactly the length we want
if ((length / M) ==  words.length) {
indexes.add(left);
}
++currentFailures;
}
left += M;
}
}

}
return indexes;
}
}

12ms,96.98%,20ms,9.38%

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