flink akka 应用

原创 2015年11月20日 18:41:39
/*
 * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
 * or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
 * distributed with this work for additional information
 * regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
 * to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
 * "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
 * with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
 *     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 *
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.
 */


package org.apache.flink.runtime.jobmanager


import java.io.{File, IOException}
import java.lang.reflect.{Constructor, InvocationTargetException}
import java.net.{UnknownHostException, InetAddress, InetSocketAddress}
import java.util.UUID


import akka.actor.Status.Failure
import akka.actor._
import akka.pattern.ask
import grizzled.slf4j.Logger
import org.apache.flink.api.common.{ExecutionConfig, JobID}
import org.apache.flink.configuration.{ConfigConstants, Configuration, GlobalConfiguration}
import org.apache.flink.core.io.InputSplitAssigner
import org.apache.flink.runtime.accumulators.AccumulatorSnapshot
import org.apache.flink.runtime.akka.{AkkaUtils, ListeningBehaviour}
import org.apache.flink.runtime.blob.BlobServer
import org.apache.flink.runtime.checkpoint.{CheckpointRecoveryFactory, StandaloneCheckpointRecoveryFactory, ZooKeeperCheckpointRecoveryFactory}
import org.apache.flink.runtime.client._
import org.apache.flink.runtime.execution.librarycache.BlobLibraryCacheManager
import org.apache.flink.runtime.executiongraph.{ExecutionGraph, ExecutionJobVertex}
import org.apache.flink.runtime.instance.{AkkaActorGateway, InstanceManager}
import org.apache.flink.runtime.jobgraph.jsonplan.JsonPlanGenerator
import org.apache.flink.runtime.jobgraph.{JobGraph, JobStatus, JobVertexID}
import org.apache.flink.runtime.jobmanager.SubmittedJobGraphStore.SubmittedJobGraphListener
import org.apache.flink.runtime.jobmanager.scheduler.{Scheduler => FlinkScheduler}
import org.apache.flink.runtime.leaderelection.{LeaderContender, LeaderElectionService, StandaloneLeaderElectionService}
import org.apache.flink.runtime.leaderretrieval.{StandaloneLeaderRetrievalService, LeaderRetrievalService}
import org.apache.flink.runtime.messages.ArchiveMessages.ArchiveExecutionGraph
import org.apache.flink.runtime.messages.ExecutionGraphMessages.JobStatusChanged
import org.apache.flink.runtime.messages.JobManagerMessages._
import org.apache.flink.runtime.messages.Messages.{Acknowledge, Disconnect}
import org.apache.flink.runtime.messages.RegistrationMessages._
import org.apache.flink.runtime.messages.TaskManagerMessages.{Heartbeat, SendStackTrace}
import org.apache.flink.runtime.messages.TaskMessages.{PartitionState, UpdateTaskExecutionState}
import org.apache.flink.runtime.messages.accumulators.{AccumulatorMessage, AccumulatorResultStringsFound, AccumulatorResultsErroneous, AccumulatorResultsFound, RequestAccumulatorResults, RequestAccumulatorResultsStringified}
import org.apache.flink.runtime.messages.checkpoint.{AbstractCheckpointMessage, AcknowledgeCheckpoint}
import org.apache.flink.runtime.messages.webmonitor._
import org.apache.flink.runtime.process.ProcessReaper
import org.apache.flink.runtime.security.SecurityUtils
import org.apache.flink.runtime.security.SecurityUtils.FlinkSecuredRunner
import org.apache.flink.runtime.taskmanager.TaskManager
import org.apache.flink.runtime.util._
import org.apache.flink.runtime.webmonitor.{WebMonitor, WebMonitorUtils}
import org.apache.flink.runtime.{FlinkActor, LeaderSessionMessageFilter, LogMessages, StreamingMode}
import org.apache.flink.util.{ExceptionUtils, InstantiationUtil, NetUtils}


import scala.collection.JavaConverters._
import scala.concurrent._
import scala.concurrent.duration._
import scala.concurrent.forkjoin.ForkJoinPool
import scala.language.postfixOps




/**
 * The job manager is responsible for receiving Flink jobs, scheduling the tasks, gathering the
 * job status and managing the task managers. It is realized as an actor and receives amongst others
 * the following messages:
 *
 *  - [[RegisterTaskManager]] is sent by a TaskManager which wants to register at the job manager.
 *  A successful registration at the instance manager is acknowledged by [[AcknowledgeRegistration]]
 *
 *  - [[SubmitJob]] is sent by a client which wants to submit a job to the system. The submit
 *  message contains the job description in the form of the JobGraph. The JobGraph is appended to
 *  the ExecutionGraph and the corresponding ExecutionJobVertices are scheduled for execution on
 *  the TaskManagers.
 *
 *  - [[CancelJob]] requests to cancel the job with the specified jobID. A successful cancellation
 *  is indicated by [[CancellationSuccess]] and a failure by [[CancellationFailure]]
 *
 * - [[UpdateTaskExecutionState]] is sent by a TaskManager to update the state of an
     ExecutionVertex contained in the [[ExecutionGraph]].
 * A successful update is acknowledged by true and otherwise false.
 *
 * - [[RequestNextInputSplit]] requests the next input split for a running task on a
 * [[TaskManager]]. The assigned input split or null is sent to the sender in the form of the
 * message [[NextInputSplit]].
 *
 * - [[JobStatusChanged]] indicates that the status of job (RUNNING, CANCELING, FINISHED, etc.) has
 * changed. This message is sent by the ExecutionGraph.
 */
class JobManager(
    protected val flinkConfiguration: Configuration,
    protected val executionContext: ExecutionContext,
    protected val instanceManager: InstanceManager,
    protected val scheduler: FlinkScheduler,
    protected val libraryCacheManager: BlobLibraryCacheManager,
    protected val archive: ActorRef,
    protected val defaultExecutionRetries: Int,
    protected val delayBetweenRetries: Long,
    protected val timeout: FiniteDuration,
    protected val mode: StreamingMode,
    protected val leaderElectionService: LeaderElectionService,
    protected val submittedJobGraphs : SubmittedJobGraphStore,
    protected val checkpointRecoveryFactory : CheckpointRecoveryFactory)
  extends FlinkActor 
  with LeaderSessionMessageFilter // mixin oder is important, we want filtering after logging
  with LogMessages // mixin order is important, we want first logging
  with LeaderContender
  with SubmittedJobGraphListener {


  override val log = Logger(getClass)


  /** Either running or not yet archived jobs (session hasn't been ended). */
  protected val currentJobs = scala.collection.mutable.HashMap[JobID, (ExecutionGraph, JobInfo)]()


  protected val recoveryMode = RecoveryMode.fromConfig(flinkConfiguration)


  var leaderSessionID: Option[UUID] = None


  /** Futures which have to be completed before terminating the job manager */
  var futuresToComplete: Option[Seq[Future[Unit]]] = None


  /**
   * The port of the web monitor as configured. Make sure that it is actually configured before
   * starting the JobManager. This tightly couples the web monitor with the job manager. It is a
   * temporary workaround until all execution graph components are properly serializable and all
   * web monitors can transparently interact with each job manager. Currently each web server has
   * to run in the actor system of the associated job manager.
   */
  val webMonitorPort : Int = flinkConfiguration.getInteger(
    ConfigConstants.JOB_MANAGER_WEB_PORT_KEY, -1)


  /**
   * Run when the job manager is started. Simply logs an informational message.
   * The method also starts the leader election service.
   */
  override def preStart(): Unit = {
    log.info(s"Starting JobManager at ${getAddress}.")


    try {
      leaderElectionService.start(this)
    } catch {
      case e: Exception =>
        log.error("Could not start the JobManager because the leader election service did not " +
          "start.", e)
        throw new RuntimeException("Could not start the leader election service.", e)
    }


    try {
      submittedJobGraphs.start(this)
    } catch {
      case e: Exception =>
        log.error("Could not start the submitted job graphs service.", e)
        throw new RuntimeException("Could not start the submitted job graphs service.", e)
    }


    try {
      checkpointRecoveryFactory.start()
    } catch {
      case e: Exception =>
        log.error("Could not start the checkpoint recovery service.", e)
        throw new RuntimeException("Could not start the checkpoint recovery service.", e)
    }
  }


  override def postStop(): Unit = {
    log.info(s"Stopping JobManager ${getAddress}.")


    val newFuturesToComplete = cancelAndClearEverything(
      new Exception("The JobManager is shutting down."),
      true)


    implicit val executionContext = context.dispatcher


    val futureToComplete = Future.sequence(
      futuresToComplete.getOrElse(Seq()) ++ newFuturesToComplete)


    Await.ready(futureToComplete, timeout)


    // disconnect the registered task managers
    instanceManager.getAllRegisteredInstances.asScala.foreach {
      _.getActorGateway().tell(
        Disconnect("JobManager is shutting down"),
        new AkkaActorGateway(self, leaderSessionID.orNull))
    }


    try {
      // revoke leadership and stop leader election service
      leaderElectionService.stop()
    } catch {
      case e: Exception => log.error("Could not properly shutdown the leader election service.")
    }


    try {
      submittedJobGraphs.stop()
    } catch {
      case e: Exception => log.error("Could not properly stop the submitted job graphs service.")
    }


    try {
      checkpointRecoveryFactory.stop()
    } catch {
      case e: Exception => log.error("Could not properly stop the checkpoint recovery service.")
    }


    if (archive != ActorRef.noSender) {
      archive ! decorateMessage(PoisonPill)
    }


    instanceManager.shutdown()
    scheduler.shutdown()


    try {
      libraryCacheManager.shutdown()
    } catch {
      case e: IOException => log.error("Could not properly shutdown the library cache manager.", e)
    }


    log.debug(s"Job manager ${self.path} is completely stopped.")
  }


  /**
   * Central work method of the JobManager actor. Receives messages and reacts to them.
   *
   * @return
   */
  override def handleMessage: Receive = {


    case GrantLeadership(newLeaderSessionID) =>
      log.info(s"JobManager ${getAddress} was granted leadership with leader session ID " +
        s"${newLeaderSessionID}.")


      leaderSessionID = newLeaderSessionID


      // confirming the leader session ID might be blocking, thus do it in a future
      future{
        leaderElectionService.confirmLeaderSessionID(newLeaderSessionID.orNull)


        // TODO (critical next step) This needs to be more flexible and robust (e.g. wait for task
        // managers etc.)
        if (recoveryMode != RecoveryMode.STANDALONE) {
          context.system.scheduler.scheduleOnce(new FiniteDuration(delayBetweenRetries,
            MILLISECONDS), self, decorateMessage(RecoverAllJobs))(context.dispatcher)
        }
      }(context.dispatcher)


    case RevokeLeadership =>
      log.info(s"JobManager ${self.path.toSerializationFormat} was revoked leadership.")


      val newFuturesToComplete = cancelAndClearEverything(
        new Exception("JobManager is no longer the leader."),
        false)


      futuresToComplete = Some(futuresToComplete.getOrElse(Seq()) ++ newFuturesToComplete)


      // disconnect the registered task managers
      instanceManager.getAllRegisteredInstances.asScala.foreach {
        _.getActorGateway().tell(
          Disconnect("JobManager is no longer the leader"),
          new AkkaActorGateway(self, leaderSessionID.orNull))
      }


      instanceManager.unregisterAllTaskManagers()


      leaderSessionID = None


    case RegisterTaskManager(
      connectionInfo,
      hardwareInformation,
      numberOfSlots) =>


      val taskManager = sender()


      if (instanceManager.isRegistered(taskManager)) {
        val instanceID = instanceManager.getRegisteredInstance(taskManager).getId


        // IMPORTANT: Send the response to the "sender", which is not the
        //            TaskManager actor, but the ask future!
        sender() ! decorateMessage(
          AlreadyRegistered(
            instanceID,
            libraryCacheManager.getBlobServerPort)
        )
      }
      else {
        try {
          val instanceID = instanceManager.registerTaskManager(
            taskManager,
            connectionInfo,
            hardwareInformation,
            numberOfSlots,
            leaderSessionID.orNull)


          // IMPORTANT: Send the response to the "sender", which is not the
          //            TaskManager actor, but the ask future!
          sender() ! decorateMessage(
            AcknowledgeRegistration(
              instanceID,
              libraryCacheManager.getBlobServerPort)
          )


          // to be notified when the taskManager is no longer reachable
          context.watch(taskManager)
        }
        catch {
          // registerTaskManager throws an IllegalStateException if it is already shut down
          // let the actor crash and restart itself in this case
          case e: Exception =>
            log.error("Failed to register TaskManager at instance manager", e)


            // IMPORTANT: Send the response to the "sender", which is not the
            //            TaskManager actor, but the ask future!
            sender() ! decorateMessage(
              RefuseRegistration(
                ExceptionUtils.stringifyException(e))
            )
        }
      }


    case RequestNumberRegisteredTaskManager =>
      sender ! decorateMessage(instanceManager.getNumberOfRegisteredTaskManagers)


    case RequestTotalNumberOfSlots =>
      sender ! decorateMessage(instanceManager.getTotalNumberOfSlots)


    case SubmitJob(jobGraph, listeningBehaviour) =>
      val client = sender()


      val jobInfo = new JobInfo(client, listeningBehaviour, System.currentTimeMillis(),
        jobGraph.getSessionTimeout)


      submitJob(jobGraph, jobInfo)


    case RecoverSubmittedJob(submittedJobGraph) =>
      if (!currentJobs.contains(submittedJobGraph.getJobId)) {
        submitJob(
          submittedJobGraph.getJobGraph(),
          submittedJobGraph.getJobInfo(),
          isRecovery = true)
      }


    case RecoverJob(jobId) =>
      future {
        // The ActorRef, which is part of the submitted job graph can only be deserialized in the
        // scope of an actor system.
        akka.serialization.JavaSerializer.currentSystem.withValue(
          context.system.asInstanceOf[ExtendedActorSystem]) {


          log.info(s"Attempting to recover job $jobId.")


          val submittedJobGraphOption = submittedJobGraphs.recoverJobGraph(jobId)


          submittedJobGraphOption match {
            case Some(submittedJobGraph) =>
              if (!leaderElectionService.hasLeadership()) {
                // we've lost leadership. mission: abort.
                log.warn(s"Lost leadership during recovery. Aborting recovery of $jobId.")
              }
              else {
                self ! decorateMessage(RecoverSubmittedJob(submittedJobGraph))
              }
            case None => log.warn(s"Failed to recover job graph $jobId.")
          }
        }
      }(context.dispatcher)


    case RecoverAllJobs =>
      future {
        // The ActorRef, which is part of the submitted job graph can only be deserialized in the
        // scope of an actor system.
        akka.serialization.JavaSerializer.currentSystem.withValue(
          context.system.asInstanceOf[ExtendedActorSystem]) {


          log.info(s"Recovering all jobs.")


          val jobGraphs = submittedJobGraphs.recoverJobGraphs().asScala


          if (!leaderElectionService.hasLeadership()) {
            // we've lost leadership. mission: abort.
            log.warn(s"Lost leadership during recovery. Aborting recovery of ${jobGraphs.size} " +
              s"jobs.")
          }
          else {
            log.debug(s"Attempting to recover ${jobGraphs.size} job graphs.")


            jobGraphs.foreach{
              submittedJobGraph =>
                self ! decorateMessage(RecoverSubmittedJob(submittedJobGraph))
            }
          }
        }
      }(context.dispatcher)


    case CancelJob(jobID) =>
      log.info(s"Trying to cancel job with ID $jobID.")


      currentJobs.get(jobID) match {
        case Some((executionGraph, _)) =>
          // execute the cancellation asynchronously
          Future {
            executionGraph.cancel()
          }(context.dispatcher)


          sender ! decorateMessage(CancellationSuccess(jobID))
        case None =>
          log.info(s"No job found with ID $jobID.")
          sender ! decorateMessage(
            CancellationFailure(
              jobID,
              new IllegalArgumentException(s"No job found with ID $jobID."))
          )
      }


    case UpdateTaskExecutionState(taskExecutionState) =>
      if (taskExecutionState == null) {
        sender ! decorateMessage(false)
      } else {
        currentJobs.get(taskExecutionState.getJobID) match {
          case Some((executionGraph, _)) =>
            val originalSender = sender()


            Future {
              val result = executionGraph.updateState(taskExecutionState)
              originalSender ! decorateMessage(result)
            }(context.dispatcher)


          case None => log.error("Cannot find execution graph for ID " +
            s"${taskExecutionState.getJobID} to change state to " +
            s"${taskExecutionState.getExecutionState}.")
            sender ! decorateMessage(false)
        }
      }


    case RequestNextInputSplit(jobID, vertexID, executionAttempt) =>
      val serializedInputSplit = currentJobs.get(jobID) match {
        case Some((executionGraph,_)) =>
          val execution = executionGraph.getRegisteredExecutions.get(executionAttempt)


          if (execution == null) {
            log.error(s"Can not find Execution for attempt $executionAttempt.")
            null
          } else {
            val slot = execution.getAssignedResource
            val taskId = execution.getVertex.getParallelSubtaskIndex


            val host = if (slot != null) {
              slot.getInstance().getInstanceConnectionInfo.getHostname
            } else {
              null
            }


            executionGraph.getJobVertex(vertexID) match {
              case vertex: ExecutionJobVertex => vertex.getSplitAssigner match {
                case splitAssigner: InputSplitAssigner =>
                  val nextInputSplit = splitAssigner.getNextInputSplit(host, taskId)


                  log.debug(s"Send next input split $nextInputSplit.")


                  try {
                    InstantiationUtil.serializeObject(nextInputSplit)
                  } catch {
                    case ex: Exception =>
                      log.error(s"Could not serialize the next input split of " +
                        s"class ${nextInputSplit.getClass}.", ex)
                      vertex.fail(new RuntimeException("Could not serialize the next input split " +
                        "of class " + nextInputSplit.getClass + ".", ex))
                      null
                  }


                case _ =>
                  log.error(s"No InputSplitAssigner for vertex ID $vertexID.")
                  null
              }
              case _ =>
                log.error(s"Cannot find execution vertex for vertex ID $vertexID.")
                null
          }
        }
        case None =>
          log.error(s"Cannot find execution graph for job ID $jobID.")
          null
      }


      sender ! decorateMessage(NextInputSplit(serializedInputSplit))


    case checkpointMessage : AbstractCheckpointMessage =>
      handleCheckpointMessage(checkpointMessage)


    case JobStatusChanged(jobID, newJobStatus, timeStamp, error) =>
      currentJobs.get(jobID) match {
        case Some((executionGraph, jobInfo)) => executionGraph.getJobName


          log.info(
            s"Status of job $jobID (${executionGraph.getJobName}) changed to $newJobStatus.",
            error)


          if (newJobStatus.isTerminalState()) {
            jobInfo.end = timeStamp


            future{
              // TODO If removing the JobGraph from the SubmittedJobGraphsStore fails, the job will
              // linger around and potentially be recovered at a later time. There is nothing we
              // can do about that, but it should be communicated with the Client.
              if (jobInfo.sessionAlive) {
                jobInfo.setLastActive()
                val lastActivity = jobInfo.lastActive
                context.system.scheduler.scheduleOnce(jobInfo.sessionTimeout seconds) {
                  // remove only if no activity occurred in the meantime
                  if (lastActivity == jobInfo.lastActive) {
                    self ! decorateMessage(RemoveJob(jobID, true))
                  }
                }(context.dispatcher)
              } else {
                self ! decorateMessage(RemoveJob(jobID, true))
              }


              // is the client waiting for the job result?
              if (jobInfo.listeningBehaviour != ListeningBehaviour.DETACHED) {
                newJobStatus match {
                  case JobStatus.FINISHED =>
                  try {
                    val accumulatorResults = executionGraph.getAccumulatorsSerialized()
                    val result = new SerializedJobExecutionResult(
                      jobID,
                      jobInfo.duration,
                      accumulatorResults)


                    jobInfo.client ! decorateMessage(JobResultSuccess(result))
                  } catch {
                    case e: Exception =>
                      log.error(s"Cannot fetch final accumulators for job $jobID", e)
                      val exception = new JobExecutionException(jobID,
                        "Failed to retrieve accumulator results.", e)


                      jobInfo.client ! decorateMessage(JobResultFailure(
                        new SerializedThrowable(exception)))
                  }


                  case JobStatus.CANCELED =>
                    // the error may be packed as a serialized throwable
                    val unpackedError = SerializedThrowable.get(
                      error, executionGraph.getUserClassLoader())


                    jobInfo.client ! decorateMessage(JobResultFailure(
                      new SerializedThrowable(
                        new JobCancellationException(jobID, "Job was cancelled.", unpackedError))))


                  case JobStatus.FAILED =>
                    val unpackedError = SerializedThrowable.get(
                      error, executionGraph.getUserClassLoader())


                    jobInfo.client ! decorateMessage(JobResultFailure(
                      new SerializedThrowable(
                        new JobExecutionException(jobID, "Job execution failed.", unpackedError))))


                  case x =>
                    val exception = new JobExecutionException(jobID, s"$x is not a terminal state.")
                    jobInfo.client ! decorateMessage(JobResultFailure(
                      new SerializedThrowable(exception)))
                    throw exception
                }
              }
            }(context.dispatcher)
          }
        case None =>
          self ! decorateMessage(RemoveJob(jobID, true))
      }


    case ScheduleOrUpdateConsumers(jobId, partitionId) =>
      currentJobs.get(jobId) match {
        case Some((executionGraph, _)) =>
          sender ! decorateMessage(Acknowledge)
          executionGraph.scheduleOrUpdateConsumers(partitionId)
        case None =>
          log.error(s"Cannot find execution graph for job ID $jobId to schedule or update " +
            s"consumers.")
          sender ! decorateMessage(
            Failure(
              new IllegalStateException("Cannot find execution graph for job ID " +
                s"$jobId to schedule or update consumers.")
            )
          )
      }


    case RequestPartitionState(jobId, partitionId, taskExecutionId, taskResultId) =>
      val state = currentJobs.get(jobId) match {
        case Some((executionGraph, _)) =>
          val execution = executionGraph.getRegisteredExecutions.get(partitionId.getProducerId)


          if (execution != null) execution.getState else null
        case None =>
          // Nothing to do. This is not an error, because the request is received when a sending
          // task fails during a remote partition request.
          log.debug(s"Cannot find execution graph for job $jobId.")


          null
      }


      sender ! decorateMessage(
        PartitionState(
          taskExecutionId,
          taskResultId,
          partitionId.getPartitionId,
          state)
      )


    case RequestJobStatus(jobID) =>
      currentJobs.get(jobID) match {
        case Some((executionGraph,_)) =>
          sender ! decorateMessage(CurrentJobStatus(jobID, executionGraph.getState))
        case None =>
          // check the archive
          archive forward decorateMessage(RequestJobStatus(jobID))
      }


    case RequestRunningJobs =>
      val executionGraphs = currentJobs map {
        case (_, (eg, jobInfo)) => eg
      }


      sender ! decorateMessage(RunningJobs(executionGraphs))


    case RequestRunningJobsStatus =>
      try {
        val jobs = currentJobs map {
          case (_, (eg, _)) =>
            new JobStatusMessage(
              eg.getJobID,
              eg.getJobName,
              eg.getState,
              eg.getStatusTimestamp(JobStatus.CREATED)
            )
        }


        sender ! decorateMessage(RunningJobsStatus(jobs))
      }
      catch {
        case t: Throwable => log.error("Exception while responding to RequestRunningJobsStatus", t)
      }


    case RequestJob(jobID) =>
      currentJobs.get(jobID) match {
        case Some((eg, _)) => sender ! decorateMessage(JobFound(jobID, eg))
        case None =>
          // check the archive
          archive forward decorateMessage(RequestJob(jobID))
      }


    case RequestBlobManagerPort =>
      sender ! decorateMessage(libraryCacheManager.getBlobServerPort)


    case RequestArchive =>
      sender ! decorateMessage(ResponseArchive(archive))


    case RequestRegisteredTaskManagers =>
      import scala.collection.JavaConverters._
      sender ! decorateMessage(
        RegisteredTaskManagers(
          instanceManager.getAllRegisteredInstances.asScala
        )
      )


    case RequestTaskManagerInstance(instanceID) =>
      sender ! decorateMessage(
        TaskManagerInstance(Option(instanceManager.getRegisteredInstanceById(instanceID)))
      )


    case Heartbeat(instanceID, metricsReport, accumulators) =>
      log.debug(s"Received hearbeat message from $instanceID.")


      updateAccumulators(accumulators)


      instanceManager.reportHeartBeat(instanceID, metricsReport)


    case message: AccumulatorMessage => handleAccumulatorMessage(message)


    case message: InfoMessage => handleInfoRequestMessage(message, sender())


    case RequestStackTrace(instanceID) =>
      val gateway = instanceManager.getRegisteredInstanceById(instanceID).getActorGateway
      gateway.forward(SendStackTrace, new AkkaActorGateway(sender, leaderSessionID.orNull))


    case Terminated(taskManager) =>
      if (instanceManager.isRegistered(taskManager)) {
        log.info(s"Task manager ${taskManager.path} terminated.")


        instanceManager.unregisterTaskManager(taskManager, true)
        context.unwatch(taskManager)
      }


    case RequestJobManagerStatus =>
      sender() ! decorateMessage(JobManagerStatusAlive)


    case RemoveJob(jobID, clearPersistedJob) =>
      currentJobs.get(jobID) match {
        case Some((graph, info)) =>
            removeJob(graph.getJobID, clearPersistedJob) match {
              case Some(futureToComplete) =>
                futuresToComplete = Some(futuresToComplete.getOrElse(Seq()) :+ futureToComplete)
              case None =>
            }
        case None =>
      }


    case RemoveCachedJob(jobID) =>
      currentJobs.get(jobID) match {
        case Some((graph, info)) =>
          if (graph.getState.isTerminalState) {
            removeJob(graph.getJobID, true) match {
              case Some(futureToComplete) =>
                futuresToComplete = Some(futuresToComplete.getOrElse(Seq()) :+ futureToComplete)
              case None =>
            }
          } else {
            // triggers removal upon completion of job
            info.sessionAlive = false
          }
        case None =>
      }


    case Disconnect(msg) =>
      val taskManager = sender()


      if (instanceManager.isRegistered(taskManager)) {
        log.info(s"Task manager ${taskManager.path} wants to disconnect, because $msg.")


        instanceManager.unregisterTaskManager(taskManager, false)
        context.unwatch(taskManager)
      }


    case RequestLeaderSessionID =>
      sender() ! ResponseLeaderSessionID(leaderSessionID.orNull)


    case RequestWebMonitorPort =>
      sender() ! ResponseWebMonitorPort(webMonitorPort)
  }


  /**
   * Submits a job to the job manager. The job is registered at the libraryCacheManager which
   * creates the job's class loader. The job graph is appended to the corresponding execution
   * graph and the execution vertices are queued for scheduling.
   *
   * @param jobGraph representing the Flink job
   * @param jobInfo the job info
   * @param isRecovery Flag indicating whether this is a recovery or initial submission
   */
  private def submitJob(jobGraph: JobGraph, jobInfo: JobInfo, isRecovery: Boolean = false): Unit = {
    if (jobGraph == null) {
      jobInfo.client ! decorateMessage(JobResultFailure(
        new SerializedThrowable(
          new JobSubmissionException(null, "JobGraph must not be null.")
        )
      ))
    }
    else {
      val jobId = jobGraph.getJobID
      val jobName = jobGraph.getName
      var executionGraph: ExecutionGraph = null


      log.info(s"Submitting job $jobId ($jobName)" + (if (isRecovery) " (Recovery)" else "") + ".")


      try {
        // Important: We need to make sure that the library registration is the first action,
        // because this makes sure that the uploaded jar files are removed in case of
        // unsuccessful
        try {
          libraryCacheManager.registerJob(jobGraph.getJobID, jobGraph.getUserJarBlobKeys,
            jobGraph.getClasspaths)
        }
        catch {
          case t: Throwable =>
            throw new JobSubmissionException(jobId,
              "Cannot set up the user code libraries: " + t.getMessage, t)
        }


        val userCodeLoader = libraryCacheManager.getClassLoader(jobGraph.getJobID)
        if (userCodeLoader == null) {
          throw new JobSubmissionException(jobId,
            "The user code class loader could not be initialized.")
        }


        if (jobGraph.getNumberOfVertices == 0) {
          throw new JobSubmissionException(jobId, "The given job is empty")
        }


        // see if there already exists an ExecutionGraph for the corresponding job ID
        executionGraph = currentJobs.get(jobGraph.getJobID) match {
          case Some((graph, currentJobInfo)) =>
            currentJobInfo.setLastActive()
            graph
          case None =>
            val graph = new ExecutionGraph(
              executionContext,
              jobGraph.getJobID,
              jobGraph.getName,
              jobGraph.getJobConfiguration,
              timeout,
              jobGraph.getUserJarBlobKeys,
              jobGraph.getClasspaths,
              userCodeLoader)


            currentJobs.put(jobGraph.getJobID, (graph, jobInfo))
            graph
        }


        // configure the execution graph
        val jobNumberRetries = if (jobGraph.getNumberOfExecutionRetries() >= 0) {
          jobGraph.getNumberOfExecutionRetries()
        } else {
          defaultExecutionRetries
        }


        val executionRetryDelay = if (jobGraph.getExecutionRetryDelay() >= 0) {
          jobGraph.getExecutionRetryDelay()
        }
        else {
          delayBetweenRetries
        }


        executionGraph.setNumberOfRetriesLeft(jobNumberRetries)
        executionGraph.setDelayBeforeRetrying(executionRetryDelay)
        executionGraph.setScheduleMode(jobGraph.getScheduleMode())
        executionGraph.setQueuedSchedulingAllowed(jobGraph.getAllowQueuedScheduling())


        try {
          executionGraph.setJsonPlan(JsonPlanGenerator.generatePlan(jobGraph))
        }
        catch {
          case t: Throwable =>
            log.warn("Cannot create JSON plan for job", t)
            executionGraph.setJsonPlan("{}")
        }


        // initialize the vertices that have a master initialization hook
        // file output formats create directories here, input formats create splits
        if (log.isDebugEnabled) {
          log.debug(s"Running initialization on master for job ${jobId} (${jobName}).")
        }


        val numSlots = scheduler.getTotalNumberOfSlots()


        for (vertex <- jobGraph.getVertices.asScala) {
          val executableClass = vertex.getInvokableClassName
          if (executableClass == null || executableClass.length == 0) {
            throw new JobSubmissionException(jobId,
              s"The vertex ${vertex.getID} (${vertex.getName}) has no invokable class.")
          }


          if (vertex.getParallelism() == ExecutionConfig.PARALLELISM_AUTO_MAX) {
            vertex.setParallelism(numSlots)
          }


          try {
            vertex.initializeOnMaster(userCodeLoader)
          }
          catch {
            case t: Throwable =>
              throw new JobExecutionException(jobId,
                "Cannot initialize task '" + vertex.getName() + "': " + t.getMessage, t)
          }
        }


        // topologically sort the job vertices and attach the graph to the existing one
        val sortedTopology = jobGraph.getVerticesSortedTopologicallyFromSources()
        if (log.isDebugEnabled) {
          log.debug(s"Adding ${sortedTopology.size()} vertices from " +
            s"job graph ${jobId} (${jobName}).")
        }
        executionGraph.attachJobGraph(sortedTopology)


        if (log.isDebugEnabled) {
          log.debug("Successfully created execution graph from job " +
            s"graph ${jobId} (${jobName}).")
        }


        // configure the state checkpointing
        val snapshotSettings = jobGraph.getSnapshotSettings
        if (snapshotSettings != null) {
          val jobId = jobGraph.getJobID()


          val idToVertex: JobVertexID => ExecutionJobVertex = id => {
            val vertex = executionGraph.getJobVertex(id)
            if (vertex == null) {
              throw new JobSubmissionException(jobId,
                "The snapshot checkpointing settings refer to non-existent vertex " + id)
            }
            vertex
          }


          val triggerVertices: java.util.List[ExecutionJobVertex] =
            snapshotSettings.getVerticesToTrigger().asScala.map(idToVertex).asJava


          val ackVertices: java.util.List[ExecutionJobVertex] =
            snapshotSettings.getVerticesToAcknowledge().asScala.map(idToVertex).asJava


          val confirmVertices: java.util.List[ExecutionJobVertex] =
            snapshotSettings.getVerticesToConfirm().asScala.map(idToVertex).asJava


          val completedCheckpoints = checkpointRecoveryFactory
            .createCompletedCheckpoints(jobId, userCodeLoader)


          val checkpointIdCounter = checkpointRecoveryFactory.createCheckpointIDCounter(jobId)


          executionGraph.enableSnapshotCheckpointing(
            snapshotSettings.getCheckpointInterval,
            snapshotSettings.getCheckpointTimeout,
            triggerVertices,
            ackVertices,
            confirmVertices,
            context.system,
            leaderSessionID.orNull,
            checkpointIdCounter,
            completedCheckpoints,
            recoveryMode)
        }


        // get notified about job status changes
        executionGraph.registerJobStatusListener(
          new AkkaActorGateway(self, leaderSessionID.orNull))


        if (jobInfo.listeningBehaviour == ListeningBehaviour.EXECUTION_RESULT_AND_STATE_CHANGES) {
          // the sender wants to be notified about state changes
          val gateway = new AkkaActorGateway(jobInfo.client, leaderSessionID.orNull)


          executionGraph.registerExecutionListener(gateway)
          executionGraph.registerJobStatusListener(gateway)
        }
      }
      catch {
        case t: Throwable =>
          log.error(s"Failed to submit job ${jobId} (${jobName})", t)


          libraryCacheManager.unregisterJob(jobId)
          currentJobs.remove(jobId)


          if (executionGraph != null) {
            executionGraph.fail(t)
          }


          val rt: Throwable = if (t.isInstanceOf[JobExecutionException]) {
            t
          } else {
            new JobExecutionException(jobId, s"Failed to submit job ${jobId} (${jobName})", t)
          }


          jobInfo.client ! decorateMessage(JobResultFailure(new SerializedThrowable(rt)))
          return
      }


      // execute the recovery/writing the jobGraph into the SubmittedJobGraphStore asynchronously
      // because it is a blocking operation
      future {
        try {
          if (isRecovery) {
            executionGraph.restoreLatestCheckpointedState()
          }
          else {
            submittedJobGraphs.putJobGraph(new SubmittedJobGraph(jobGraph, jobInfo))
          }


          jobInfo.client ! decorateMessage(JobSubmitSuccess(jobGraph.getJobID))


          if (leaderElectionService.hasLeadership) {
            // There is a small chance that multiple job managers schedule the same job after if
            // they try to recover at the same time. This will eventually be noticed, but can not be
            // ruled out from the beginning.


            // NOTE: Scheduling the job for execution is a separate action from the job submission.
            // The success of submitting the job must be independent from the success of scheduling
            // the job.
            log.info(s"Scheduling job $jobId ($jobName).")


            executionGraph.scheduleForExecution(scheduler)
          } else {
            // Remove the job graph. Otherwise it will be lingering around and possibly removed from
            // ZooKeeper by this JM.
            self ! decorateMessage(RemoveJob(jobId, false))


            log.warn(s"Submitted job $jobId, but not leader. The other leader needs to recover " +
              "this. I am not scheduling the job for execution.")
          }
        } catch {
          case t: Throwable => try {
            executionGraph.fail(t)
          }
          catch {
            case tt: Throwable => {
              log.error("Error while marking ExecutionGraph as failed.", tt)
            }
          }
        }
      }(context.dispatcher)
    }
  }


  /**
   * Dedicated handler for checkpoint messages.
   *
   * @param actorMessage The checkpoint actor message.
   */
  private def handleCheckpointMessage(actorMessage: AbstractCheckpointMessage): Unit = {
    actorMessage match {
      case ackMessage: AcknowledgeCheckpoint =>
        val jid = ackMessage.getJob()
        currentJobs.get(jid) match {
          case Some((graph, _)) =>
            val coordinator = graph.getCheckpointCoordinator()
            if (coordinator != null) {
              future {
                try {
                  coordinator.receiveAcknowledgeMessage(ackMessage)
                }
                catch {
                  case t: Throwable =>
                    log.error(s"Error in CheckpointCoordinator while processing $ackMessage", t)
                }
              }(context.dispatcher)
            }
            else {
              log.error(
                s"Received ConfirmCheckpoint message for job $jid with no CheckpointCoordinator")
            }
            
          case None => log.error(s"Received ConfirmCheckpoint for unavailable job $jid")
        }


      // unknown checkpoint message
      case _ => unhandled(actorMessage)
    }
  }
  
  /**
   * Handle unmatched messages with an exception.
   */
  override def unhandled(message: Any): Unit = {
    // let the actor crash
    throw new RuntimeException("Received unknown message " + message)
  }


  /**
   * Handle messages that request or report accumulators.
   *
   * @param message The accumulator message.
   */
  private def handleAccumulatorMessage(message: AccumulatorMessage): Unit = {
    message match {
      case RequestAccumulatorResults(jobID) =>
        try {
          currentJobs.get(jobID) match {
            case Some((graph, jobInfo)) =>
              val accumulatorValues = graph.getAccumulatorsSerialized()
              sender() ! decorateMessage(AccumulatorResultsFound(jobID, accumulatorValues))
            case None =>
              archive.forward(message)
          }
        } catch {
        case e: Exception =>
          log.error("Cannot serialize accumulator result.", e)
          sender() ! decorateMessage(AccumulatorResultsErroneous(jobID, e))
        }


      case RequestAccumulatorResultsStringified(jobId) =>
        currentJobs.get(jobId) match {
          case Some((graph, jobInfo)) =>
            val stringifiedAccumulators = graph.getAccumulatorResultsStringified()
            sender() ! decorateMessage(
              AccumulatorResultStringsFound(jobId, stringifiedAccumulators)
            )
          case None =>
            archive.forward(message)
        }


      case unknown =>
        log.warn(s"Received unknown AccumulatorMessage: $unknown")
    }
  }


  /**
   * Dedicated handler for monitor info request messages.
   * 
   * Note that this handler does not fail. Errors while responding to info messages are logged,
   * but will not cause the actor to crash.
   *
   * @param actorMessage The info request message.
   */
  private def handleInfoRequestMessage(actorMessage: InfoMessage, theSender: ActorRef): Unit = {
    try {
      actorMessage match {


        case _ : RequestJobsOverview =>
          // get our own overview
          val ourJobs = createJobStatusOverview()


          // get the overview from the archive
          val future = (archive ? RequestJobsOverview.getInstance())(timeout)


          future.onSuccess {
            case archiveOverview: JobsOverview =>
              theSender ! new JobsOverview(ourJobs, archiveOverview)
          }(context.dispatcher)


        case _ : RequestJobsWithIDsOverview =>
          // get our own overview
          val ourJobs = createJobStatusWithIDsOverview()


          // get the overview from the archive
          val future = (archive ? RequestJobsWithIDsOverview.getInstance())(timeout)


          future.onSuccess {
            case archiveOverview: JobsWithIDsOverview =>
              theSender ! new JobsWithIDsOverview(ourJobs, archiveOverview)
          }(context.dispatcher)


        case _ : RequestStatusOverview =>


          val ourJobs = createJobStatusOverview()


          val numTMs = instanceManager.getNumberOfRegisteredTaskManagers()
          val numSlotsTotal = instanceManager.getTotalNumberOfSlots()
          val numSlotsAvailable = instanceManager.getNumberOfAvailableSlots()


          // add to that the jobs from the archive
          val future = (archive ? RequestJobsOverview.getInstance())(timeout)
          future.onSuccess {
            case archiveOverview: JobsOverview =>
              theSender ! new StatusOverview(numTMs, numSlotsTotal, numSlotsAvailable,
                ourJobs, archiveOverview)
          }(context.dispatcher)


        case msg : RequestJobDetails => 
          
          val ourDetails: Array[JobDetails] = if (msg.shouldIncludeRunning()) {
            currentJobs.values.map {
              v => WebMonitorUtils.createDetailsForJob(v._1)
            }.toArray[JobDetails]
          } else {
            null
          }
          
          if (msg.shouldIncludeFinished()) {
            val future = (archive ? msg)(timeout)
            future.onSuccess {
              case archiveDetails: MultipleJobsDetails =>
                theSender ! new MultipleJobsDetails(ourDetails, archiveDetails.getFinishedJobs())
            }(context.dispatcher)
          } else {
            theSender ! new MultipleJobsDetails(ourDetails, null)
          }
          
        case _ => log.error("Unrecognized info message " + actorMessage)
      }
    }
    catch {
      case e: Throwable => log.error(s"Error responding to message $actorMessage", e)
    }
  }


  private def createJobStatusOverview() : JobsOverview = {
    var runningOrPending = 0
    var finished = 0
    var canceled = 0
    var failed = 0


    currentJobs.values.foreach {
      _._1.getState() match {
        case JobStatus.FINISHED => finished += 1
        case JobStatus.CANCELED => canceled += 1
        case JobStatus.FAILED => failed += 1
        case _ => runningOrPending += 1
      }
    }


    new JobsOverview(runningOrPending, finished, canceled, failed)
  }


  private def createJobStatusWithIDsOverview() : JobsWithIDsOverview = {
    val runningOrPending = new java.util.ArrayList[JobID]()
    val finished = new java.util.ArrayList[JobID]()
    val canceled = new java.util.ArrayList[JobID]()
    val failed = new java.util.ArrayList[JobID]()
    
    currentJobs.values.foreach { case (graph, _) =>
      graph.getState() match {
        case JobStatus.FINISHED => finished.add(graph.getJobID)
        case JobStatus.CANCELED => canceled.add(graph.getJobID)
        case JobStatus.FAILED => failed.add(graph.getJobID)
        case _ => runningOrPending.add(graph.getJobID)
      }
    }


    new JobsWithIDsOverview(runningOrPending, finished, canceled, failed)
  }


  /**
   * Removes the job and sends it to the MemoryArchivist.
   *
   * This should be called asynchronously. Removing the job from the [[SubmittedJobGraphStore]]
   * might block. Therefore be careful not to block the actor thread.
   *
   * @param jobID ID of the job to remove and archive
   * @param removeJobFromStateBackend true if the job shall be archived and removed from the state
   *                            backend
   */
  private def removeJob(jobID: JobID, removeJobFromStateBackend: Boolean): Option[Future[Unit]] = {
    // Don't remove the job yet...
    val futureOption = currentJobs.get(jobID) match {
      case Some((eg, _)) =>
        val result = if (removeJobFromStateBackend) {
          val futureOption = Some(future {
            try {
              // ...otherwise, we can have lingering resources when there is a  concurrent shutdown
              // and the ZooKeeper client is closed. Not removing the job immediately allow the
              // shutdown to release all resources.
              submittedJobGraphs.removeJobGraph(jobID)
            } catch {
              case t: Throwable => log.error(s"Could not remove submitted job graph $jobID.", t)
            }
          }(context.dispatcher))


          try {
            eg.prepareForArchiving()


            archive ! decorateMessage(ArchiveExecutionGraph(jobID, eg))
          } catch {
            case t: Throwable => log.error(s"Could not prepare the execution graph $eg for " +
              "archiving.", t)
          }


          futureOption
        } else {
          None
        }


        currentJobs.remove(jobID)


        result
      case None => None
    }


    try {
      libraryCacheManager.unregisterJob(jobID)
    } catch {
      case t: Throwable =>
        log.error(s"Could not properly unregister job $jobID form the library cache.", t)
    }


    futureOption
  }


  /** Fails all currently running jobs and empties the list of currently running jobs. If the
    * [[JobClientActor]] waits for a result, then a [[JobExecutionException]] is sent.
    *
    * @param cause Cause for the cancelling.
    */
  private def cancelAndClearEverything(
      cause: Throwable,
      removeJobFromStateBackend: Boolean)
    : Seq[Future[Unit]] = {
    val futures = for ((jobID, (eg, jobInfo)) <- currentJobs) yield {
      future {
        if (removeJobFromStateBackend) {
          try {
            submittedJobGraphs.removeJobGraph(jobID)
          }
          catch {
            case t: Throwable => {
              log.error("Error during submitted job graph clean up.", t)
            }
          }
        }


        eg.fail(cause)


        if (jobInfo.listeningBehaviour != ListeningBehaviour.DETACHED) {
          jobInfo.client ! decorateMessage(
            Failure(new JobExecutionException(jobID, "All jobs are cancelled and cleared.", cause)))
        }
      }(context.dispatcher)
    }


    currentJobs.clear()


    futures.toSeq
  }


  override def grantLeadership(newLeaderSessionID: UUID): Unit = {
    self ! decorateMessage(GrantLeadership(Option(newLeaderSessionID)))
  }


  override def revokeLeadership(): Unit = {
    leaderSessionID = None
    self ! decorateMessage(RevokeLeadership)
  }


  override def onAddedJobGraph(jobId: JobID): Unit = {
    if (leaderSessionID.isDefined && !currentJobs.contains(jobId)) {
      self ! decorateMessage(RecoverJob(jobId))
    }
  }


  override def onRemovedJobGraph(jobId: JobID): Unit = {
    if (leaderSessionID.isDefined) {
      currentJobs.get(jobId).foreach(
        job =>
          future {
            // Fail the execution graph
            job._1.fail(new IllegalStateException("Another JobManager removed the job from " +
              "ZooKeeper."))
          }(context.dispatcher)
      )
    }
  }


  override def getAddress: String = {
    AkkaUtils.getAkkaURL(context.system, self)
  }


  /** Handles error occuring in the leader election service
    *
    * @param exception
    */
  override def handleError(exception: Exception): Unit = {
    log.error("Received an error from the LeaderElectionService.", exception)


    // terminate JobManager in case of an error
    self ! decorateMessage(PoisonPill)
  }
  
  /**
   * Updates the accumulators reported from a task manager via the Heartbeat message.
   * @param accumulators list of accumulator snapshots
   */
  private def updateAccumulators(accumulators : Seq[AccumulatorSnapshot]) = {
    accumulators foreach {
      case accumulatorEvent =>
        currentJobs.get(accumulatorEvent.getJobID) match {
          case Some((jobGraph, jobInfo)) =>
            future {
              jobGraph.updateAccumulators(accumulatorEvent)
            }(context.dispatcher)
          case None =>
          // ignore accumulator values for old job
        }
    }
  }
}


/**
 * Job Manager companion object. Contains the entry point (main method) to run the JobManager in a
 * standalone fashion. Also contains various utility methods to start the JobManager and to
 * look up the JobManager actor reference.
 */
object JobManager {


  val LOG = Logger(classOf[JobManager])


  val STARTUP_FAILURE_RETURN_CODE = 1
  val RUNTIME_FAILURE_RETURN_CODE = 2


  /** Name of the JobManager actor */
  val JOB_MANAGER_NAME = "jobmanager"


  /** Name of the archive actor */
  val ARCHIVE_NAME = "archive"




  /**
   * Entry point (main method) to run the JobManager in a standalone fashion.
   *
   * @param args The command line arguments.
   */
  def main(args: Array[String]): Unit = {
    // startup checks and logging
    EnvironmentInformation.logEnvironmentInfo(LOG.logger, "JobManager", args)
    EnvironmentInformation.checkJavaVersion()


    // parsing the command line arguments
    val (configuration: Configuration,
         executionMode: JobManagerMode,
         streamingMode: StreamingMode,
         listeningHost: String, listeningPort: Int) =
    try {
      parseArgs(args)
    }
    catch {
      case t: Throwable => {
        LOG.error(t.getMessage(), t)
        System.exit(STARTUP_FAILURE_RETURN_CODE)
        null
      }
    }


    // we want to check that the JobManager hostname is in the config
    // if it is not in there, the actor system will bind to the loopback interface's
    // address and will not be reachable from anyone remote
    if (listeningHost == null) {
      val message = "Config parameter '" + ConfigConstants.JOB_MANAGER_IPC_ADDRESS_KEY +
        "' is missing (hostname/address to bind JobManager to)."
      LOG.error(message)
      System.exit(STARTUP_FAILURE_RETURN_CODE)
    }


    if (ZooKeeperUtils.isZooKeeperRecoveryMode(configuration)) {
      // address and will not be reachable from anyone remote
      if (listeningPort != 0) {
        val message = "Config parameter '" + ConfigConstants.JOB_MANAGER_IPC_PORT_KEY +
          "' is invalid, it must be equal to 0."
        LOG.error(message)
        System.exit(STARTUP_FAILURE_RETURN_CODE)
      }
    } else {
      // address and will not be reachable from anyone remote
      if (listeningPort <= 0 || listeningPort >= 65536) {
        val message = "Config parameter '" + ConfigConstants.JOB_MANAGER_IPC_PORT_KEY +
          "' is invalid, it must be greater than 0 and less than 65536."
        LOG.error(message)
        System.exit(STARTUP_FAILURE_RETURN_CODE)
      }
    }


    // run the job manager
    try {
      if (SecurityUtils.isSecurityEnabled) {
        LOG.info("Security is enabled. Starting secure JobManager.")
        SecurityUtils.runSecured(new FlinkSecuredRunner[Unit] {
          override def run(): Unit = {
            runJobManager(
              configuration,
              executionMode,
              streamingMode,
              listeningHost,
              listeningPort)
          }
        })
      }
      else {
        LOG.info("Security is not enabled. Starting non-authenticated JobManager.")
        runJobManager(
          configuration,
          executionMode,
          streamingMode,
          listeningHost,
          listeningPort)
      }
    }
    catch {
      case t: Throwable => {
        LOG.error("Failed to run JobManager.", t)
        System.exit(STARTUP_FAILURE_RETURN_CODE)
      }
    }
  }


  /**
   * Starts and runs the JobManager with all its components. First, this method starts a
   * dedicated actor system for the JobManager. Second, its starts all components of the
   * JobManager (including library cache, instance manager, scheduler). Finally, it starts
   * the JobManager actor itself.
   *
   * This method blocks indefinitely (or until the JobManager's actor system is shut down).
   *
   * @param configuration The configuration object for the JobManager.
   * @param executionMode The execution mode in which to run. Execution mode LOCAL will spawn an
   *                      an additional TaskManager in the same process.
   * @param streamingMode The streaming mode to run the system in (streaming vs. batch-only)
   * @param listeningAddress The hostname where the JobManager should listen for messages.
   * @param listeningPort The port where the JobManager should listen for messages.
   */
  def runJobManager(
      configuration: Configuration,
      executionMode: JobManagerMode,
      streamingMode: StreamingMode,
      listeningAddress: String,
      listeningPort: Int)
    : Unit = {
    
    val (jobManagerSystem, _, _, _) = startActorSystemAndJobManagerActors(
      configuration,
      executionMode,
      streamingMode,
      listeningAddress,
      listeningPort,
      classOf[JobManager],
      classOf[MemoryArchivist]
    )


    // block until everything is shut down
    jobManagerSystem.awaitTermination()
  }


  /** Starts an ActorSystem, the JobManager and all its components including the WebMonitor.
    *
    * @param configuration The configuration object for the JobManager
    * @param executionMode The execution mode in which to run. Execution mode LOCAL with spawn an
    *                      additional TaskManager in the same process.
    * @param streamingMode The streaming mode to run the system in (streaming vs. batch-only)
    * @param listeningAddress The hostname where the JobManager should lsiten for messages.
    * @param listeningPort The port where the JobManager should listen for messages
    * @param jobManagerClass The class of the JobManager to be started
    * @param archiveClass The class of the Archivist to be started
    * @return A tuple containing the started ActorSystem, ActorRefs to the JobManager and the
    *         Archivist and an Option containing a possibly started WebMonitor
    */
  def startActorSystemAndJobManagerActors(
      configuration: Configuration,
      executionMode: JobManagerMode,
      streamingMode: StreamingMode,
      listeningAddress: String,
      listeningPort: Int,
      jobManagerClass: Class[_ <: JobManager],
      archiveClass: Class[_ <: MemoryArchivist])
    : (ActorSystem, ActorRef, ActorRef, Option[WebMonitor]) = {


    LOG.info("Starting JobManager")


    // Bring up the job manager actor system first, bind it to the given address.
    val hostPortUrl = NetUtils.hostAndPortToUrlString(listeningAddress, listeningPort)
    LOG.info(s"Starting JobManager actor system at $hostPortUrl")


    val jobManagerSystem = try {
      val akkaConfig = AkkaUtils.getAkkaConfig(
        configuration,
        Some((listeningAddress, listeningPort))
      )
      if (LOG.isDebugEnabled) {
        LOG.debug("Using akka configuration\n " + akkaConfig)
      }
      AkkaUtils.createActorSystem(akkaConfig)
    }
    catch {
      case t: Throwable => {
        if (t.isInstanceOf[org.jboss.netty.channel.ChannelException]) {
          val cause = t.getCause()
          if (cause != null && t.getCause().isInstanceOf[java.net.BindException]) {
            val address = listeningAddress + ":" + listeningPort
            throw new Exception("Unable to create JobManager at address " + address +
              " - " + cause.getMessage(), t)
          }
        }
        throw new Exception("Could not create JobManager actor system", t)
      }
    }


    val address = AkkaUtils.getAddress(jobManagerSystem)


    configuration.setString(ConfigConstants.JOB_MANAGER_IPC_ADDRESS_KEY, address.host.get)
    configuration.setInteger(ConfigConstants.JOB_MANAGER_IPC_PORT_KEY, address.port.get)


    val webMonitor: Option[WebMonitor] =
      if (configuration.getInteger(ConfigConstants.JOB_MANAGER_WEB_PORT_KEY, 0) >= 0) {
        LOG.info("Starting JobManger web frontend")
        val leaderRetrievalService = LeaderRetrievalUtils
          .createLeaderRetrievalService(configuration)


        // start the web frontend. we need to load this dynamically
        // because it is not in the same project/dependencies
        val webServer = WebMonitorUtils.startWebRuntimeMonitor(
          configuration,
          leaderRetrievalService,
          jobManagerSystem)


        Option(webServer)
      }
      else {
        None
      }


    // Reset the port (necessary in case of automatic port selection)
    webMonitor.foreach{ monitor => configuration.setInteger(
      ConfigConstants.JOB_MANAGER_WEB_PORT_KEY, monitor.getServerPort) }


    try {
      // bring up the job manager actor
      LOG.info("Starting JobManager actor")
      val (jobManager, archive) = startJobManagerActors(
        configuration,
        jobManagerSystem,
        streamingMode,
        jobManagerClass,
        archiveClass)


      // start a process reaper that watches the JobManager. If the JobManager actor dies,
      // the process reaper will kill the JVM process (to ensure easy failure detection)
      LOG.debug("Starting JobManager process reaper")
      jobManagerSystem.actorOf(
        Props(
          classOf[ProcessReaper],
          jobManager,
          LOG.logger,
          RUNTIME_FAILURE_RETURN_CODE),
        "JobManager_Process_Reaper")


      // bring up a local task manager, if needed
      if (executionMode == JobManagerMode.LOCAL) {
        LOG.info("Starting embedded TaskManager for JobManager's LOCAL execution mode")


        val taskManagerActor = TaskManager.startTaskManagerComponentsAndActor(
          configuration,
          jobManagerSystem,
          listeningAddress,
          Some(TaskManager.TASK_MANAGER_NAME),
          None,
          true,
          streamingMode,
          classOf[TaskManager])


        LOG.debug("Starting TaskManager process reaper")
        jobManagerSystem.actorOf(
          Props(
            classOf[ProcessReaper],
            taskManagerActor,
            LOG.logger,
            RUNTIME_FAILURE_RETURN_CODE),
          "TaskManager_Process_Reaper")
      }


      webMonitor.foreach {
        monitor =>
          val jobManagerAkkaUrl = JobManager.getRemoteJobManagerAkkaURL(configuration)
          monitor.start(jobManagerAkkaUrl)
      }


      (jobManagerSystem, jobManager, archive, webMonitor)
    }
    catch {
      case t: Throwable => {
        LOG.error("Error while starting up JobManager", t)
        try {
          jobManagerSystem.shutdown()
        } catch {
          case tt: Throwable => LOG.warn("Could not cleanly shut down actor system", tt)
        }
        throw t
      }
    }
  }


  /**
   * Loads the configuration, execution mode and the listening address from the provided command
   * line arguments.
   *
   * @param args command line arguments
   * @return Quadruple of configuration, execution mode and an optional listening address
   */
  def parseArgs(args: Array[String]):
                     (Configuration, JobManagerMode, StreamingMode, String, Int) = {
    val parser = new scopt.OptionParser[JobManagerCliOptions]("JobManager") {
      head("Flink JobManager")


      opt[String]("configDir") action { (arg, conf) => 
        conf.setConfigDir(arg)
        conf
      } text {
        "The configuration directory."
      }


      opt[String]("executionMode") action { (arg, conf) =>
        conf.setJobManagerMode(arg)
        conf
      } text {
        "The execution mode of the JobManager (CLUSTER / LOCAL)"
      }


      opt[String]("streamingMode").optional().action { (arg, conf) =>
        conf.setStreamingMode(arg)
        conf
      } text {
        "The streaming mode of the JobManager (STREAMING / BATCH)"
      }


      opt[String]("host").optional().action { (arg, conf) =>
        conf.setHost(arg)
        conf
      } text {
        "Network address for communication with the job manager"
      }


      opt[Int]("webui-port").optional().action { (arg, conf) =>
        conf.setWebUIPort(arg)
        conf
      } text {
        "Port for the UI web server"
      }
    }


    val config = parser.parse(args, new JobManagerCliOptions()).getOrElse {
      throw new Exception(
        s"Invalid command line agruments: ${args.mkString(" ")}. Usage: ${parser.usage}")
    }
    
    val configDir = config.getConfigDir()
    
    if (configDir == null) {
      throw new Exception("Missing parameter '--configDir'")
    }
    if (config.getJobManagerMode() == null) {
      throw new Exception("Missing parameter '--executionMode'")
    }


    LOG.info("Loading configuration from " + configDir)
    GlobalConfiguration.loadConfiguration(configDir)
    val configuration = GlobalConfiguration.getConfiguration()


    if (new File(configDir).isDirectory) {
      configuration.setString(ConfigConstants.FLINK_BASE_DIR_PATH_KEY, configDir + "/..")
    }


    if (config.getWebUIPort() >= 0) {
      configuration.setInteger(ConfigConstants.JOB_MANAGER_WEB_PORT_KEY, config.getWebUIPort())
    }


    if (config.getHost() != null) {
      configuration.setString(ConfigConstants.JOB_MANAGER_IPC_ADDRESS_KEY, config.getHost())
    }


    val host = configuration.getString(ConfigConstants.JOB_MANAGER_IPC_ADDRESS_KEY, null)


    // high availability mode
    val port: Int =
      if (ZooKeeperUtils.isZooKeeperRecoveryMode(configuration)) {
        LOG.info("Starting JobManager in High-Availability Mode")


        configuration.setInteger(ConfigConstants.JOB_MANAGER_IPC_PORT_KEY, 0)
        0
      }
      else {
        LOG.info("Staring JobManager without high-availability")
  
        configuration.getInteger(ConfigConstants.JOB_MANAGER_IPC_PORT_KEY,
            ConfigConstants.DEFAULT_JOB_MANAGER_IPC_PORT)
      }


    val executionMode = config.getJobManagerMode
    val streamingMode = config.getStreamingMode
    val hostPortUrl = NetUtils.hostAndPortToUrlString(host, port)
    
    LOG.info(s"Starting JobManager on $hostPortUrl with execution mode $executionMode and " +
      s"streaming mode $streamingMode")


    (configuration, executionMode, streamingMode, host, port)
  }


  /**
   * Create the job manager components as (instanceManager, scheduler, libraryCacheManager,
   *              archiverProps, defaultExecutionRetries,
   *              delayBetweenRetries, timeout)
   *
   * @param configuration The configuration from which to parse the config values.
   * @param leaderElectionServiceOption LeaderElectionService which shall be returned if the option
   *                                    is defined
   * @return The members for a default JobManager.
   */
  def createJobManagerComponents(
      configuration: Configuration,
      leaderElectionServiceOption: Option[LeaderElectionService]) :
    (ExecutionContext,
    InstanceManager,
    FlinkScheduler,
    BlobLibraryCacheManager,
    Int, // execution retries
    Long, // delay between retries
    FiniteDuration, // timeout
    Int, // number of archived jobs
    LeaderElectionService,
    SubmittedJobGraphStore,
    CheckpointRecoveryFactory) = {


    val timeout: FiniteDuration = AkkaUtils.getTimeout(configuration)


    val cleanupInterval = configuration.getLong(
      ConfigConstants.LIBRARY_CACHE_MANAGER_CLEANUP_INTERVAL,
      ConfigConstants.DEFAULT_LIBRARY_CACHE_MANAGER_CLEANUP_INTERVAL) * 1000


    val executionRetries = configuration.getInteger(
      ConfigConstants.DEFAULT_EXECUTION_RETRIES_KEY,
      ConfigConstants.DEFAULT_EXECUTION_RETRIES)


    val archiveCount = configuration.getInteger(ConfigConstants.JOB_MANAGER_WEB_ARCHIVE_COUNT,
      ConfigConstants.DEFAULT_JOB_MANAGER_WEB_ARCHIVE_COUNT)


    // configure the delay between execution retries.
    // unless explicitly specifies, this is dependent on the heartbeat timeout
    val pauseString = configuration.getString(ConfigConstants.AKKA_WATCH_HEARTBEAT_PAUSE,
                                              ConfigConstants.DEFAULT_AKKA_ASK_TIMEOUT)
    val delayString = configuration.getString(ConfigConstants.DEFAULT_EXECUTION_RETRY_DELAY_KEY,
                                              pauseString)


    val delayBetweenRetries: Long = try {
        Duration(delayString).toMillis
      }
      catch {
        case n: NumberFormatException => throw new Exception(
          s"Invalid config value for ${ConfigConstants.DEFAULT_EXECUTION_RETRY_DELAY_KEY}: " +
            s"${pauseString}. Value must be a valid duration (such as 100 milli or 1 min)");
      }


    val executionContext = ExecutionContext.fromExecutor(new ForkJoinPool())


    var blobServer: BlobServer = null
    var instanceManager: InstanceManager = null
    var scheduler: FlinkScheduler = null
    var libraryCacheManager: BlobLibraryCacheManager = null


    try {
      blobServer = new BlobServer(configuration)
      instanceManager = new InstanceManager()
      scheduler = new FlinkScheduler(executionContext)
      libraryCacheManager = new BlobLibraryCacheManager(blobServer, cleanupInterval)


      instanceManager.addInstanceListener(scheduler)
    }
    catch {
      case t: Throwable => {
        if (libraryCacheManager != null) {
          libraryCacheManager.shutdown()
        }
        if (scheduler != null) {
          scheduler.shutdown()
        }
        if (instanceManager != null) {
          instanceManager.shutdown()
        }
        if (blobServer != null) {
          blobServer.shutdown()
        }
        throw t
      }
    }


    // Create recovery related components
    val (leaderElectionService, submittedJobGraphs, checkpointRecoveryFactory) =
      RecoveryMode.fromConfig(configuration) match {
        case RecoveryMode.STANDALONE =>
          val leaderElectionService = leaderElectionServiceOption match {
            case Some(les) => les
            case None => new StandaloneLeaderElectionService()
          }


          (leaderElectionService,
            new StandaloneSubmittedJobGraphStore(),
            new StandaloneCheckpointRecoveryFactory())


        case RecoveryMode.ZOOKEEPER =>
          val client = ZooKeeperUtils.startCuratorFramework(configuration)


          val leaderElectionService = leaderElectionServiceOption match {
            case Some(les) => les
            case None => ZooKeeperUtils.createLeaderElectionService(client, configuration)
          }


          (leaderElectionService,
            ZooKeeperUtils.createSubmittedJobGraphs(client, configuration),
            new ZooKeeperCheckpointRecoveryFactory(client, configuration))
      }


    (executionContext,
      instanceManager,
      scheduler,
      libraryCacheManager,
      executionRetries,
      delayBetweenRetries,
      timeout,
      archiveCount,
      leaderElectionService,
      submittedJobGraphs,
      checkpointRecoveryFactory)
  }


  /**
   * Starts the JobManager and job archiver based on the given configuration, in the
   * given actor system.
   *
   * @param configuration The configuration for the JobManager
   * @param actorSystem The actor system running the JobManager
   * @param streamingMode The execution mode
   * @param jobManagerClass The class of the JobManager to be started
   * @param archiveClass The class of the MemoryArchivist to be started
   *
   * @return A tuple of references (JobManager Ref, Archiver Ref)
   */
  def startJobManagerActors(
      configuration: Configuration,
      actorSystem: ActorSystem,
      streamingMode: StreamingMode,
      jobManagerClass: Class[_ <: JobManager],
      archiveClass: Class[_ <: MemoryArchivist])
    : (ActorRef, ActorRef) = {


    startJobManagerActors(
      configuration,
      actorSystem,
      Some(JOB_MANAGER_NAME),
      Some(ARCHIVE_NAME),
      streamingMode,
      jobManagerClass,
      archiveClass)
  }


  /**
   * Starts the JobManager and job archiver based on the given configuration, in the
   * given actor system.
   *
   * @param configuration The configuration for the JobManager
   * @param actorSystem The actor system running the JobManager
   * @param jobMangerActorName Optionally the name of the JobManager actor. If none is given,
   *                          the actor will have the name generated by the actor system.
   * @param archiveActorName Optionally the name of the archive actor. If none is given,
   *                          the actor will have the name generated by the actor system.
   * @param streamingMode The mode to run the system in (streaming vs. batch-only)
   * @param jobManagerClass The class of the JobManager to be started
   * @param archiveClass The class of the MemoryArchivist to be started
   *
   * @return A tuple of references (JobManager Ref, Archiver Ref)
   */
  def startJobManagerActors(
      configuration: Configuration,
      actorSystem: ActorSystem,
      jobMangerActorName: Option[String],
      archiveActorName: Option[String],
      streamingMode: StreamingMode,
      jobManagerClass: Class[_ <: JobManager],
      archiveClass: Class[_ <: MemoryArchivist])
    : (ActorRef, ActorRef) = {


    val (executionContext,
    instanceManager,
    scheduler,
    libraryCacheManager,
    executionRetries,
    delayBetweenRetries,
    timeout,
    archiveCount,
    leaderElectionService,
    submittedJobGraphs,
    checkpointRecoveryFactory) = createJobManagerComponents(
      configuration,
      None)


    val archiveProps = Props(archiveClass, archiveCount)


    // start the archiver with the given name, or without (avoid name conflicts)
    val archive: ActorRef = archiveActorName match {
      case Some(actorName) => actorSystem.actorOf(archiveProps, actorName)
      case None => actorSystem.actorOf(archiveProps)
    }


    val jobManagerProps = Props(
      jobManagerClass,
      configuration,
      executionContext,
      instanceManager,
      scheduler,
      libraryCacheManager,
      archive,
      executionRetries,
      delayBetweenRetries,
      timeout,
      streamingMode,
      leaderElectionService,
      submittedJobGraphs,
      checkpointRecoveryFactory)


    val jobManager: ActorRef = jobMangerActorName match {
      case Some(actorName) => actorSystem.actorOf(jobManagerProps, actorName)
      case None => actorSystem.actorOf(jobManagerProps)
    }


    (jobManager, archive)
  }


  def startActor(props: Props, actorSystem: ActorSystem): ActorRef = {
    actorSystem.actorOf(props, JOB_MANAGER_NAME)
  }


  // --------------------------------------------------------------------------
  //  Resolving the JobManager endpoint
  // --------------------------------------------------------------------------


  /**
   * Builds the akka actor path for the JobManager actor, given the socket address
   * where the JobManager's actor system runs.
   *
   * @param address The address of the JobManager's actor system.
   * @return The akka URL of the JobManager actor.
   */
  def getRemoteJobManagerAkkaURL(
      address: InetSocketAddress,
      name: Option[String] = None)
    : String = {
    val hostPort = NetUtils.socketAddressToUrlString(address)


    getJobManagerAkkaURLHelper(s"akka.tcp://flink@$hostPort", name)
  }


  /**
   * Returns the JobManager actor's remote Akka URL, given the configured hostname and port.
   *
   * @param config The configuration to parse
   * @return JobManager actor remote Akka URL
   */
  def getRemoteJobManagerAkkaURL(config: Configuration) : String = {
    val (hostname, port) = TaskManager.getAndCheckJobManagerAddress(config)


    var hostPort: InetSocketAddress = null


    try {
      val inetAddress: InetAddress = InetAddress.getByName(hostname)
      hostPort = new InetSocketAddress(inetAddress, port)
    }
    catch {
      case e: UnknownHostException => {
        throw new UnknownHostException(s"Cannot resolve the JobManager hostname '$hostname' " +
          s"specified in the configuration")
      }
    }


    JobManager.getRemoteJobManagerAkkaURL(hostPort, Option.empty)
  }


  /**
   * Builds the akka actor path for the JobManager actor to address the actor within
   * its own actor system.
   *
   * @return The local akka URL of the JobManager actor.
   */
  def getLocalJobManagerAkkaURL(name: Option[String] = None): String = {
    getJobManagerAkkaURLHelper("akka://flink", name)
  }


  def getJobManagerAkkaURL(system: ActorSystem, name: Option[String] = None): String = {
    getJobManagerAkkaURLHelper(AkkaUtils.getAddress(system).toString, name)
  }


  private def getJobManagerAkkaURLHelper(address: String, name: Option[String]): String = {
    address + "/user/" + name.getOrElse(JOB_MANAGER_NAME)
  }


  def getJobManagerActorRefFuture(
      address: InetSocketAddress,
      system: ActorSystem,
      timeout: FiniteDuration)
    : Future[ActorRef] = {
    AkkaUtils.getActorRefFuture(getRemoteJobManagerAkkaURL(address), system, timeout)
  }


  /**
   * Resolves the JobManager actor reference in a blocking fashion.
   *
   * @param jobManagerUrl The akka URL of the JobManager.
   * @param system The local actor system that should perform the lookup.
   * @param timeout The maximum time to wait until the lookup fails.
   * @throws java.io.IOException Thrown, if the lookup fails.
   * @return The ActorRef to the JobManager
   */
  @throws(classOf[IOException])
  def getJobManagerActorRef(
      jobManagerUrl: String,
      system: ActorSystem,
      timeout: FiniteDuration)
    : ActorRef = {
    AkkaUtils.getActorRef(jobManagerUrl, system, timeout)
  }


  /**
   * Resolves the JobManager actor reference in a blocking fashion.
   *
   * @param address The socket address of the JobManager's actor system.
   * @param system The local actor system that should perform the lookup.
   * @param timeout The maximum time to wait until the lookup fails.
   * @throws java.io.IOException Thrown, if the lookup fails.
   * @return The ActorRef to the JobManager
   */
  @throws(classOf[IOException])
  def getJobManagerActorRef(
      address: InetSocketAddress,
      system: ActorSystem,
      timeout: FiniteDuration)
    : ActorRef = {


    val jmAddress = getRemoteJobManagerAkkaURL(address)
    getJobManagerActorRef(jmAddress, system, timeout)
  }


  /**
   * Resolves the JobManager actor reference in a blocking fashion.
   *
   * @param address The socket address of the JobManager's actor system.
   * @param system The local actor system that should perform the lookup.
   * @param config The config describing the maximum time to wait until the lookup fails.
   * @throws java.io.IOException Thrown, if the lookup fails.
   * @return The ActorRef to the JobManager
   */
  @throws(classOf[IOException])
  def getJobManagerActorRef(
      address: InetSocketAddress,
      system: ActorSystem,
      config: Configuration)
    : ActorRef = {


    val timeout = AkkaUtils.getLookupTimeout(config)
    getJobManagerActorRef(address, system, timeout)
  }
}
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