简单线程池实现 (C版本)

原创 2016年06月01日 23:59:05

1. 概述

在谈到线程池之前,我们看看并发还有哪几种方式.

多进程,包括一次启动多个进程,然后在进程间传递描述符,或者连接来了以后fork子进程处理.

多线程,同理也可以像多进程一样,要么建立一堆放在那里,要么就有连接以后"即时建立,即时销毁"

我们看上面的方法并没有什么不妥,特殊的场景总是能够派上用场的.

比如一个并发量只有两位数甚至个位数,那么上面的这些方式应付起来也很轻松.但是如果要举一个极端的例子,十万的并发,首先不可能建立十万个进程等着这个并发,也不可能即时创建即时销毁.这些都无形中加重了系统的负担.

考虑一个问题,可能10W个并发,每个连接请求的服务仅仅1秒甚至更短就结束了.以上的方式显然面对这个场景而言,有点粗放了.这个时候,我们需要一个可以应付高并发,并且没有那么吃资源的并发方式.那么线程池也就脱颖而出了.

2. 设计

线程池,顾名思义,就是一个池子,里面放一堆线程.没事的时候待着,个个心怀鬼胎,摩拳擦掌,有事了谁抢到算谁的...

那么线程池该怎么实现呢.

1. 入口

正如上面说的,线程池就是一堆线程在一个池子里面,那么问题来了,该怎么保证这些线程没事的时候安静的待着.简单的mutex是做不到这一点的,需要结合cond才能达到这个效果.

        pthread_mutex_lock(pthread_pool->pmutex);
        // while避免虚假唤醒
        while (pthread_pool->pthread_job->job_num == 0 && 0 == pthread_pool->need_destroy)
        {
            pthread_cond_wait(pthread_pool->pcond, pthread_pool->pmutex);
        }
这样就可以保证线程没事的时候不会折腾了.这里解释一下while的作用,就如注释所说,避免虚假唤醒,就是可能没有pthread_cond_signal或者pthread_cond_broadcast别调用,但是线程还是从pthread_cond_wait返回了,如果没有while这个判断,线程将会一直错下去,这显然不是我们想看到的.

2. 任务分配

毫无疑问,我们得借助回调来实现任务的分配.这个回调函数完全可以模拟线程自身的回调.

// argv指定的地址由线程池释放
typedef struct tag_job
{
    thread_cb cb;
    void *argv;
    struct tag_job *next;
}job_t, *job_pt;

typedef struct
{
    int32_t job_num;
    job_pt head;
    job_pt tail;
}thread_job_t, *thread_job_pt;
对于线程池而言,其任务必然得是一个队列,也可以理解为任务池,任何一个被唤醒的线程就去这个池子里面取一个任务.然后执行.执行完就继续睡大觉.

3. 销毁

先说下我遇到的问题,我今天使用了几种销毁的方式,事实证明都是错的.最后借鉴网络上的一些例子,不过我现在找不到那个例子了...惭愧.

错误a. 直接调用 pthread_cancel,如果一个线程阻塞在cond那里,你无法用这种方式销毁它,如果恰巧它正在工作,然后你成功把它销毁了,还不如没有销毁,因为死锁了.

错误b. 使用pthread_kill发送SIGKILL.然后整个程序就跟着一块挂掉了.最后发现,信号是进程内共享的.如果不想被异常退出,要在主线程中捕获这个信号.然后在线程池也要有相应的信号处理函数.当然了,这个信号绝对不是SIGSTOP和SIGKILL.

错误c. pthread_cond_broadcast后直接释放mutex和cond.要知道,线程池可能并没有主线程退出的快,也就是说,主线程这边已经把cond和mutex释放了,线程池里面还有没成功退出的线程,此时它既可能调用unlock,也可能调用lock,无论那个都会导致程序异常崩溃.

好吧,说下正确的做法,当broad以后,要等待确认所有线程退出以后,再释放cond和mutex.这样才能使程序正常.

在我的线程池里面,我加了一个master,也就是说,如果创建一个10个线程的池子,我的线程池会创建11个线程,第11个线程就是用来保活的,如果线程池中的某个线程以为某个逻辑异常return了.就需要这个线程来重新启动它...

3. 实现

thread.h

/*!****************************************************************************
 * Coypright(C) 2014-2024 () technology Co., Ltd
 *
 * 文件名 : thread.h
 * 版本号 : 1.0
 * 描  述 : 线程池实现
 * 作  者 : cp3alai
 * 日  期 : 2016.05.31
 *****************************************************************************/

#include <unistd.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdint.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <pthread.h>
#include <signal.h>
#include <errno.h>

typedef void (*thread_cb)(void *argv);

// argv指定的地址由线程池释放
typedef struct tag_job
{
    thread_cb cb;
    void *argv;
    struct tag_job *next;
}job_t, *job_pt;

typedef struct
{
    int32_t job_num;
    job_pt head;
    job_pt tail;
}thread_job_t, *thread_job_pt;

int thread_job_init(thread_job_pt *pthread_job);
int thread_job_push(thread_job_pt thread_job, thread_cb cb, void *arg);
job_pt thread_job_pop(thread_job_pt thread_job);
void thread_job_destroy(thread_job_pt thread_job);

typedef struct
{
    int32_t need_destroy;
    int32_t thread_num;
    pthread_t pthread_master;
    pthread_t *pthread_id;

    thread_job_pt pthread_job;

    pthread_cond_t *pcond;
    pthread_mutex_t *pmutex;
}thread_pool_t, *thread_pool_pt;

int pthread_create_detach(pthread_t *thread, void *(*start_routine)(void*), void *arg);
void *thread_entry(void *arg);
void *thread_master(void *arg);
int thread_pool_init(thread_pool_t **pthread_pool, int num);
int thread_pool_add(thread_pool_pt pthread_pool, thread_cb, void *arg);
int thread_pool_kill();
int thread_pool_keepalive();
void thread_pool_destroy(thread_pool_pt pthread_pool);

thread.c

/*!****************************************************************************
 * Coypright(C) 2014-2024 () technology Co., Ltd
 *
 * 文件名 : /media/alai/work/workspace/CC++/mrtpoll/thread.c
 * 版本号 : 1.0
 * 描  述 : 
 * 作  者 : cp3alai
 * 日  期 : 2016.05.31
 *****************************************************************************/

#include "thread.h"

int thread_job_init(thread_job_pt *pthread_job)
{
    int32_t ret;
    if (NULL == pthread_job)
    {
        ret = -1;
        goto ERROR;
    }

    *pthread_job = (thread_job_pt)malloc(sizeof(thread_job_t));
    if (NULL == *pthread_job)
    {
        ret = -1;
        goto ERROR;
    }
    bzero(*pthread_job, sizeof(thread_job_t));

    (*pthread_job)->head = NULL;
    (*pthread_job)->tail= NULL;

    ret = 0;
ERROR:

    return ret;
}

int thread_job_push(thread_job_pt thread_job, thread_cb cb, void *arg)
{
    int32_t ret = 0;
    job_pt pjob = NULL;
    if (NULL == thread_job || NULL == cb)
    {
        ret = -1;
        goto ERROR;
    }

    pjob = (job_pt)malloc(sizeof(job_t));
    if (NULL == pjob)
    {
        ret = -1;
        goto ERROR;
    }

    pjob->argv = arg;
    pjob->cb = cb;
    pjob->next = NULL;

    if (NULL != thread_job->head)
    {
        thread_job->tail->next = pjob;
        thread_job->tail = pjob;
    }
    else
    {
        thread_job->head = pjob;
        thread_job->tail = pjob;
    }
    thread_job->job_num++;

ERROR:

    return ret;
}

// 这里返回的job需要使用它的线程释放
job_pt thread_job_pop(thread_job_pt thread_job)
{
    job_pt job = NULL;
    if (NULL == thread_job)
    {
        return NULL;
    }

    if (NULL == thread_job->head)
    {
        return NULL;
    }

    job = thread_job->head;
    thread_job->head = thread_job->head->next;
    thread_job->job_num--;

    return job;
}

void thread_job_destroy(thread_job_pt thread_job)
{
    if (NULL == thread_job)
    {
        return;
    }

    while (NULL != thread_job->head)
    {
        job_pt pjob = thread_job->head;
        thread_job->head = pjob->next;
        free(pjob);
        pjob = NULL;
    }

    free(thread_job);
    thread_job = NULL;

    return;
}

int pthread_create_detach(pthread_t *thread, void *(*start_routine)(void*), void *arg)
{
    pthread_attr_t attr;
    pthread_attr_init(&attr);
    pthread_attr_setdetachstate(&attr, 1);

    return pthread_create(thread, &attr, start_routine, arg);
}

void *thread_master(void *arg)
{
    if (NULL == arg)
    {
        return NULL;
    }

    thread_pool_pt pthread_pool = (thread_pool_pt)arg;

    int i;
    while (1)
    {
        for (i = 0; i < pthread_pool->thread_num; i++)
        {
            if (0 == pthread_pool->pthread_id[i])
            {
                pthread_create_detach(&pthread_pool->pthread_id[i], thread_entry, (void*)pthread_pool);
            }

            if ((pthread_kill(pthread_pool->pthread_id[i], 0)) < 0)
            {
                if (errno == ESRCH)
                {
                    pthread_create_detach(&pthread_pool->pthread_id[i], thread_entry, (void*)pthread_pool);
                }
            }

            sleep(1);
        }
    }

    return NULL;
}

void *thread_entry(void *arg)
{
    if (NULL == arg)
    {
        return NULL;
    }

    thread_pool_pt pthread_pool = (thread_pool_pt)arg;

    while (1)
    {
        pthread_mutex_lock(pthread_pool->pmutex);
        // 貌似这样写也可以避免虚假唤醒
        // while (pthread_cond_wait(pthread_pool->pcond, pthread_pool->pmutex))
        while (pthread_pool->pthread_job->job_num == 0 && 0 == pthread_pool->need_destroy)
        {
            pthread_cond_wait(pthread_pool->pcond, pthread_pool->pmutex);
        }

        // 如果销毁线程,则这里直接退出
        if (0 != pthread_pool->need_destroy)
        {
            pthread_pool->thread_num--;
            pthread_mutex_unlock(pthread_pool->pmutex);
            break;
        }

        job_pt pjob = thread_job_pop(pthread_pool->pthread_job);
        if (NULL == pjob)
        {
            continue;
        }
        pthread_mutex_unlock(pthread_pool->pmutex);

        pjob->cb(pjob->argv);

        // 用完了要释放...
        free(pjob);
        pjob = NULL;
    }

    return NULL;
}

int thread_pool_init(thread_pool_t **pthread_pool, int num)
{
    int ret = 0;
    int i;

    if (NULL == pthread_pool || 0 == num)
    {
        ret = -1;
        goto ERROR;
    }

    *pthread_pool = (thread_pool_pt)malloc(sizeof(thread_pool_t));
    if (NULL == *pthread_pool)
    {
        ret = -1;
        goto ERROR;
    }
    bzero((*pthread_pool), sizeof(thread_pool_t));

    (*pthread_pool)->pmutex = (pthread_mutex_t *)malloc(sizeof(pthread_mutex_t));
    if (NULL == (*pthread_pool)->pmutex)
    {
        ret = -1;
        goto ERROR;
    }
    (*pthread_pool)->pcond = (pthread_cond_t *)malloc(sizeof(pthread_cond_t));
    if (NULL == (*pthread_pool)->pcond)
    {
        ret = -1;
        goto ERROR;
    }
    pthread_mutex_init((*pthread_pool)->pmutex, NULL);
    pthread_cond_init((*pthread_pool)->pcond, NULL);
    if ((ret = thread_job_init(&(*pthread_pool)->pthread_job)) < 0)
    {
        ret = -1;
        goto ERROR;
    }

    (*pthread_pool)->pthread_id = (pthread_t*)malloc(num * sizeof(pthread_t));
    if (NULL == (*pthread_pool)->pthread_id)
    {
        ret = -1;
        goto ERROR;
    }
    bzero((*pthread_pool)->pthread_id, sizeof(pthread_t) * num);

    (*pthread_pool)->thread_num = num;
    for (i = 0; i < num; i++)
    {
        ret = pthread_create_detach(&(*pthread_pool)->pthread_id[i], thread_entry, (void *)(*pthread_pool));
        if (ret < 0)
        {
            (*pthread_pool)->pthread_id[i] = 0;
        }
    }

    ret = pthread_create_detach(&(*pthread_pool)->pthread_master, thread_master, (void *)(*pthread_pool));
    if (ret < 0)
    {
        ret = -1;
        goto ERROR;
    }

    ret = 0;
ERROR:
    if (ret < 0)
    {
        if (NULL != (*pthread_pool))
        {
            thread_pool_destroy((*pthread_pool));
        }
    }

    return ret;
}

int thread_pool_add(thread_pool_pt pthread_pool, thread_cb cb, void *arg)
{
    int32_t ret = 0;
    if (NULL == pthread_pool || NULL == cb)
    {
        ret = -1;
        goto ERROR;
    }

    if (NULL == pthread_pool->pthread_job)
    {
        ret = -1;
        goto ERROR;
    }

    pthread_mutex_lock(pthread_pool->pmutex);
    ret = thread_job_push(pthread_pool->pthread_job, cb, arg);
    if (ret < 0)
    {
        ret = -1;
        goto ERROR;
    }

    pthread_cond_signal(pthread_pool->pcond);
    pthread_mutex_unlock(pthread_pool->pmutex);

    ret = 0;
ERROR:

    return ret;
}

int thread_pool_kill(thread_pool_pt pthread_pool, int32_t thread_no, int32_t signo)
{
    int32_t ret;
    int32_t i;
    if (NULL == pthread_pool)
    {
        ret = -1;
        goto ERROR;
    }

    if (0 == thread_no)
    {
        for (i = 0; i < pthread_pool->thread_num; i++)
        {
            pthread_kill(pthread_pool->pthread_id[i], signo);
        }
    }
    else
    {
        ret = pthread_kill(pthread_pool->pthread_id[thread_no], signo);
        if (ret < 0)
        {
            ret = -1;
            goto ERROR;
        }
    }

    ret = 0;
ERROR:
    return ret;
}

int thread_pool_keepalive(thread_pool_pt pthread_pool)
{
    int32_t ret;
    int32_t i;
    if (NULL == pthread_pool)
    {
        return -1;
    }

    for (i = 0; i < pthread_pool->thread_num; i++)
    {
        ret = pthread_kill(pthread_pool->pthread_id[i], 0);
        if (ret < 0)
        {
            if (errno == ESRCH)
            {
                pthread_create_detach(&pthread_pool->pthread_id[i], thread_entry, (void *)pthread_pool);
            }
        }
    }

    return 0;
}

void thread_pool_destroy(thread_pool_pt pthread_pool)
{
    int32_t i;
    if (NULL == pthread_pool)
    {
        return;
    }

    if (0 != pthread_pool->pthread_master)
    {
        pthread_cancel(pthread_pool->pthread_master);
    }

    if (NULL != pthread_pool->pthread_id)
    {
        pthread_pool->need_destroy = 1;
        pthread_cond_broadcast(pthread_pool->pcond);

        free(pthread_pool->pthread_id);
        pthread_pool->pthread_id = NULL;
    }

    if (NULL != pthread_pool->pthread_job)
    {
        thread_job_destroy(pthread_pool->pthread_job);
    }

    // 等待线程自销毁完毕
    while (pthread_pool->thread_num > 0)
    {
        usleep(0);
    }

    if (NULL != pthread_pool->pmutex)
    {
        pthread_mutex_destroy(pthread_pool->pmutex);
        free(pthread_pool->pmutex);
        pthread_pool->pmutex = NULL;
    }

    if (NULL != pthread_pool->pcond)
    {
        pthread_cond_destroy(pthread_pool->pcond);
        free(pthread_pool->pcond);
        pthread_pool->pcond = NULL;
    }
}

main.c

#include <stdio.h>
#include "thread.h"

void thread_routine1(void *argv)
{
    fprintf(stderr, "this is thread 1\n");
    return;
}

void thread_routine2(void *argv)
{
    fprintf(stderr, "this is thread 2\n");
    return;
}

int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
    int32_t ret;
    thread_pool_pt pthread_pool;

    ret = thread_pool_init(&pthread_pool, 30);
    if (ret < 0)
    {
        return -1;
    }

    thread_pool_add(pthread_pool, thread_routine1, NULL);
    thread_pool_add(pthread_pool, thread_routine2, NULL);
    thread_pool_add(pthread_pool, thread_routine2, NULL);
    thread_pool_add(pthread_pool, thread_routine2, NULL);
    thread_pool_add(pthread_pool, thread_routine2, NULL);
    thread_pool_add(pthread_pool, thread_routine2, NULL);
    thread_pool_add(pthread_pool, thread_routine1, NULL);
    thread_pool_add(pthread_pool, thread_routine1, NULL);
    thread_pool_add(pthread_pool, thread_routine1, NULL);
    thread_pool_add(pthread_pool, thread_routine1, NULL);

    sleep(5);
    thread_pool_destroy(pthread_pool);

    sleep(5);

    return 0;
}
简单的Makefile
###################################################
###			Make with me
###################################################

CC := gcc

TARGET := pool_test

OBJ := main.o \
	thread.o

INCS := -I.

LIBS := -lpthread

CFLAGS := -ggdb3 -O0

$(TARGET) : $(OBJ)
	$(CC) -o $(TARGET) $(OBJ) $(CFLAGS) $(INCS) $(LIBS)

.PHONY: clean
clean:
	@echo "cleaned"
	@rm -rf $(TARGET) $(OBJ)

执行结果如图 : 


4. 后记

写到最后,其实这篇博客还有另外一个目的,就是希望各位看到的同学们,如果代码中有问题,请在评论中帮忙指出来.真的是不胜感激了...


版权声明:本文为博主原创文章,未经博主允许不得转载。

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