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SIP 注册过程

标签: SIP
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SIP协议包含两种类型的消息,一种是请求行用于发出邀请,而另一种则是状态行,用于标明当前通信的状态。请求行和状态行军包含三部分,其中每一部分以空格隔开,不论是请求行还是状态行均以CRLF换行符结束。在请求行中,三部分内容分别为Method 请求URI和SIP版本号。如下例所示:
Request-Line: REGISTER sip:192.169.1.150 SIP/2.0
在这里方法是REGISTER,也就是注册。空格之后的sip:192.169.1.150则是请求到达的URI目的地址,SIP/2.0则是SIP的版本号。
Status-Line: SIP/2.0 407 Proxy Authentication Required
状态行的例子如上所示,第一个部分和请求行的解释一样被作为SIP的版本号,第二部分则是一个状态码,类似于浏览器访问出现的404;最后一个部分则是对第二部分状态码进行一个简单的解释。
在上面两种行消息之后是消息头部,消息头部的组成也是以文本字符进行编码的。同样的,消息头部的每一个字段都是以CRLF换行作为结尾符。而每一个字段的格式如下:
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 192.169.1.147:39814;rport;branch=z9hG4bK80051
上面是定义SIP消息头部字段格式的一种示例,冒号前面的是字段的名称,这里表示消息传递出去经过的路径;而第二部分则是传递的使用到的协议——基于UDP的SIP(SIP也可以基于TCP进行实现),第三部分则是起始地址的IP地址和端口号。第四部分的rport告诉服务器,哪里来的消息从哪里发送回去——IP和端口号都不会改变。第五部分则是一个标志ID,标志ID的前七个字母类似于一个魔数用于区别其他的协议。

下面看一个完整的SIP用户和用户代理之间的鉴权认证过程。

Session Initiation Protocol (REGISTER)
    Request-Line: REGISTER sip:192.169.1.150 SIP/2.0
        Method: REGISTER
        Request-URI: sip:192.169.1.150
        [Resent Packet: False]
    Message Header
        Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 192.169.1.147:39814;rport;branch=z9hG4bK80051
        Max-Forwards: 70
        To: <sip:102@192.169.1.150>
            SIP to address: sip:102@192.169.1.150
        From: <sip:102@192.169.1.150>;tag=z9hG4bK17086172
            SIP from address: sip:102@192.169.1.150
            SIP from tag: z9hG4bK17086172
        Call-ID: 281574552997@192.169.1.147
        CSeq: 1 REGISTER
            Sequence Number: 1
            Method: REGISTER
        Contact: <sip:102@192.169.1.147:39814;transport=udp>
            Contact URI: sip:102@192.169.1.147:39814;transport=udp
        Expires: 3600
        User-Agent: Sipdroid/3.6 beta
        Content-Length: 0


Session Initiation Protocol (407)
    Status-Line: SIP/2.0 407 Proxy Authentication Required
        Status-Code: 407
        [Resent Packet: False]
        [Request Frame: 1322]
        [Response Time (ms): 0]
    Message Header
        Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 192.169.1.147:39814;branch=z9hG4bK80051;received=192.169.1.147;rport=39814
        From: <sip:102@192.169.1.150>;tag=z9hG4bK17086172
            SIP from address: sip:102@192.169.1.150
            SIP from tag: z9hG4bK17086172
        To: <sip:102@192.169.1.150>;tag=13d0075e
            SIP to address: sip:102@192.169.1.150
            SIP to tag: 13d0075e
        CSeq: 1 REGISTER
            Sequence Number: 1
            Method: REGISTER
        Call-ID: 281574552997@192.169.1.147
        Allow: ACK, BYE, CANCEL, INFO, INVITE, MESSAGE, NOTIFY, OPTIONS, REFER, SUBSCRIBE
        User-Agent: miniSIPServer V16.0.7 (100 clients) build 20150324
        Proxy-Authenticate: Digest realm="myvoipapp.com",algorithm=MD5,nonce="328E3DAF06BC5374001D626160CB1C21",stale=FALSE
            Authentication Scheme: Digest
            Realm: "myvoipapp.com"
            Algorithm: MD5
            Nonce Value: "328E3DAF06BC5374001D626160CB1C21"
            Stale Flag: FALSE
        Content-Length: 0



Session Initiation Protocol (REGISTER)
    Request-Line: REGISTER sip:192.169.1.150 SIP/2.0
        Method: REGISTER
        Request-URI: sip:192.169.1.150
        [Resent Packet: False]
    Message Header
        Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 192.169.1.147:39814;rport;branch=z9hG4bK99109
        Max-Forwards: 70
        To: <sip:102@192.169.1.150>
            SIP to address: sip:102@192.169.1.150
        From: <sip:102@192.169.1.150>;tag=z9hG4bK17086172
            SIP from address: sip:102@192.169.1.150
            SIP from tag: z9hG4bK17086172
        Call-ID: 281574552997@192.169.1.147
        CSeq: 2 REGISTER
            Sequence Number: 2
            Method: REGISTER
        Contact: <sip:102@192.169.1.147:39814;transport=udp>
            Contact URI: sip:102@192.169.1.147:39814;transport=udp
        Expires: 3600
        User-Agent: Sipdroid/3.6 beta
        Proxy-Authorization: Digest username="102", realm="myvoipapp.com", nonce="328E3DAF06BC5374001D626160CB1C21", uri="sip:192.169.1.150", algorithm=MD5, response="bdf9504e7f2e0d6c685e57f9eef22f43"
            Authentication Scheme: Digest
            Username: "102"
            Realm: "myvoipapp.com"
            Nonce Value: "328E3DAF06BC5374001D626160CB1C21"
            Authentication URI: "sip:192.169.1.150"
            Algorithm: MD5
            Digest Authentication Response: "bdf9504e7f2e0d6c685e57f9eef22f43"
        Content-Length: 0



Session Initiation Protocol (200)
    Status-Line: SIP/2.0 200 OK
        Status-Code: 200
        [Resent Packet: False]
        [Request Frame: 1324]
        [Response Time (ms): 0]
    Message Header
        Via: SIP/2.0/UDP 192.169.1.147:39814;branch=z9hG4bK99109;received=192.169.1.147;rport=39814
        From: <sip:102@192.169.1.150>;tag=z9hG4bK17086172
            SIP from address: sip:102@192.169.1.150
            SIP from tag: z9hG4bK17086172
        To: <sip:102@192.169.1.150>;tag=55d70430
            SIP to address: sip:102@192.169.1.150
            SIP to tag: 55d70430
        CSeq: 2 REGISTER
            Sequence Number: 2
            Method: REGISTER
        Call-ID: 281574552997@192.169.1.147
        Allow: ACK, BYE, CANCEL, INFO, INVITE, MESSAGE, NOTIFY, OPTIONS, REFER, SUBSCRIBE
        User-Agent: miniSIPServer V16.0.7 (100 clients) build 20150324
        Contact: <sip:102@192.169.1.147:39814;transport=udp>
            Contact URI: sip:102@192.169.1.147:39814;transport=udp
        Expires: 180
        Content-Length: 0

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