Yes, it is possible in Views 3 out of the box.
The idea is the same as in SQL aggregations. Lets see an example:
Edit your view and enable Views aggregations:
Remove default sort criteria.
- Add fields “Content: Type” and “Content: Nid”:
Select COUNT function for Content: Nid:
To see what happens just turn on checkbox “Show the SQL query” at global Views settings page.
SELECT node.type AS node_type, COUNT(node.nid) AS nid
WHERE (( (node.status = '1') ))
GROUP BY node_type
LIMIT 10 OFFSET 0
So, we are grouping nodes by node_type and calculating count for this groups.