设计模式学习(1)先学习大概

原创 2015年11月21日 13:20:12

要学习一门新的内容,个人觉得先要了解他的作用,并且知道他的分类。这样才能有助于更好地去理解这个知识点。

所以先来分类,我特地去查了一下维基百科,对于设计模式的分类,百科上是这么解释的。

Design patterns were originally grouped into the categories: creational patternsstructural patterns, and behavioral patterns, and described using the concepts of delegationaggregation, and consultation

理解为三种,创建型,结构型和行为型的模式,然后又可以描述其使用了委派,聚合,咨询的概念。

然后按照三大类,再可以细分为

Creational patterns 创建型

Name Description In Design Patterns In Code Complete[15] Other
Abstract factory Provide an interface for creating families of related or dependent objects without specifying their concrete classes. Yes Yes N/A
Builder Separate the construction of a complex object from its representation, allowing the same construction process to create various representations. Yes No N/A
Factory method Define an interface for creating a single object, but let subclasses decide which class to instantiate. Factory Method lets a class defer instantiation to subclasses (dependency injection[16]). Yes Yes N/A
Lazy initialization Tactic of delaying the creation of an object, the calculation of a value, or some other expensive process until the first time it is needed. This pattern appears in the GoF catalog as "virtual proxy", an implementation strategy for the Proxy pattern. Yes No PoEAA[17]
Multiton Ensure a class has only named instances, and provide a global point of access to them. No No N/A
Object pool Avoid expensive acquisition and release of resources by recycling objects that are no longer in use. Can be considered a generalisation ofconnection pool and thread pool patterns. No No N/A
Prototype Specify the kinds of objects to create using a prototypical instance, and create new objects by copying this prototype. Yes No N/A
Resource acquisition is initialization Ensure that resources are properly released by tying them to the lifespan of suitable objects. No No N/A
Singleton Ensure a class has only one instance, and provide a global point of access to it. Yes Yes N/A
Design pattern object library Encapsulate object management including factory interface with live and dead lists. No No N/A

Structural patterns 结构型

Name Description In Design Patterns In Code Complete[15] Other
Adapter or Wrapper or Translator Convert the interface of a class into another interface clients expect. An adapter lets classes work together that could not otherwise because of incompatible interfaces. The enterprise integration pattern equivalent is the translator. Yes Yes N/A
Bridge Decouple an abstraction from its implementation allowing the two to vary independently. Yes Yes N/A
Composite Compose objects into tree structures to represent part-whole hierarchies. Composite lets clients treat individual objects and compositions of objects uniformly. Yes Yes N/A
Decorator Attach additional responsibilities to an object dynamically keeping the same interface. Decorators provide a flexible alternative to subclassing for extending functionality. Yes Yes N/A
Facade Provide a unified interface to a set of interfaces in a subsystem. Facade defines a higher-level interface that makes the subsystem easier to use. Yes Yes N/A
Flyweight Use sharing to support large numbers of similar objects efficiently. Yes No N/A
Front Controller The pattern relates to the design of Web applications. It provides a centralized entry point for handling requests. No Yes N/A
Marker Empty interface to associate metadata with a class. No No Effective Java[18]
Module Group several related elements, such as classes, singletons, methods, globally used, into a single conceptual entity. No No N/A
Proxy Provide a surrogate or placeholder for another object to control access to it. Yes No N/A
Twin [19] Twin allows modeling of multiple inheritance in programming languages that do not support this feature. No No N/A

Behavioral patterns 行为型

Name Description In Design Patterns In Code Complete[15] Other
Blackboard Artificial intelligence pattern for combining disparate sources of data (see blackboard system) No No N/A
Chain of responsibility Avoid coupling the sender of a request to its receiver by giving more than one object a chance to handle the request. Chain the receiving objects and pass the request along the chain until an object handles it. Yes No N/A
Command Encapsulate a request as an object, thereby letting you parameterize clients with different requests, queue or log requests, and support undoable operations. Yes No N/A
Interpreter Given a language, define a representation for its grammar along with an interpreter that uses the representation to interpret sentences in the language. Yes No N/A
Iterator Provide a way to access the elements of an aggregate object sequentially without exposing its underlying representation. Yes Yes N/A
Mediator Define an object that encapsulates how a set of objects interact. Mediator promotes loose coupling by keeping objects from referring to each other explicitly, and it lets you vary their interaction independently. Yes No N/A
Memento Without violating encapsulation, capture and externalize an object's internal state allowing the object to be restored to this state later. Yes No N/A
Null object Avoid null references by providing a default object. No No N/A
Observer orPublish/subscribe Define a one-to-many dependency between objects where a state change in one object results in all its dependents being notified and updated automatically. Yes Yes N/A
Servant Define common functionality for a group of classes. No No N/A
Specification Recombinable business logic in a Boolean fashion. No No N/A
State Allow an object to alter its behavior when its internal state changes. The object will appear to change its class. Yes No N/A
Strategy Define a family of algorithms, encapsulate each one, and make them interchangeable. Strategy lets the algorithm vary independently from clients that use it. Yes Yes N/A
Template method Define the skeleton of an algorithm in an operation, deferring some steps to subclasses. Template method lets subclasses redefine certain steps of an algorithm without changing the algorithm's structure. Yes Yes N/A
Visitor Represent an operation to be performed on the elements of an object structure. Visitor lets you define a new operation without changing the classes of the elements on which it operates. Yes No N/

这里还有一种,先贴出来,以后慢慢解释

Concurrency patterns 同步型,也可以理解为并发,我的理解是,这些模式都是经常应用于处理并发的

Name Description InPOSA2[20] Other
Active Object Decouples method execution from method invocation that reside in their own thread of control. The goal is to introduce concurrency, by using asynchronous method invocation and a scheduler for handling requests. Yes N/A
Balking Only execute an action on an object when the object is in a particular state. No N/A
Binding properties Combining multiple observers to force properties in different objects to be synchronized or coordinated in some way.[21] No N/A
Block chain Decentralized way to store data and agree on ways of processing it in a Merkle tree, optionally using Digital signature for any individual contributions. No N/A
Double-checked locking Reduce the overhead of acquiring a lock by first testing the locking criterion (the 'lock hint') in an unsafe manner; only if that succeeds does the actual locking logic proceed.

Can be unsafe when implemented in some language/hardware combinations. It can therefore sometimes be considered an anti-pattern.

Yes N/A
Event-based asynchronous Addresses problems with the asynchronous pattern that occur in multithreaded programs.[22] No N/A
Guarded suspension Manages operations that require both a lock to be acquired and a precondition to be satisfied before the operation can be executed. No N/A
Join Join-pattern provides a way to write concurrent, parallel and distributed programs by message passing. Compared to the use of threads and locks, this is a high-level programming model. No N/A
Lock One thread puts a "lock" on a resource, preventing other threads from accessing or modifying it.[23] No PoEAA[17]
Messaging design pattern (MDP) Allows the interchange of information (i.e. messages) between components and applications. No N/A
Monitor object An object whose methods are subject to mutual exclusion, thus preventing multiple objects from erroneously trying to use it at the same time. Yes N/A
Reactor A reactor object provides an asynchronous interface to resources that must be handled synchronously. Yes N/A
Read-write lock Allows concurrent read access to an object, but requires exclusive access for write operations. No N/A
Scheduler Explicitly control when threads may execute single-threaded code. No N/A
Thread pool A number of threads are created to perform a number of tasks, which are usually organized in a queue. Typically, there are many more tasks than threads. Can be considered a special case of the object pool pattern. No N/A
Thread-specific storage Static or "global" memory local to a thread. Yes N/A
以后开始依次逐个解释这些模式。对于一个想要在技术上有所建树的人来说,这些都是必须掌握的。



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