C语言函数大全(3)

原创 2006年05月21日 23:52:00

K:

函数名: kbhit
功  能: 检查当前按下的键
用  法: int kbhit(void);
程序例:

#include <conio.h>

int main(void)
{
   cprintf("Press any key to continue:");
   while (!kbhit()) /* do nothing */ ;
   cprintf("/r/nA key was pressed.../r/n");
   return 0;
}
 
 
 

函数名: keep
功  能: 退出并继续驻留
用  法: void keep(int status, int size);
程序例:

/***NOTE:
   This is an interrupt service routine.  You
   can NOT compile this program with Test
   Stack Overflow turned on and get an
   executable file which will operate
   correctly.  Due to the nature of this
   function the formula used to compute
   the number of paragraphs may not
   necessarily work in all cases.  Use with
   care!  Terminate Stay Resident (TSR)
   programs are complex and no other support
   for them is provided.  Refer to the
   MS-DOS technical documentation
   for more information.  */
#include <dos.h>
/* The clock tick interrupt */
#define INTR 0x1C
/* Screen attribute (blue on grey) */
#define ATTR 0x7900

/* reduce heaplength and stacklength
to make a smaller program in memory */
extern unsigned _heaplen = 1024;
extern unsigned _stklen  = 512;

void interrupt ( *oldhandler)(void);

void interrupt handler(void)
{
   unsigned int (far *screen)[80];
   static int count;

/* For a color screen the video memory
   is at B800:0000.  For a monochrome
   system use B000:000 */
   screen = MK_FP(0xB800,0);

/* increase the counter and keep it
   within 0 to 9 */
   count++;
   count %= 10;

/* put the number on the screen */
   screen[0][79] = count + '0' + ATTR;

/* call the old interrupt handler */
   oldhandler();
}

int main(void)
{

/* get the address of the current clock
   tick interrupt */
oldhandler = getvect(INTR);

/* install the new interrupt handler */
setvect(INTR, handler);

/* _psp is the starting address of the
   program in memory.  The top of the stack
   is the end of the program.  Using _SS and
   _SP together we can get the end of the
   stack.  You may want to allow a bit of
   saftey space to insure that enough room
   is being allocated ie:
   (_SS + ((_SP + safety space)/16) - _psp)
*/
keep(0, (_SS + (_SP/16) - _psp));
return 0;
}

L:

函数名: labs
功  能: 取长整型绝对值
用  法: long labs(long n);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <math.h>

int main(void)
{
   long result;
   long x = -12345678L;

   result= labs(x);
   printf("number: %ld abs value: %ld/n",
      x, result);

   return 0;
}
 
 
 

函数名: ldexp
功  能: 计算value*2的幂
用  法: double ldexp(double value, int exp);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <math.h>

int main(void)
{
   double value;
   double x = 2;

   /* ldexp raises 2 by a power of 3
      then multiplies the result by 2   */
   value = ldexp(x,3);
   printf("The ldexp value is: %lf/n",
      value);

   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: ldiv
功  能: 两个长整型数相除, 返回商和余数
用  法: ldiv_t ldiv(long lnumer, long ldenom);
程序例:

/* ldiv example */

#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
{
   ldiv_t lx;

   lx = ldiv(100000L, 30000L);
   printf("100000 div 30000 = %ld remainder %ld/n", lx.quot, lx.rem);
   return 0;
}
 
 
 

函数名: lfind
功  能: 执行线性搜索
用  法: void *lfind(void *key, void *base, int *nelem, int width,
      int (*fcmp)());
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

int compare(int *x, int *y)
{
   return( *x - *y );
}

int main(void)
{
   int array[5] = {35, 87, 46, 99, 12};
   size_t nelem = 5;
   int key;
   int *result;

   key = 99;
   result = lfind(&key, array, &nelem,
        sizeof(int), (int(*)(const void *,const void *))compare);
   if (result)
      printf("Number %d found/n",key);
   else
      printf("Number %d not found/n",key);

   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: line
功  能: 在指定两点间画一直线
用  法: void far line(int x0, int y0, int x1, int y1);
程序例:

#include <graphics.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <conio.h>

int main(void)
{
   /* request auto detection */
   int gdriver = DETECT, gmode, errorcode;
   int xmax, ymax;

   /* initialize graphics and local variables */
   initgraph(&gdriver, &gmode, "");

   /* read result of initialization */
   errorcode = graphresult();
   /* an error occurred */
   if (errorcode != grOk)
   {
      printf("Graphics error: %s/n",
             grapherrormsg(errorcode));
      printf("Press any key to halt:");
      getch();
      exit(1);
   }

   setcolor(getmaxcolor());
   xmax = getmaxx();
   ymax = getmaxy();

   /* draw a diagonal line */
   line(0, 0, xmax, ymax);

   /* clean up */
   getch();
   closegraph();
   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: linerel
功  能: 从当前位置点(CP)到与CP有一给定相对距离的点画一直线
用  法: void far linerel(int dx, int dy);
程序例:

#include <graphics.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <conio.h>

int main(void)
{
   /* request auto detection */
   int gdriver = DETECT, gmode, errorcode;
   char msg[80];

   /* initialize graphics and local variables */
   initgraph(&gdriver, &gmode, "");

   /* read result of initialization */
   errorcode = graphresult();
   if (errorcode != grOk)
   {
      printf("Graphics error: %s/n",
  grapherrormsg(errorcode));
      printf("Press any key to halt:");
      getch();
      exit(1);
   }

   /* move the C.P. to location (20, 30) */
   moveto(20, 30);

   /* create and output a
      message at (20, 30) */
   sprintf(msg, " (%d, %d)", getx(), gety());
   outtextxy(20, 30, msg);

   /* draw a line to a point a relative
      distance away from the current
      value of C.P.   */
   linerel(100, 100);

   /* create and output a message at C.P. */
   sprintf(msg, " (%d, %d)", getx(), gety());
   outtext(msg);

   /* clean up */
   getch();
   closegraph();
   return 0;
}
 

函数名: localtime
功  能: 把日期和时间转变为结构
用  法: struct tm *localtime(long *clock);
程序例:

#include <time.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <dos.h>

int main(void)
{
   time_t timer;
   struct tm *tblock;

   /* gets time of day */
   timer = time(NULL);

   /* converts date/time to a structure */
   tblock = localtime(&timer);

   printf("Local time is: %s", asctime(tblock));

   return 0;
}
 
 
 

函数名: lock
功  能: 设置文件共享锁
用  法: int lock(int handle, long offset, long length);
程序例:

#include <io.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <process.h>
#include <share.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
{
   int handle, status;
   long length;

   /* Must have DOS Share.exe loaded for */
   /* file locking to function properly */

   handle = sopen("c://autoexec.bat",
      O_RDONLY,SH_DENYNO,S_IREAD);

   if (handle < 0)
   {
      printf("sopen failed/n");
      exit(1);
   }

   length = filelength(handle);
   status = lock(handle,0L,length/2);

   if (status == 0)
      printf("lock succeeded/n");
   else
      printf("lock failed/n");

   status = unlock(handle,0L,length/2);

   if (status == 0)
      printf("unlock succeeded/n");
   else
      printf("unlock failed/n");

   close(handle);
   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: log
功  能: 对数函数ln(x)
用  法: double log(double x);
程序例:

#include <math.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
{
   double result;
   double x = 8.6872;

   result = log(x);
   printf("The natural log of %lf is %lf/n", x, result);

   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: log10
功  能: 对数函数log
用  法: double log10(double x);
程序例:

#include <math.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
{
   double result;
   double x = 800.6872;

   result = log10(x);
   printf("The common log of %lf is %lf/n", x, result);

   return 0;
}
 
 
 

函数名: longjump
功  能: 执行非局部转移
用  法: void longjump(jmp_buf env, int val);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <setjmp.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

void subroutine(jmp_buf);

int main(void)
{

   int value;
   jmp_buf jumper;

   value = setjmp(jumper);
   if (value != 0)
   {
      printf("Longjmp with value %d/n", value);
      exit(value);
   }
   printf("About to call subroutine ... /n");
   subroutine(jumper);

   return 0;
}

void subroutine(jmp_buf jumper)
{
   longjmp(jumper,1);
}
 
 
 

函数名: lowvideo
功  能: 选择低亮度字符
用  法: void lowvideo(void);
程序例:

#include <conio.h>

int main(void)
{
   clrscr();

   highvideo();
   cprintf("High Intesity Text/r/n");
   lowvideo();
   gotoxy(1,2);
   cprintf("Low Intensity Text/r/n");

   return 0;
}
 
 
 

函数名: lrotl, _lrotl
功  能: 将无符号长整型数向左循环移位
用  法: unsigned long lrotl(unsigned long lvalue, int count);
 unsigned long _lrotl(unsigned long lvalue, int count);
程序例:

/* lrotl example */
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
{
   unsigned long result;
   unsigned long value = 100;

   result = _lrotl(value,1);
   printf("The value %lu rotated left one bit is: %lu/n", value, result);

   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: lsearch
功  能: 线性搜索
用  法: void *lsearch(const void *key, void *base, size_t *nelem,
       size_t width, int (*fcmp)(const void *, const void *));
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

int compare(int *x, int *y)
{
   return( *x - *y );
}

int main(void)
{
   int array[5] = {35, 87, 46, 99, 12};
   size_t nelem = 5;
   int key;
   int *result;

   key = 99;
   result = lfind(&key, array, &nelem,
               sizeof(int), (int(*)(const void *,const void *))compare);
   if (result)
      printf("Number %d found/n",key);
   else
      printf("Number %d not found/n",key);

   return 0;
}
 
 
 

函数名: lseek
功  能: 移动文件读/写指针
用  法: long lseek(int handle, long offset, int fromwhere);
程序例:

#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <io.h>

int main(void)
{
   int handle;
   char msg[] = "This is a test";
   char ch;

   /* create a file */
   handle = open("TEST.$$$", O_CREAT | O_RDWR, S_IREAD | S_IWRITE);

   /* write some data to the file */
   write(handle, msg, strlen(msg));

   /* seek to the begining of the file */
   lseek(handle, 0L, SEEK_SET);

   /* reads chars from the file until we hit EOF */
   do
   {
      read(handle, &ch, 1);
      printf("%c", ch);
   }  while (!eof(handle));

   close(handle);
   return 0;
}

M:

main()主函数

    每一C 程序都必须有一main()函数, 可以根据自己的爱好把它放在程序的某个地方。有些程序员把它放在最前面, 而另一些程序员把它放在最后面, 无论放在哪个地方, 以下几点说明都是适合的。
    1. main() 参数
    在Turbo C2.0启动过程中, 传递main()函数三个参数: argc, argv和env。
     * argc:  整数, 为传给main()的命令行参数个数。
     * argv:  字符串数组。
              在DOS 3.X 版本中, argv[0] 为程序运行的全路径名; 对DOS 3.0              以下的版本, argv[0]为空串("") 。
              argv[1] 为在DOS命令行中执行程序名后的第一个字符串;
              argv[2] 为执行程序名后的第二个字符串;
              ...
              argv[argc]为NULL。
     *env:  安符串数组。env[] 的每一个元素都包含ENVVAR=value形式的字符串。其中ENVVAR为环境变量如PATH或87。value 为ENVVAR的对应值如C:/DOS, C:/TURBOC(对于PATH) 或YES(对于87)。
    Turbo C2.0启动时总是把这三个参数传递给main()函数, 可以在用户程序中说明(或不说明)它们, 如果说明了部分(或全部)参数, 它们就成为main()子程序的局部变量。
    请注意: 一旦想说明这些参数, 则必须按argc, argv, env 的顺序, 如以下的例子:
     main()
     main(int argc)
     main(int argc, char *argv[])
     main(int argc, char *argv[], char *env[])
    其中第二种情况是合法的, 但不常见, 因为在程序中很少有只用argc, 而不用argv[]的情况。
    以下提供一样例程序EXAMPLE.EXE,  演示如何在main()函数中使用三个参数:
     /*program name EXAMPLE.EXE*/
     #include <stdio.h>
     #include <stdlib.h>
     main(int argc, char *argv[], char *env[])
     {
          int i;
          printf("These are the %d  command- line  arguments passed  to
                  main:/n/n", argc);
          for(i=0; i<=argc; i++)
            printf("argv[%d]:%s/n", i, argv[i]);
          printf("/nThe environment string(s)on this system are:/n/n");
          for(i=0; env[i]!=NULL; i++)
               printf(" env[%d]:%s/n", i, env[i]);
     }
    如果在DOS 提示符下, 按以下方式运行EXAMPLE.EXE:
    C:/example first_argument "argument with blanks"  3  4  "last  butone" stop!
    注意: 可以用双引号括起内含空格的参数, 如本例中的:   "  argumentwith blanks"和"Last but one")。
    结果是这样的:
     The value of argc is 7
     These are the 7 command-linearguments passed to main:
     argv[0]:C:/TURBO/EXAMPLE.EXE
     argv[1]:first_argument
     argv[2]:argument with blanks
     argv[3]:3
     argv[4]:4
     argv[5]:last but one
     argv[6]:stop!
     argv[7]:(NULL)
     The environment string(s) on this system are:
     env[0]: COMSPEC=C:/COMMAND.COM
     env[1]: PROMPT=$P$G            /*视具体设置而定*/
     env[2]: PATH=C:/DOS;C:/TC      /*视具体设置而定*/
 
     应该提醒的是: 传送main() 函数的命令行参数的最大长度为128 个字符 (包括参数间的空格),  这是由DOS 限制的。
 

函数名: matherr
功  能: 用户可修改的数学错误处理程序
用  法: int matherr(struct exception *e);
程序例:

/* This is a user-defined matherr function that prevents
   any error messages from being printed. */

#include<math.h>

int matherr(struct exception *a)
{
   return 1;
}
 
 
 

函数名: memccpy
功  能: 从源source中拷贝n个字节到目标destin中
用  法: void *memccpy(void *destin, void *source, unsigned char ch,   unsigned n);
程序例:

#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
{
   char *src = "This is the source string";
   char dest[50];
   char *ptr;

   ptr = memccpy(dest, src, 'c', strlen(src));

   if (ptr)
   {
      *ptr = '/0';
      printf("The character was found:  %s/n", dest);
   }
   else
      printf("The character wasn't found/n");
   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: malloc
功  能: 内存分配函数
用  法: void *malloc(unsigned size);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <alloc.h>
#include <process.h>

int main(void)
{
   char *str;

   /* allocate memory for string */
   /* This will generate an error when compiling */
   /* with C++, use the new operator instead. */
   if ((str = malloc(10)) == NULL)
   {
      printf("Not enough memory to allocate buffer/n");
      exit(1);  /* terminate program if out of memory */
   }

   /* copy "Hello" into string */
   strcpy(str, "Hello");

   /* display string */
   printf("String is %s/n", str);

   /* free memory */
   free(str);

   return 0;
}
 
 
 

函数名: memchr
功  能: 在数组的前n个字节中搜索字符
用  法: void *memchr(void *s, char ch, unsigned n);
程序例:

#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
{
   char str[17];
   char *ptr;

   strcpy(str, "This is a string");
   ptr = memchr(str, 'r', strlen(str));
   if (ptr)
      printf("The character 'r' is at position: %d/n", ptr - str);
   else
      printf("The character was not found/n");
   return 0;
}
 

函数名: memcpy
功  能: 从源source中拷贝n个字节到目标destin中
用  法: void *memcpy(void *destin, void *source, unsigned n);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
int main(void)
{
   char src[] = "******************************";
   char dest[] = "abcdefghijlkmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456709";
   char *ptr;
   printf("destination before memcpy: %s/n", dest);
   ptr = memcpy(dest, src, strlen(src));
   if (ptr)
      printf("destination after memcpy:  %s/n", dest);
   else
      printf("memcpy failed/n");
   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: memicmp
功  能: 比较两个串s1和s2的前n个字节, 忽略大小写
用  法: int memicmp(void *s1, void *s2, unsigned n);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>

int main(void)
{
   char *buf1 = "ABCDE123";
   char *buf2 = "abcde456";
   int stat;
   stat = memicmp(buf1, buf2, 5);
   printf("The strings to position 5 are ");
   if (stat)
      printf("not ");
   printf("the same/n");
   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: memmove
功  能: 移动一块字节
用  法: void *memmove(void *destin, void *source, unsigned n);
程序例:

#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
{
  char *dest = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789";
  char *src = "******************************";
  printf("destination prior to memmove: %s/n", dest);
  memmove(dest, src, 26);
  printf("destination after memmove:    %s/n", dest);
  return 0;
}
 
 
 

函数名: memset
功  能: 设置s中的所有字节为ch, s数组的大小由n给定
用  法: void *memset(void *s, char ch, unsigned n);
程序例:

#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <mem.h>

int main(void)
{
   char buffer[] = "Hello world/n";

   printf("Buffer before memset: %s/n", buffer);
   memset(buffer, '*', strlen(buffer) - 1);
   printf("Buffer after memset:  %s/n", buffer);
   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: mkdir
功  能: 建立一个目录
用  法: int mkdir(char *pathname);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <conio.h>
#include <process.h>
#include <dir.h>

int main(void)
{
  int status;

   clrscr();
   status = mkdir("asdfjklm");
   (!status) ? (printf("Directory created/n")) :
               (printf("Unable to create directory/n"));

   getch();
   system("dir");
   getch();

   status = rmdir("asdfjklm");
   (!status) ? (printf("Directory deleted/n")) :
  (perror("Unable to delete directory"));

   return 0;
}
 
 
 

函数名: mktemp
功  能: 建立唯一的文件名
用  法: char *mktemp(char *template);
程序例:

#include <dir.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
{
   /* fname defines the template for the
     temporary file.  */

   char *fname = "TXXXXXX", *ptr;

   ptr = mktemp(fname);
   printf("%s/n",ptr);
   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: MK_FP
功  能: 设置一个远指针
用  法: void far *MK_FP(unsigned seg, unsigned off);
程序例:

#include <dos.h>
#include <graphics.h>

int main(void)
{
   int gd, gm, i;
   unsigned int far *screen;

   detectgraph(&gd, &gm);
   if (gd == HERCMONO)
       screen = MK_FP(0xB000, 0);
   else
       screen = MK_FP(0xB800, 0);
   for (i=0; i<26; i++)
      screen[i] = 0x0700 + ('a' + i);
   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: modf
功  能: 把数分为指数和尾数
用  法: double modf(double value, double *iptr);
程序例:

#include <math.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
{
   double fraction, integer;
   double number = 100000.567;

   fraction = modf(number, &integer);
   printf("The whole and fractional parts of %lf are %lf and %lf/n",
          number, integer, fraction);
   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: movedata
功  能: 拷贝字节
用  法: void movedata(int segsrc, int offsrc, int segdest,
  int offdest, unsigned numbytes);
程序例:

#include <mem.h>

#define MONO_BASE 0xB000

/* saves the contents of the monochrome screen in buffer */
void save_mono_screen(char near *buffer)
{
   movedata(MONO_BASE, 0, _DS, (unsigned)buffer, 80*25*2);
}

int main(void)
{
   char buf[80*25*2];
   save_mono_screen(buf);
}
 
 

函数名: moverel
功  能: 将当前位置(CP)移动一相对距离
用  法: void far moverel(int dx, int dy);
程序例:

#include <graphics.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <conio.h>

int main(void)
{
   /* request auto detection */
   int gdriver = DETECT, gmode, errorcode;
   char msg[80];

   /* initialize graphics and local variables */
   initgraph(&gdriver, &gmode, "");

   /* read result of initialization */
   errorcode = graphresult();
   if (errorcode != grOk)  /* an error occurred */
   {
      printf("Graphics error: %s/n", grapherrormsg(errorcode));
      printf("Press any key to halt:");
      getch();
      exit(1); /* terminate with an error code */
   }

   /* move the C.P. to location (20, 30) */
   moveto(20, 30);

   /* plot a pixel at the C.P. */
   putpixel(getx(), gety(), getmaxcolor());

   /* create and output a message at (20, 30) */
   sprintf(msg, " (%d, %d)", getx(), gety());
   outtextxy(20, 30, msg);

   /* move to a point a relative distance */
   /* away from the current value of C.P. */
   moverel(100, 100);

   /* plot a pixel at the C.P. */
   putpixel(getx(), gety(), getmaxcolor());

   /* create and output a message at C.P. */
   sprintf(msg, " (%d, %d)", getx(), gety());
   outtext(msg);

   /* clean up */
   getch();
   closegraph();
   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: movetext
功  能: 将屏幕文本从一个矩形区域拷贝到另一个矩形区域
用  法: int movetext(int left, int top, int right, int bottom,
  int newleft, int newtop);
程序例:
#include <conio.h>
#include <string.h>

int main(void)
{
   char *str = "This is a test string";

   clrscr();
   cputs(str);
   getch();

   movetext(1, 1, strlen(str), 2, 10, 10);
   getch();

   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: moveto
功  能: 将CP移到(x, y)
用  法: void far moveto(int x, int y);
程序例:

#include <graphics.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <conio.h>

int main(void)
{
   /* request auto detection */
   int gdriver = DETECT, gmode, errorcode;
   char msg[80];

   /* initialize graphics and local variables */
   initgraph(&gdriver, &gmode, "");

   /* read result of initialization */
   errorcode = graphresult();
   if (errorcode != grOk)  /* an error occurred */
   {
      printf("Graphics error: %s/n", grapherrormsg(errorcode));
      printf("Press any key to halt:");
      getch();
      exit(1); /* terminate with an error code */
   }

   /* move the C.P. to location (20, 30) */
   moveto(20, 30);

   /* plot a pixel at the C.P. */
   putpixel(getx(), gety(), getmaxcolor());

   /* create and output a message at (20, 30) */
   sprintf(msg, " (%d, %d)", getx(), gety());
   outtextxy(20, 30, msg);

   /* move to (100, 100) */
   moveto(100, 100);

   /* plot a pixel at the C.P. */
   putpixel(getx(), gety(), getmaxcolor());

   /* create and output a message at C.P. */
   sprintf(msg, " (%d, %d)", getx(), gety());
   outtext(msg);

   /* clean up */
   getch();
   closegraph();
   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: movemem
功  能: 移动一块字节
用  法: void movemem(void *source, void *destin, unsigned len);
程序例:

#include <mem.h>
#include <alloc.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>

int main(void)
{
   char *source = "Borland International";
   char *destination;
   int length;

   length = strlen(source);
   destination = malloc(length + 1);
   movmem(source,destination,length);
   printf("%s/n",destination);

   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: normvideo
功  能: 选择正常亮度字符
用  法: void normvideo(void);
程序例:

#include <conio.h>

int main(void)
{
   normvideo();
   cprintf("NORMAL Intensity Text/r/n");
   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: nosound
功  能: 关闭PC扬声器
用  法: void nosound(void);
程序例:

/* Emits a 7-Hz tone for 10 seconds.

     True story: 7 Hz is the resonant frequency of a chicken's skull cavity.
     This was determined empirically in Australia, where a new factory
     generating 7-Hz tones was located too close to a chicken ranch:
     When the factory started up, all the chickens died.

     Your PC may not be able to emit a 7-Hz tone.
*/

int main(void)
{
   sound(7);
   delay(10000);
   nosound();
}

O:

函数名: open
功  能: 打开一个文件用于读或写
用  法: int open(char *pathname, int access[, int permiss]);
程序例:

#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <io.h>

int main(void)
{
   int handle;
   char msg[] = "Hello world";

   if ((handle = open("TEST.$$$", O_CREAT | O_TEXT)) == -1)
   {
      perror("Error:");
      return 1;
   }
   write(handle, msg, strlen(msg));
   close(handle);
   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: outport
功  能: 输出整数到硬件端口中
用  法: void outport(int port, int value);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <dos.h>

int main(void)
{
   int value = 64;
   int port = 0;

   outportb(port, value);
   printf("Value %d sent to port number %d/n", value, port);
   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: outportb
功  能: 输出字节到硬件端口中
用  法: void outportb(int port, char byte);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <dos.h>

int main(void)
{
   int value = 64;
   int port = 0;

   outportb(port, value);
   printf("Value %d sent to port number %d/n", value, port);
   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: outtext
功  能: 在视区显示一个字符串
用  法: void far outtext(char far *textstring);
程序例:

#include <graphics.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <conio.h>

int main(void)
{
   /* request auto detection */
   int gdriver = DETECT, gmode, errorcode;
   int midx, midy;

   /* initialize graphics and local variables */
   initgraph(&gdriver, &gmode, "");

   /* read result of initialization */
   errorcode = graphresult();
   if (errorcode != grOk)  /* an error occurred */
   {
      printf("Graphics error: %s/n", grapherrormsg(errorcode));
      printf("Press any key to halt:");
      getch();
      exit(1); /* terminate with an error code */
   }

   midx = getmaxx() / 2;
   midy = getmaxy() / 2;

   /* move the C.P. to the center of the screen */
   moveto(midx, midy);

   /* output text starting at the C.P. */
   outtext("This ");
   outtext("is ");
   outtext("a ");
   outtext("test.");

   /* clean up */
   getch();
   closegraph();
   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: outtextxy
功  能: 在指定位置显示一字符串
用  法: void far outtextxy(int x, int y, char *textstring);
程序例:

#include <graphics.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <conio.h>

int main(void)
{
   /* request auto detection */
   int gdriver = DETECT, gmode, errorcode;
   int midx, midy;

   /* initialize graphics and local variables */
   initgraph( &gdriver, &gmode, "");

   /* read result of initialization */
   errorcode = graphresult();
   if (errorcode != grOk)  /* an error occurred */
   {
      printf("Graphics error: %s/n", grapherrormsg(errorcode));
      printf("Press any key to halt:");
      getch();
      exit(1); /* terminate with an error code */
   }

   midx = getmaxx() / 2;
   midy = getmaxy() / 2;

   /* output text at the center of the screen*/
   /* Note: the C.P. doesn't get changed.*/
   outtextxy(midx, midy, "This is a test.");

   /* clean up */
   getch();
   closegraph();
   return 0;
}

P:

函数名: parsfnm
功  能: 分析文件名
用  法: char *parsfnm (char *cmdline, struct fcb *fcbptr, int option);
程序例:

#include <process.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <dos.h>

int main(void)
{
   char line[80];
   struct fcb blk;

   /* get file name */
   printf("Enter drive and file name (no path - ie. a:file.dat)/n");
   gets(line);

   /* put file name in fcb */
   if (parsfnm(line, &blk, 1) == NULL)
      printf("Error in parsfm call/n");
   else
      printf("Drive #%d  Name: %11s/n", blk.fcb_drive, blk.fcb_name);

   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: peek
功  能: 检查存储单元
用  法: int peek(int segment, unsigned offset);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <conio.h>
#include <dos.h>

int main(void)
{
   int value = 0;

   printf("The current status of your keyboard is:/n");
   value = peek(0x0040, 0x0017);
   if (value & 1)
      printf("Right shift on/n");
   else
      printf("Right shift off/n");

   if (value & 2)
      printf("Left shift on/n");
   else
      printf("Left shift off/n");

   if (value & 4)
      printf("Control key on/n");
   else
      printf("Control key off/n");

   if (value & 8)
      printf("Alt key on/n");
   else
      printf("Alt key off/n");

   if (value & 16)
      printf("Scroll lock on/n");
   else
      printf("Scroll lock off/n");

   if (value & 32)
      printf("Num lock on/n");
   else
      printf("Num lock off/n");

   if (value & 64)
      printf("Caps lock on/n");
   else
      printf("Caps lock off/n");

   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: peekb
功  能: 检查存储单元
用  法: char peekb (int segment, unsigned offset);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <conio.h>
#include <dos.h>

int main(void)
{
   int value = 0;

   printf("The current status of your keyboard is:/n");
   value = peekb(0x0040, 0x0017);
   if (value & 1)
      printf("Right shift on/n");
   else
      printf("Right shift off/n");

   if (value & 2)
      printf("Left shift on/n");
   else
      printf("Left shift off/n");

   if (value & 4)
      printf("Control key on/n");
   else
      printf("Control key off/n");

   if (value & 8)
      printf("Alt key on/n");
   else
      printf("Alt key off/n");

   if (value & 16)
      printf("Scroll lock on/n");
   else
      printf("Scroll lock off/n");

   if (value & 32)
      printf("Num lock on/n");
   else
      printf("Num lock off/n");

   if (value & 64)
      printf("Caps lock on/n");
   else
      printf("Caps lock off/n");

   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: perror
功  能: 系统错误信息
用  法: void perror(char *string);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
{
   FILE *fp;

   fp = fopen("perror.dat", "r");
   if (!fp)
      perror("Unable to open file for reading");
   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: pieslice
功  能: 绘制并填充一个扇形
用  法: void far pieslice(int x, int stanle, int endangle, int radius);
程序例:

#include <graphics.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <conio.h>

int main(void)
{
   /* request auto detection */
   int gdriver = DETECT, gmode, errorcode;
   int midx, midy;
   int stangle = 45, endangle = 135, radius = 100;

   /* initialize graphics and local variables */
   initgraph(&gdriver, &gmode, "");

   /* read result of initialization */
   errorcode = graphresult();
   if (errorcode != grOk)  /* an error occurred */
   {
      printf("Graphics error: %s/n", grapherrormsg(errorcode));
      printf("Press any key to halt:");
      getch();
      exit(1); /* terminate with an error code */
   }

   midx = getmaxx() / 2;
   midy = getmaxy() / 2;

   /* set fill style and draw a pie slice */
   setfillstyle(EMPTY_FILL, getmaxcolor());
   pieslice(midx, midy, stangle, endangle, radius);

   /* clean up */
   getch();
   closegraph();
   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: poke
功  能: 存值到一个给定存储单元
用  法: void poke(int segment, int offset, int value);
程序例:

#include <dos.h>
#include <conio.h>

int main(void)
{
   clrscr();
   cprintf("Make sure the scroll lock key is off and press any key/r/n");
   getch();
   poke(0x0000,0x0417,16);
   cprintf("The scroll lock is now on/r/n");
   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: pokeb
功  能: 存值到一个给定存储单元
用  法: void pokeb(int segment, int offset, char value);
程序例:

#include <dos.h>
#include <conio.h>

int main(void)
{
   clrscr();
   cprintf("Make sure the scroll lock key is off and press any key/r/n");
   getch();
   pokeb(0x0000,0x0417,16);
   cprintf("The scroll lock is now on/r/n");
   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: poly
功  能: 根据参数产生一个多项式
用  法: double poly(double x, int n, double c[]);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <math.h>

/* polynomial:  x**3 - 2x**2 + 5x - 1 */

int main(void)
{
   double array[] = { -1.0, 5.0, -2.0, 1.0 };
   double result;

   result = poly(2.0, 3, array);
   printf("The polynomial: x**3 - 2.0x**2 + 5x - 1 at 2.0 is %lf/n",
           result);
   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: pow
功  能: 指数函数(x的y次方)
用  法: double pow(double x, double y);
程序例:

#include <math.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
{
   double x = 2.0, y = 3.0;

   printf("%lf raised to %lf is %lf/n", x, y, pow(x, y));
   return 0;
}
 

函数名: pow10
功  能: 指数函数(10的p次方)
用  法: double pow10(int p);
程序例:

#include <math.h>
#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
{
   double p = 3.0;

   printf("Ten raised to %lf is %lf/n", p, pow10(p));
   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: printf
功  能: 产生格式化输出的函数
用  法: int printf(char *format...);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>

#define I 555
#define R 5.5

int main(void)
{
   int i,j,k,l;
   char buf[7];
   char *prefix = buf;
   char tp[20];
   printf("prefix  6d      6o      8x        10.2e        "
          "10.2f/n");
   strcpy(prefix,"%");
   for (i = 0; i < 2; i++)
   {
      for (j = 0; j < 2; j++)
         for (k = 0; k < 2; k++)
     for (l = 0; l < 2; l++)
            {
               if (i==0)  strcat(prefix,"-");
               if (j==0)  strcat(prefix,"+");
               if (k==0)  strcat(prefix,"#");
               if (l==0)  strcat(prefix,"0");
               printf("%5s |",prefix);
               strcpy(tp,prefix);
               strcat(tp,"6d |");
               printf(tp,I);
               strcpy(tp,"");
               strcpy(tp,prefix);
               strcat(tp,"6o |");
               printf(tp,I);
               strcpy(tp,"");
               strcpy(tp,prefix);
               strcat(tp,"8x |");
               printf(tp,I);
               strcpy(tp,"");
               strcpy(tp,prefix);
        strcat(tp,"10.2e |");
        printf(tp,R);
        strcpy(tp,prefix);
        strcat(tp,"10.2f |");
        printf(tp,R);
        printf("  /n");
        strcpy(prefix,"%");
     }
       }
   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: putc
功  能: 输出一字符到指定流中
用  法: int putc(int ch, FILE *stream);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)
{
   char msg[] = "Hello world/n";
   int i = 0;

   while (msg[i])
      putc(msg[i++], stdout);
   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: putch
功  能: 输出字符到控制台
用  法: int putch(int ch);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <conio.h>

int main(void)
{
   char ch = 0;

   printf("Input a string:");
   while ((ch != '/r'))
   {
      ch = getch();
      putch(ch);
   }
   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: putchar
功  能: 在stdout上输出字符
用  法: int putchar(int ch);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>

/* define some box-drawing characters */
#define LEFT_TOP  0xDA
#define RIGHT_TOP 0xBF
#define HORIZ     0xC4
#define VERT      0xB3
#define LEFT_BOT  0xC0
#define RIGHT_BOT 0xD9

int main(void)
{
   char i, j;

   /* draw the top of the box */
   putchar(LEFT_TOP);
   for (i=0; i<10; i++)
      putchar(HORIZ);
   putchar(RIGHT_TOP);
   putchar('/n');

   /* draw the middle */
   for (i=0; i<4; i++)
   {
      putchar(VERT);
      for (j=0; j<10; j++)
         putchar(' ');
      putchar(VERT);
      putchar('/n');
   }

   /* draw the bottom */
   putchar(LEFT_BOT);
   for (i=0; i<10; i++)
      putchar(HORIZ);
   putchar(RIGHT_BOT);
   putchar('/n');

   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: putenv
功  能: 把字符串加到当前环境中
用  法: int putenv(char *envvar);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <alloc.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <dos.h>

int main(void)
{
   char *path, *ptr;
   int i = 0;

   /* get the current path environment */
   ptr = getenv("PATH");

   /* set up new path */
   path = malloc(strlen(ptr)+15);
   strcpy(path,"PATH=");
   strcat(path,ptr);
   strcat(path,";c://temp");

   /* replace the current path and display current environment */
   putenv(path);
   while (environ[i])
       printf("%s/n",environ[i++]);

   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: putimage
功  能: 在屏幕上输出一个位图
用  法: void far putimage(int x, int y, void far *bitmap, int op);
程序例:

#include <graphics.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <conio.h>

#define ARROW_SIZE 10

void draw_arrow(int x, int y);

int main(void)
{
   /* request autodetection */
   int gdriver = DETECT, gmode, errorcode;
   void *arrow;
   int x, y, maxx;
   unsigned int size;

   /* initialize graphics and local variables */
   initgraph(&gdriver, &gmode, "");

   /* read result of initialization */
   errorcode = graphresult();
   if (errorcode != grOk)  /* an error occurred */
   {
      printf("Graphics error: %s/n", grapherrormsg(errorcode));
      printf("Press any key to halt:");
      getch();
      exit(1); /* terminate with an error code */
   }

   maxx = getmaxx();
   x = 0;
   y = getmaxy() / 2;

   /* draw the image to be grabbed */
   draw_arrow(x, y);

   /* calculate the size of the image */
   size = imagesize(x, y-ARROW_SIZE, x+(4*ARROW_SIZE), y+ARROW_SIZE);

   /* allocate memory to hold the image */
   arrow = malloc(size);

   /* grab the image */
   getimage(x, y-ARROW_SIZE, x+(4*ARROW_SIZE), y+ARROW_SIZE, arrow);

   /* repeat until a key is pressed */
   while (!kbhit())
   {
      /* erase old image */
      putimage(x, y-ARROW_SIZE, arrow, XOR_PUT);

      x += ARROW_SIZE;
      if (x >= maxx)
          x = 0;

      /* plot new image */
      putimage(x, y-ARROW_SIZE, arrow, XOR_PUT);
   }

   /* clean up */
   free(arrow);
   closegraph();
   return 0;
}

void draw_arrow(int x, int y)
{
   /* draw an arrow on the screen */
   moveto(x, y);
   linerel(4*ARROW_SIZE, 0);
   linerel(-2*ARROW_SIZE, -1*ARROW_SIZE);
   linerel(0, 2*ARROW_SIZE);
   linerel(2*ARROW_SIZE, -1*ARROW_SIZE);
}
 
 

函数名: putpixel
功  能: 在指定位置画一像素
用  法: void far putpixel (int x, int y, int pixelcolor);
程序例:

#include <graphics.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <conio.h>
#include <dos.h>

#define PIXEL_COUNT 1000
#define DELAY_TIME  100  /* in milliseconds */

int main(void)
{
   /* request autodetection */
   int gdriver = DETECT, gmode, errorcode;
   int i, x, y, color, maxx, maxy, maxcolor, seed;

   /* initialize graphics and local variables */
   initgraph(&gdriver, &gmode, "");

   /* read result of initialization */
   errorcode = graphresult();
   if (errorcode != grOk)  /* an error occurred */
   {
      printf("Graphics error: %s/n", grapherrormsg(errorcode));
      printf("Press any key to halt:");
      getch();
      exit(1); /* terminate with an error code */
   }

   maxx = getmaxx() + 1;
   maxy = getmaxy() + 1;
   maxcolor = getmaxcolor() + 1;

   while (!kbhit())
   {
      /* seed the random number generator */
      seed = random(32767);
      srand(seed);
      for (i=0; i<PIXEL_COUNT; i++)
      {
  x = random(maxx);
         y = random(maxy);
         color = random(maxcolor);
         putpixel(x, y, color);
      }

      delay(DELAY_TIME);
      srand(seed);
      for (i=0; i<PIXEL_COUNT; i++)
      {
  x = random(maxx);
  y = random(maxy);
  color = random(maxcolor);
  if (color == getpixel(x, y))
     putpixel(x, y, 0);
      }
   }

   /* clean up */
   getch();
   closegraph();
   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: puts
功  能: 送一字符串到流中
用  法: int puts(char *string);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
int main(void)
{
   char string[] = "This is an example output string/n";

   puts(string);
   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: puttext
功  能: 将文本从存储区拷贝到屏幕
用  法: int puttext(int left, int top, int right, int bottom, void *source);
程序例:

#include <conio.h>
int main(void)
{
   char buffer[512];

   /* put some text to the console */
   clrscr();
   gotoxy(20, 12);
   cprintf("This is a test.  Press any key to continue ...");
   getch();

   /* grab screen contents */
   gettext(20, 12, 36, 21,buffer);
   clrscr();

   /* put selected characters back to the screen */
   gotoxy(20, 12);
   puttext(20, 12, 36, 21, buffer);
   getch();

   return 0;
}
 
 

函数名: putw
功  能: 把一字符或字送到流中
用  法: int putw(int w, FILE *stream);
程序例:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

#define FNAME "test.$$$"

int main(void)
{
   FILE *fp;
   int word;

   /* place the word in a file */
   fp = fopen(FNAME, "wb");
   if (fp == NULL)
   {
      printf("Error opening file %s/n", FNAME);
      exit(1);
   }

   word = 94;
   putw(word,fp);
   if (ferror(fp))
       printf("Error writing to file/n");
   else
       printf("Successful write/n");
   fclose(fp);

   /* reopen the file */
   fp = fopen(FNAME, "rb");
   if (fp == NULL)
   {
      printf("Error opening file %s/n", FNAME);
      exit(1);
   }

   /* extract the word */
   word = getw(fp);
   if (ferror(fp))
       printf("Error reading file/n");
   else
       printf("Successful read: word = %d/n", word);

   /* clean up */
   fclose(fp);
   unlink(FNAME);

   return 0;
}

 

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