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log4j中看ThreadLocal用法

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关于ThreadLocal的帖子很多,说法也有好多不一致,每次举例都是hibernate里面的session,这周使用log4j做一些东东,发现log4j的代码用这个ThreadLocal可是清晰多了,而且很有意思。

首先从log4j里的MDC说起,这个是个键值对存储的容器,在里面加你的键值对,在配置文件配置你输出的格式,需要输出的内容时候取里面的键
如:

MDC.put("usr_id", usr_id);    
MDC.put("log_title", "网站访问记录");    
MDC.put("log_type", "记录");    
MDC.put("log_title", "网站访问记录");    
MDC.put("log_datetime", format.format(now));    
MDC.put("log_ip", log_ip); 

配置文件里面

log4j.appender.project-util-db.sql=insert into user_log (usr_id,log_title,log_category,log_type,log_datetime,log_ip) 
VALUES ('%X{usr_id}','%X{log_title}','%X{log_type}','%X{log_title}','%X{log_datetime}','%X{log_ip}') 

这个实例MDC.put那个logger实例也MDC.put,里面不是会很崩溃,会覆盖一些东西,越来越大之类的

/* 
 * Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more 
 * contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with 
 * this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership. 
 * The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0 
 * (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with 
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 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, 
 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. 
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and 
 * limitations under the License. 
 */  

package org.apache.log4j;  

import java.util.Hashtable;  
import org.apache.log4j.helpers.Loader;  
import org.apache.log4j.helpers.ThreadLocalMap;  

/** 
   The MDC class is similar to the {@link NDC} class except that it is 
   based on a map instead of a stack. It provides <em>mapped 
   diagnostic contexts</em>. A <em>Mapped Diagnostic Context</em>, or 
   MDC in short, is an instrument for distinguishing interleaved log 
   output from different sources. Log output is typically interleaved 
   when a server handles multiple clients near-simultaneously. 

   <p><b><em>The MDC is managed on a per thread basis</em></b>. A 
   child thread automatically inherits a <em>copy</em> of the mapped 
   diagnostic context of its parent. 

   <p>The MDC class requires JDK 1.2 or above. Under JDK 1.1 the MDC 
   will always return empty values but otherwise will not affect or 
   harm your application. 

   @since 1.2 

   @author Ceki G&uuml;lc&uuml; */  
public class MDC {  

  final static MDC mdc = new MDC();  

  static final int HT_SIZE = 7;  

  boolean java1;  

  Object tlm;  

  private  
  MDC() {  
    java1 = Loader.isJava1();  
    if(!java1) {  
      tlm = new ThreadLocalMap();  
    }  
  }  

  /** 
     Put a context value (the <code>o</code> parameter) as identified 
     with the <code>key</code> parameter into the current thread's 
     context map. 

     <p>If the current thread does not have a context map it is 
     created as a side effect. 

   */  
  static  
  public  
  void put(String key, Object o) {  
     if (mdc != null) {  
         mdc.put0(key, o);  
     }  
  }  

  /** 
     Get the context identified by the <code>key</code> parameter. 

     <p>This method has no side effects. 
   */  
  static   
  public  
  Object get(String key) {  
    if (mdc != null) {  
        return mdc.get0(key);  
    }  
    return null;  
  }  

  /** 
     Remove the the context identified by the <code>key</code> 
     parameter. 

  */  
  static   
  public  
  void remove(String key) {  
    if (mdc != null) {  
        mdc.remove0(key);  
    }  
  }  


  /** 
   * Get the current thread's MDC as a hashtable. This method is 
   * intended to be used internally.   
   * */  
  public static Hashtable getContext() {  
    if (mdc != null) {  
        return mdc.getContext0();  
    } else {  
        return null;  
    }  
  }  

  /** 
   *  Remove all values from the MDC. 
   *  @since 1.2.16 
  */  
  public static void clear() {  
    if (mdc != null) {  
        mdc.clear0();  
    }  
  }  


  private  
  void put0(String key, Object o) {  
    if(java1 || tlm == null) {  
      return;  
    } else {  
      Hashtable ht = (Hashtable) ((ThreadLocalMap)tlm).get();  
      if(ht == null) {  
        ht = new Hashtable(HT_SIZE);  
        ((ThreadLocalMap)tlm).set(ht);  
      }      
      ht.put(key, o);  
    }  
  }  

  private  
  Object get0(String key) {  
    if(java1 || tlm == null) {  
      return null;  
    } else {         
      Hashtable ht = (Hashtable) ((ThreadLocalMap)tlm).get();  
      if(ht != null && key != null) {  
        return ht.get(key);  
      } else {  
        return null;  
      }  
    }  
  }  

  private  
  void remove0(String key) {  
    if(!java1 && tlm != null) {  
      Hashtable ht = (Hashtable) ((ThreadLocalMap)tlm).get();  
      if(ht != null) {  
        ht.remove(key);  
      }   
    }  
  }  


  private  
  Hashtable getContext0() {  
     if(java1 || tlm == null) {  
      return null;  
    } else {         
      return (Hashtable) ((ThreadLocalMap)tlm).get();  
    }  
  }  

  private  
  void clear0() {  
    if(!java1 && tlm != null) {  
      Hashtable ht = (Hashtable) ((ThreadLocalMap)tlm).get();  
      if(ht != null) {  
        ht.clear();  
      }   
    }  
  }  

}  

重点看里面的put方法

private  
void put0(String key, Object o) {  
  if(java1 || tlm == null) {  
    return;  
  } else {  
    Hashtable ht = (Hashtable) ((ThreadLocalMap)tlm).get();  
    if(ht == null) {  
      ht = new Hashtable(HT_SIZE);  
      ((ThreadLocalMap)tlm).set(ht);  
    }      
    ht.put(key, o);  
  }  
}

先调用ThreadLocalMap.get()获取,注意此处ThreadLocalMap是log4j自己写的继承自ThreadLocal的子类,但get,set方法还是没有覆盖的。
如下代码所示:

public T get() {  

     Thread t = Thread.currentThread();  

     ThreadLocalMap map = getMap(t);  
     if (map != null) {  
         ThreadLocalMap.Entry e = map.getEntry(this);  
         if (e != null)  
             return (T)e.value;  
     }  
     return setInitialValue();  
 }  

Thread t = Thread.currentThread();–>>取出当前线程
ThreadLocalMap map = getMap(t);—>>根据当前线程取出里面的变量return t.threadLocals;

ThreadLocalMap getMap(Thread t) {  
      return t.threadLocals;  
}  

Thread类里面定义

ThreadLocal.ThreadLocalMap threadLocals = null;  

可以看出ThreadLocalMap是ThreadLocal的一个内部类,不过这个六百多行的内部类确实不容易看
map.getEntry(this)–>> 在map不为空时候,取出里面存放的实体,为什么传this?
到这一步,已经从当前线程 当前对象 这两个纬度锁定到了这个map,对static class ThreadLocalMap这样一个静态内部类来说, 已经可以控制每个线程分配一个独立占用的虚拟内存地带了,如果其它线程要操作这个,就用这两个纬度去获取

再理一下这种方式的思路:
每个线程有一个ThreadLocalMap,这个是在线程本身就定义的,Thread里面有:

ThreadLocal.ThreadLocalMap threadLocals = null;  

那么每个线程里面可根据当前对象取出里面的实体。

这个实体看你自己使用什么就可以指定什么,反正是个object,MDC里面指定为hashtable

最终调用

public void set(T value) {  
      Thread t = Thread.currentThread();  
      ThreadLocalMap map = getMap(t);  
      if (map != null)  
          map.set(this, value);  
      else  
          createMap(t, value);  
  } 

log4j使用上述方式,保证调用MDC的线程实例,通过二个纬度确定里面有唯一一份object(hashtable)

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