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Unity3D - Unity协程(Coroutine)原理深入剖析

标签: unity3d线程协程
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本文只是从Unity的角度去分析理解协程的内部运行原理,而不是从C#底层的语法实现来介绍(后续有需要再进行介绍),一共分为三部分:

线程(Thread)和协程(Coroutine)  

Unity中协程的执行原理

IEnumerator & Coroutine

线程(Thread)和协程(Coroutine)

    使用协程的作用一共有两点:1)延时(等待)一段时间执行代码;2)等某个操作完成之后再执行后面的代码。总结起来就是一句话:控制代码在特定的时机执行。

    很多初学者,都会下意识地觉得协程是异步执行的,都会觉得协程是C# 线程的替代品,是Unity不使用线程的解决方案。

    所以首先,请你牢记:协程不是线程,也不是异步执行的。协程和 MonoBehaviour 的 Update函数一样也是在MainThread中执行的。使用协程你不用考虑同步和锁的问题。

Unity中协程的执行原理

    UnityGems.com给出了协程的定义:

           A coroutine is a function that is executed partially and, presuming suitable conditions are met, will be resumed at some point in the future until its work is done.

    即协程是一个分部执行,遇到条件(yield return 语句)会挂起,直到条件满足才会被唤醒继续执行后面的代码。

    Unity在每一帧(Frame)都会去处理对象上的协程。Unity主要是在Update后去处理协程(检查协程的条件是否满足),但也有写特例:


    从上图的剖析就明白,协程跟Update()其实一样的,都是Unity每帧对会去处理的函数(如果有的话)。如果MonoBehaviour 是处于激活(active)状态的而且yield的条件满足,就会协程方法的后面代码。还可以发现:如果在一个对象的前期调用协程,协程会立即运行到第一个 yield return 语句处,如果是 yield return null ,就会在同一帧再次被唤醒。如果没有考虑这个细节就会出现一些奇怪的问题『1』。

     『1』注 图和结论都是从UnityGems.com 上得来的,经过下面的验证发现与实际不符,D.S.Qiu用的是Unity 4.3.4f1 进行测试的。 经过测试验证,协程至少是每帧的LateUpdate()后去运行。

下面使用 yield return new WaitForSeconds(1f); 在Start,Update 和 LateUpdate 中分别进行测试:

using UnityEngine;
using System.Collections;

public class TestCoroutine : MonoBehaviour {

    private bool isStartCall = false;  //Makesure Update() and LateUpdate() Log only once
    private bool isUpdateCall = false;
    private bool isLateUpdateCall = false;
    // Use this for initialization
    void Start () {
        if (!isStartCall)
        {
            Debug.Log("Start Call Begin");
            StartCoroutine(StartCoutine());
            Debug.Log("Start Call End");
            isStartCall = true;
        }

    }
    IEnumerator StartCoutine()
    {

        Debug.Log("This is Start Coroutine Call Before");
        yield return null;
        Debug.Log("This is Start Coroutine Call After");

    }
    // Update is called once per frame
    void Update () {
        if (!isUpdateCall)
        {
            Debug.Log("Update Call Begin");
            StartCoroutine(UpdateCoutine());
            Debug.Log("Update Call End");
            isUpdateCall = true;
        }
    }
    IEnumerator UpdateCoutine()
    {
        Debug.Log("This is Update Coroutine Call Before");
        yield return null;
        Debug.Log("This is Update Coroutine Call After");
    }
    void LateUpdate()
    {
        if (!isLateUpdateCall)
        {
            Debug.Log("LateUpdate Call Begin");
            StartCoroutine(LateCoutine());
            Debug.Log("LateUpdate Call End");
            isLateUpdateCall = true;
        }
    }
    IEnumerator LateCoutine()
    {
        Debug.Log("This is Late Coroutine Call Before");
        yield return null;
        Debug.Log("This is Late Coroutine Call After");
    }
}

得到日志输入结果如下:

这里写图片描述

    然后将yield return new WaitForSeconds(1f);改为 yield return null; 发现日志输入结果和上面是一样的,没有出现上面说的情况.

MonoBehaviour 没有针对特定的协程提供Stop方法,其实不然,可以通过MonoBehaviour enabled = false 或者 gameObject.active = false 就可以停止协程的执行『2』。

经过验证,『2』的结论也是错误的,正确的结论是,MonoBehaviour.enabled = false 协程会照常运行,但 gameObject.SetActive(false) 后协程却全部停止,即使在Inspector把 gameObject 激活还是没有继续执行:

using UnityEngine;
using System.Collections;

public class TestCoroutine : MonoBehaviour {

  private bool isStartCall = false;  //Makesure Update() and LateUpdate() Log only once
  private bool isUpdateCall = false;
  private bool isLateUpdateCall = false;
  // Use this for initialization
  void Start () {
    if (!isStartCall)
    {
      Debug.Log("Start Call Begin");
      StartCoroutine(StartCoutine());
      Debug.Log("Start Call End");
      isStartCall = true;
    }

  }
  IEnumerator StartCoutine()
  {

    Debug.Log("This is Start Coroutine Call Before");
    yield return new WaitForSeconds(1f);
    Debug.Log("This is Start Coroutine Call After");

  }
  // Update is called once per frame
  void Update () {
    if (!isUpdateCall)
    {
      Debug.Log("Update Call Begin");
      StartCoroutine(UpdateCoutine());
      Debug.Log("Update Call End");
      isUpdateCall = true;
      this.enabled = false;
      //this.gameObject.SetActive(false);
    }
  }
  IEnumerator UpdateCoutine()
  {
    Debug.Log("This is Update Coroutine Call Before");
    yield return new WaitForSeconds(1f);
    Debug.Log("This is Update Coroutine Call After");
    yield return new WaitForSeconds(1f);
    Debug.Log("This is Update Coroutine Call Second");
  }
  void LateUpdate()
  {
    if (!isLateUpdateCall)
    {
      Debug.Log("LateUpdate Call Begin");
      StartCoroutine(LateCoutine());
      Debug.Log("LateUpdate Call End");
      isLateUpdateCall = true;

    }
  }
  IEnumerator LateCoutine()
  {
    Debug.Log("This is Late Coroutine Call Before");
    yield return null;
    Debug.Log("This is Late Coroutine Call After");
  }
}

先在Update中调用 this.enabled = false; 得到的结果:
这里写图片描述
然后把 this.enabled = false; 注释掉,换成 this.gameObject.SetActive(false); 得到的结果如下:
这里写图片描述

整理得到 :通过设置MonoBehaviour脚本的enabled对协程是没有影响的,但如果 gameObject.SetActive(false) 则已经启动的协程则完全停止了,即使在Inspector把gameObject 激活还是没有继续执行。也就说协程虽然是在MonoBehvaviour启动的(StartCoroutine)但是协程函数的地位完全是跟MonoBehaviour是一个层次的,不受MonoBehaviour的状态影响,但跟MonoBehaviour脚本一样受gameObject 控制,也应该是和MonoBehaviour脚本一样每帧“轮询” yield 的条件是否满足。

yield 后面可以有的表达式:

   a) null - the coroutine executes the next time that it is eligible

   b) WaitForEndOfFrame - the coroutine executes on the frame, after all of the rendering and GUI is complete

   c) WaitForFixedUpdate - causes this coroutine to execute at the next physics step, after all physics is calculated

   d) WaitForSeconds - causes the coroutine not to execute for a given game time period

   e) WWW - waits for a web request to complete (resumes as if WaitForSeconds or null)

   f) Another coroutine - in which case the new coroutine will run to completion before the yielder is resumed

值得注意的是 WaitForSeconds()受Time.timeScale影响,当Time.timeScale = 0f 时,yield return new WaitForSecond(x) 将不会满足。

IEnumerator & Coroutine

    协程其实就是一个IEnumerator(迭代器),IEnumerator 接口有两个方法 Current 和 MoveNext() ,前面介绍的TaskManager就是利用者两个方法对协程进行了管理,这里在介绍一个协程的交叉调用类 Hijack:
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using UnityEngine;
using System.Collections;
using UnityEngine.UI;

[RequireComponent(typeof(Text))]
public class HiJack : MonoBehaviour {

    //This will hold the counting up coroutine
    IEnumerator _countUp;
    //This will hold the counting down coroutine
    IEnumerator _countDown;
    //This is the coroutine we are currently
    //hijacking
    IEnumerator _current;

    //A value that will be updated by the coroutine
    //that is currently running
    int value = 0;

    void Start()
    {
        //Create our count up coroutine
        _countUp = CountUp();
        //Create our count down coroutine
        _countDown = CountDown();
        //Start our own coroutine for the hijack
        StartCoroutine(DoHijack());
    }

    void Update()
    {
        //Show the current value on the screen
        GetComponent<Text> ().text = value.ToString ();
    }

    void OnGUI()
    {
        //Switch between the different functions
        if(GUILayout.Button("Switch functions"))
        {
            if(_current == _countUp)
                _current = _countDown;
            else
                _current = _countUp;
        }
    }

    IEnumerator DoHijack()
    {
        while(true)
        {
            //Check if we have a current coroutine and MoveNext on it if we do
            if(_current != null && _current.MoveNext())
            {
                //Return whatever the coroutine yielded, so we will yield the
                //same thing
                yield return _current.Current;
            }
            else
                //Otherwise wait for the next frame
                yield return null;
        }
    }

    IEnumerator CountUp()
    {
        //We have a local increment so the routines
        //get independently faster depending on how
        //long they have been active
        float increment = 0;
        while(true)
        {
            //Exit if the Q button is pressed
            if(Input.GetKey(KeyCode.Q))
                break;
            increment+=Time.deltaTime;
            value += Mathf.RoundToInt(increment);
            yield return null;
        }
    }

    IEnumerator CountDown()
    {
        float increment = 0f;
        while(true)
        {
            if(Input.GetKey(KeyCode.Q))
                break;
            increment+=Time.deltaTime;
            value -= Mathf.RoundToInt(increment);
            //This coroutine returns a yield instruction
            yield return new WaitForSeconds(0.1f);
        }
    }
}

上面的代码实现是两个协程交替调用,对有这种需求来说实在太精妙了。

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