8086 instructions (compact)

 ADD ADC INC SUB SBB DEC NEG CMP MUL IMUL DAA DAS AAA AAS AND OR XOR NOT TEST SHL SHR SAL SAR ROL ROR RCL RCR MOV MOVSB MOVSW STOSB STOSW LODSB LODSW REP CLD STD CMPSB CMPSW SCASB SCASW REPE REPNE REPZ REPNZ IN OUT JMP JZ JNZ JS JNS JO JNO JP JNP JB JNB

1 - 指令设置该标志位为1
0 -

r -

? -

memory, REG
REG, REG
memory, immediate
REG, immediate

Algorithm:

operand1 = operand1 + operand2

Example:

 C Z S O P A r r r r r r

memory, REG
REG, REG
memory, immediate
REG, immediate

Algorithm:

operand1 = operand1 + operand2 + CF

Example:

 C Z S O P A r r r r r r

INC REG
memory
Increment.

Algorithm:

operand = operand + 1

Example:

 Z S O P A r r r r r
CF - unchanged!
SUB REG, memory
memory, REG
REG, REG
memory, immediate
REG, immediate
Subtract.

Algorithm:

operand1 = operand1 - operand2

Example:

 C Z S O P A r r r r r r

SBB REG, memory
memory, REG
REG, REG
memory, immediate
REG, immediate
Subtract with Borrow.

Algorithm:

operand1 = operand1 - operand2 - CF

Example:

 C Z S O P A r r r r r r

DEC REG
memory
Decrement.

Algorithm:

operand = operand - 1

Example:

 Z S O P A r r r r r
CF - unchanged!
NEG REG
memory
Negate. Makes operand negative (two's complement).

Algorithm:

• Invert all bits of the operand
• Add 1 to inverted operand
Example:

 C Z S O P A r r r r r r

CMP REG, memory
memory, REG
REG, REG
memory, immediate
REG, immediate
Compare.

Algorithm:

operand1 - operand2

result is not stored anywhere, flags are set (OF, SF, ZF, AF, PF, CF) according to result.

Example:

 C Z S O P A r r r r r r

MUL REG
memory
Unsigned multiply.

Algorithm:

when operand is a byte:
AX = AL * operand.
when operand is a word:
(DX AX) = AX * operand.
Example:

 C Z S O P A r ? ? r ? ?
CF=OF=0 when high section of the result is zero.
IMUL REG
memory
Signed multiply.

Algorithm:
when operand is a byte:
AX = AL * operand.
when operand is a word:
(DX AX) = AX * operand.
Example:

 C Z S O P A r ? ? r ? ?
CF=OF=0 when result fits into operand of IMUL.
Corrects the result of addition of two packed BCD values.

Algorithm:

if low nibble of AL > 9 or AF = 1 then:
• AL = AL + 6
• AF = 1
if AL > 9Fh or CF = 1 then:
• AL = AL + 60h
• CF = 1
Example:

 C Z S O P A r r r r r r

DAS No operands Decimal adjust After Subtraction.
Corrects the result of subtraction of two packed BCD values.

Algorithm:

if low nibble of AL > 9 or AF = 1 then:
• AL = AL - 6
• AF = 1
if AL > 9Fh or CF = 1 then:
• AL = AL - 60h
• CF = 1
Example:

 C Z S O P A r r r r r r

Corrects result in AH and AL after addition when working with BCD values.

It works according to the following Algorithm:

if low nibble of AL > 9 or AF = 1 then:
• AL = AL + 6
• AH = AH + 1
• AF = 1
• CF = 1
else
• AF = 0
• CF = 0
in both cases:
clear the high nibble of AL.

Example:

 C Z S O P A r ? ? ? ? r

AAS No operands ASCII Adjust after Subtraction.
Corrects result in AH and AL after subtraction when working with BCD values.

Algorithm:

if low nibble of AL > 9 or AF = 1 then:
• AL = AL - 6
• AH = AH - 1
• AF = 1
• CF = 1
else
• AF = 0
• CF = 0
in both cases:
clear the high nibble of AL.

Example:

 C Z S O P A r ? ? ? ? r

AND REG, memory
memory, REG
REG, REG
memory, immediate
REG, immediate
Logical AND between all bits of two operands. Result is stored in operand1.

These rules apply:

1 AND 1 = 1
1 AND 0 = 0
0 AND 1 = 0
0 AND 0 = 0

Example:

 C Z S O P 0 r r 0 r

OR REG, memory
memory, REG
REG, REG
memory, immediate
REG, immediate
Logical OR between all bits of two operands. Result is stored in first operand.

These rules apply:

1 OR 1 = 1
1 OR 0 = 1
0 OR 1 = 1
0 OR 0 = 0

Example:

 C Z S O P A 0 r r 0 r ?

XOR REG, memory
memory, REG
REG, REG
memory, immediate
REG, immediate
Logical XOR (Exclusive OR) between all bits of two operands. Result is stored in first operand.

These rules apply:

1 XOR 1 = 0
1 XOR 0 = 1
0 XOR 1 = 1
0 XOR 0 = 0

Example:

 C Z S O P A 0 r r 0 r ?
NOT REG
memory
Invert each bit of the operand.

Algorithm:

• if bit is 1 turn it to 0.
• if bit is 0 turn it to 1.
Example:

 C Z S O P A unchanged

TEST REG, memory
memory, REG
REG, REG
memory, immediate
REG, immediate
Logical AND between all bits of two operands for flags only. These flags are effected: ZF, SF, PF. Result is not stored anywhere.

These rules apply:

1 AND 1 = 1
1 AND 0 = 0
0 AND 1 = 0
0 AND 0 = 0

Example:

 C Z S O P 0 r r 0 r

SHL memory, immediate
REG, immediate

memory, CL
REG, CL
Shift operand1 Left. The number of shifts is set by operand2.

Algorithm:

• Shift all bits left, the bit that goes off is set to CF.
• Zero bit is inserted to the right-most position.
Example:

 C O r r
OF=0 if first operand keeps original sign.
SHR memory, immediate
REG, immediate

memory, CL
REG, CL
Shift operand1 Right. The number of shifts is set by operand2.

Algorithm:

• Shift all bits right, the bit that goes off is set to CF.
• Zero bit is inserted to the left-most position.
Example:

 C O r r
OF=0 if first operand keeps original sign.
SAL memory, immediate
REG, immediate

memory, CL
REG, CL
Shift Arithmetic operand1 Left. The number of shifts is set by operand2.

Algorithm:

• Shift all bits left, the bit that goes off is set to CF.
• Zero bit is inserted to the right-most position.
Example:

 C O r r
OF=0 if first operand keeps original sign.
SAR memory, immediate
REG, immediate

memory, CL
REG, CL
Shift Arithmetic operand1 Right. The number of shifts is set by operand2.

Algorithm:

• Shift all bits right, the bit that goes off is set to CF.
• The sign bit that is inserted to the left-most position has the same value as before shift.
Example:

 C O r r
OF=0 if first operand keeps original sign.
ROL memory, immediate
REG, immediate

memory, CL
REG, CL
Rotate operand1 left. The number of rotates is set by operand2.

Algorithm:

shift all bits left, the bit that goes off is set to CF and the same bit is inserted to the right-most position. Example:

 C O r r
OF=0 if first operand keeps original sign.
ROR memory, immediate
REG, immediate

memory, CL
REG, CL
Rotate operand1 right. The number of rotates is set by operand2.

Algorithm:

shift all bits right, the bit that goes off is set to CF and the same bit is inserted to the left-most position. Example:

 C O r r
OF=0 if first operand keeps original sign.
RCL memory, immediate
REG, immediate

memory, CL
REG, CL
Rotate operand1 left through Carry Flag. The number of rotates is set by operand2.
When immediate is greater then 1, assembler generates several RCL xx, 1 instructions because 8086 has machine code only for this instruction (the same principle works for all other shift/rotate instructions).

Algorithm:

shift all bits left, the bit that goes off is set to CF and previous value of CF is inserted to the right-most position. Example:

 C O r r
OF=0 if first operand keeps original sign.
RCR memory, immediate
REG, immediate

memory, CL
REG, CL
Rotate operand1 right through Carry Flag. The number of rotates is set by operand2.

Algorithm:

shift all bits right, the bit that goes off is set to CF and previous value of CF is inserted to the left-most position. Example:

 C O r r
OF=0 if first operand keeps original sign.
MOV REG, memory
memory, REG
REG, REG
memory, immediate
REG, immediate

SREG, memory
memory, SREG
REG, SREG
SREG, REG
Copy operand2 to operand1.

The MOV instruction cannot:
• set the value of the CS and IP registers.
• copy value of one segment register to another segment register (should copy to general register first).
• copy immediate value to segment register (should copy to general register first).
Algorithm:
operand1 = operand2
Example:

 C Z S O P A unchanged

MOVSB No operands Copy byte at DS:[SI] to ES:[DI]. Update SI and DI.

Algorithm:

• ES:[DI] = DS:[SI]
• if DF = 0 then
• SI = SI + 1
• DI = DI + 1
else
• SI = SI - 1
• DI = DI - 1
Example:

 C Z S O P A unchanged

MOVSW No operands Copy word at DS:[SI] to ES:[DI]. Update SI and DI.

Algorithm:

• ES:[DI] = DS:[SI]
• if DF = 0 then
• SI = SI + 2
• DI = DI + 2
else
• SI = SI - 2
• DI = DI - 2
Example:

 C Z S O P A unchanged

STOSB No operands Store byte in AL into ES:[DI]. Update SI.

Algorithm:

• ES:[DI] = AL
• if DF = 0 then
• DI = DI + 1
else
• DI = DI - 1
Example:

 C Z S O P A unchanged

STOSW No operands Store word in AX into ES:[DI]. Update SI.

Algorithm:

• ES:[DI] = AX
• if DF = 0 then
• DI = DI + 2
else
• DI = DI - 2
Example:

 C Z S O P A unchanged

LODSB No operands Load byte at DS:[SI] into AL. Update SI.

Algorithm:

• AL = DS:[SI]
• if DF = 0 then
• SI = SI + 1
else
• SI = SI - 1
Example:

 C Z S O P A unchanged

LODSW No operands Load word at DS:[SI] into AX. Update SI.

Algorithm:

• AX = DS:[SI]
• if DF = 0 then
• SI = SI + 2
else
• SI = SI - 2
Example:

 C Z S O P A unchanged

REP chain instruction
Repeat following MOVSB, MOVSW, LODSB, LODSW, STOSB, STOSW instructions CX times.

Algorithm:

check_cx:

if CX <> 0 then
• do following chain instruction
• CX = CX - 1
• go back to check_cx
else
• exit from REP cycle
 Z r

CLD No operands Clear Direction flag. SI and DI will be incremented by chain instructions: CMPSB, CMPSW, LODSB, LODSW, MOVSB, MOVSW, STOSB, STOSW.

Algorithm:

DF = 0

 D 0

STD No operands Set Direction flag. SI and DI will be decremented by chain instructions: CMPSB, CMPSW, LODSB, LODSW, MOVSB, MOVSW, STOSB, STOSW.

Algorithm:

DF = 1

 D 1

CMPSB No operands Compare bytes: ES:[DI] from DS:[SI].

Algorithm:

• DS:[SI] - ES:[DI]
• set flags according to result:
OF, SF, ZF, AF, PF, CF
• if DF = 0 then
• SI = SI + 1
• DI = DI + 1
else
• SI = SI - 1
• DI = DI - 1
Example:
see cmpsb.asm in Samples.

 C Z S O P A r r r r r r

CMPSW No operands Compare words: ES:[DI] from DS:[SI].

Algorithm:

• DS:[SI] - ES:[DI]
• set flags according to result:
OF, SF, ZF, AF, PF, CF
• if DF = 0 then
• SI = SI + 2
• DI = DI + 2
else
• SI = SI - 2
• DI = DI - 2
Example:
see cmpsw.asm in Samples.

 C Z S O P A r r r r r r

SCASB No operands Compare bytes: AL from ES:[DI].

Algorithm:

• ES:[DI] - AL
• set flags according to result:
OF, SF, ZF, AF, PF, CF
• if DF = 0 then
• DI = DI + 1
else
• DI = DI - 1
 C Z S O P A r r r r r r

SCASW No operands Compare words: AX from ES:[DI].

Algorithm:

• ES:[DI] - AX
• set flags according to result:
OF, SF, ZF, AF, PF, CF
• if DF = 0 then
• DI = DI + 2
else
• DI = DI - 2
 C Z S O P A r r r r r r

REPE chain instruction
Repeat following CMPSB, CMPSW, SCASB, SCASW instructions while ZF = 1 (result is Equal), maximum CX times.

Algorithm:

check_cx:

if CX <> 0 then
• do following chain instruction
• CX = CX - 1
• if ZF = 1 then:
• go back to check_cx
else
• exit from REPE cycle
else
• exit from REPE cycle
Example:
see cmpsb.asm in Samples.

 Z r

REPNE chain instruction
Repeat following CMPSB, CMPSW, SCASB, SCASW instructions while ZF = 0 (result is Not Equal), maximum CX times.

Algorithm:

check_cx:

if CX <> 0 then
• do following chain instruction
• CX = CX - 1
• if ZF = 0 then:
• go back to check_cx
else
• exit from REPNE cycle
else
• exit from REPNE cycle
 Z r

REPZ chain instruction
Repeat following CMPSB, CMPSW, SCASB, SCASW instructions while ZF = 1 (result is Zero), maximum CX times.

Algorithm:

check_cx:

if CX <> 0 then
• do following chain instruction
• CX = CX - 1
• if ZF = 1 then:
• go back to check_cx
else
• exit from REPZ cycle
else
• exit from REPZ cycle
 Z r

REPNZ chain instruction
Repeat following CMPSB, CMPSW, SCASB, SCASW instructions while ZF = 0 (result is Not Zero), maximum CX times.

Algorithm:

check_cx:

if CX <> 0 then
• do following chain instruction
• CX = CX - 1
• if ZF = 0 then:
• go back to check_cx
else
• exit from REPNZ cycle
else
• exit from REPNZ cycle
 Z r

IN AL, im.byte
AL, DX
AX, im.byte
AX, DX
Input from port into AL or AX.
Second operand is a port number. If required to access port number over 255 - DX register should be used.
Example:

 C Z S O P A unchanged

OUT im.byte, AL
im.byte, AX
DX, AL
DX, AX
Output from AL or AX to port.
First operand is a port number. If required to access port number over 255 - DX register should be used.

Example:

 C Z S O P A unchanged

JMP label
Unconditional Jump. Transfers control to another part of the program. 4-byte address may be entered in this form: 1234h:5678h, first value is a segment second value is an offset.

Algorithm:

always jump Example:

 C Z S O P A unchanged

JZ label Short Jump if Zero (equal). Set by CMP, SUB, ADD, TEST, AND, OR, XOR instructions.

Algorithm:

if ZF = 1 then jump Example:

 C Z S O P A unchanged

JNZ label Short Jump if Not Zero (not equal). Set by CMP, SUB, ADD, TEST, AND, OR, XOR instructions.

Algorithm:

if ZF = 0 then jump Example:

 C Z S O P A unchanged

JS label Short Jump if Signed (if negative). Set by CMP, SUB, ADD, TEST, AND, OR, XOR instructions.

Algorithm:

if SF = 1 then jump Example:

 C Z S O P A unchanged

JNS label Short Jump if Not Signed (if positive). Set by CMP, SUB, ADD, TEST, AND, OR, XOR instructions.

Algorithm:

if SF = 0 then jump Example:

 C Z S O P A unchanged

JO label Short Jump if Overflow.

Algorithm:

if OF = 1 then jump Example:

 C Z S O P A unchanged

JNO label Short Jump if Not Overflow.

Algorithm:

if OF = 0 then jump Example:

 C Z S O P A unchanged

JP label Short Jump if Parity (even). Only 8 low bits of result are checked. Set by CMP, SUB, ADD, TEST, AND, OR, XOR instructions.

Algorithm:

if PF = 1 then jump Example:

 C Z S O P A unchanged

JNP label Short Jump if No Parity (odd). Only 8 low bits of result are checked. Set by CMP, SUB, ADD, TEST, AND, OR, XOR instructions.

Algorithm:

if PF = 0 then jump Example:

 C Z S O P A unchanged

JB label Short Jump if first operand is Below second operand (as set by CMP instruction). Unsigned.

Algorithm:

if CF = 1 then jump Example:

 C Z S O P A unchanged

JNB label Short Jump if first operand is Not Below second operand (as set by CMP instruction). Unsigned.

Algorithm:

if CF = 0 then jump Example:

 C Z S O P A unchanged

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