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Trading Terms

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Total Returns Total Annualized Returns Benchmark Returns Benchmark Annualized Returns
Alpha Beta Sharpe Sortino
Information Ratio Algorithm Volatility Benchmark Volatility Max Drawdown
Downside Risk Winning Ratio Daily Winning Ratio The Profit and Loss Ratio

1. Total Returns

TotalReturns=(PendPstart)/Pstart100%Pend=Account Final AssetsPstart=Account Primary Assets


2. Total Annualized Returns

TotalAnnualizedReturns=Rp=((1+P)250n1)100%P=Total Returnsn=Execution Days


3. Benchmark Returns

Benchmark Returns=(MendMstart)/Mstart100%Mend=Benchmark Final AssetsMstart=Benchmark Primary Assets


4. Benchmark Annualized Returns

Benchmark Annualized Returns=Rm=((1+M)250n1)100%M=Benchmark Returnsn=Execution Days


5. Alpha

Alpha=α=Rp[Rf+βp(RmRf)]Rp=Strategies Annualized ReturnsRm=Benchmark Annualized ReturnsRf=Riskfree Interest Rateβp=Strategies Beta

if α>0, the strategy gains excess returns.
if α=0, the strategy gains general returns.
if α<0, the strategy gains lower than benchmark returns.


6. Beta

Beta=β=Cov(Dp,Dm)Var(Dm)Dp=Strategies Daily ReturnsDm=Benchmark Daily ReturnsCov(Dp,Dm)=The Covariance of Strategies Daily Returns and Benchmark Daily ReturnsVar(Dm)=The Variance of Benchmark Daily Returns

if β>0, the strategy is in opposition direction to the benchmark.
if β=0, the strategy and benchmark are no related.
if 0<β<1, the strategy is in same direction to the benchmark, but smaller range of movement.
if β=1, the strategy is in same direction to the benchmark, and same range of movement.
if β>1, the strategy is in same direction to the benchmark, but bigger range of movement.


7. Sharpe
      How much excess returns will be given by per unit of total risk?

Sharpe Ratio=RpRfσpRp=Strategies Annualized ReturnsRm=Benchmark Annualized ReturnsRf=Riskfree Interest Rateβp=Strategies Beta


8. Sortino
      How much excess returns will be given by per unit of downside risk?

Sortino Ratio=RpRfσpdRp=Strategies Annualized ReturnsRf=Riskfree Interest Rateσpd=Strategies Downside Volatility


9. Information Ratio
      Measure the excess returns be given by per unit of excess risk.

Information Ratio=IC=RpRmσtRp=Strategies Annualized ReturnsRm=Benchmark Annualized Returnsσt=The Standard Deviation of Difference between Strategies Daily Returns and Benchmark Daily Returns (fetch one years data)


10. Benchmark Volatility

Benchmark Volatility=σm=250ni=1n(rmrm¯)2rm=Benchmark Daily Returnsrm¯=1ni=1nrmn=ExecutionDays


11. Max Drawdown

Max Drawdown=Max(PxPy)/PxPx,Py=Account Assets on any day,  y>x


12. Downside Risk

Downside Risk=σpd=250ni=1n(rprpi¯)2f(t)rp=Strageties Daily Returnsrpi¯=1ij=1irjn=ExecutionDaysf(t)=1, if   rp<rpi¯f(t)=0, if   rprpi¯


13. The Profit and Loss Ratio

The Profit and Loss Ratio=Total ProfitTotal Loss

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