Some tips about Abstract base classes and pure virtual functions
1、Often in a design, you want the base class to present only an interface for its derived classes, don't want anyone to actually create an object
2、This is accomplished by making that class abstract, which happens if you give it at least one pure virtual function
3、You can recognize a pure virtual function because it uses the virtual keyword and is followed by = 0. If anyone tries to make an object of an abstract class, the compiler prevents them.
4、When an abstract class is inherited, all pure virtual functions must be implemented, or the inherited class becomes abstract as well.
5、It's possible to provide a definition for a pure virtual function in the base class. You’re still telling the compiler not to allow objects of that abstract base class, and the pure virtual functions must still be defined in derived classes in order to create objects. However, there may be a common piece of code that you want some or all of the derived class definitions to call rather than duplicating that code in every function.