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# How to Type

Time Limit: 2000/1000 MS (Java/Others)    Memory Limit: 32768/32768 K (Java/Others)
Total Submission(s): 3030    Accepted Submission(s): 1388

Problem Description
Pirates have finished developing the typing software. He called Cathy to test his typing software. She is good at thinking. After testing for several days, she finds that if she types a string by some ways, she will type the key at least. But she has a bad habit that if the caps lock is on, she must turn off it, after she finishes typing. Now she wants to know the smallest times of typing the key to finish typing a string.

Input
The first line is an integer t (t<=100), which is the number of test case in the input file. For each test case, there is only one string which consists of lowercase letter and upper case letter. The length of the string is at most 100.

Output
For each test case, you must output the smallest times of typing the key to finish typing this string.

Sample Input
3
Pirates
HDUacm
HDUACM

Sample Output
8
8
8

Hint
The string “Pirates”, can type this way, Shift, p, i, r, a, t, e, s, the answer is 8.
The string “HDUacm”, can type this way, Caps lock, h, d, u, Caps lock, a, c, m, the answer is 8
The string "HDUACM", can type this way Caps lock h, d, u, a, c, m, Caps lock, the answer is 8


DP思维，DP[i][1]表示cap打开的状态键入前i个字符需要typeDP[i][1]次，同理DP[i][0]表示cap关闭的状态键入前i个字符需要typeDP[i][0]次。找状态转移。

字符数组以1数起
DP[i][1]表示前i个字母并且cap状态是开启的状态的最少typing数目
DP[i][0]表示前i个字母并且cap状态是关闭的状态的最少typing数目

case 1:str[i+1]是小写
DP[i+1][0]-> DP[i][0]+1 //type directly      1   min(1,2)
DP[i][1]+2 //cap+type           2
DP[i+1][1]-> DP[i][0]+2 //type+cap           3   min(3,4)
DP[i][1]+2 //shift+type         4

case 2:str[i+1]是大写
DP[i+1][0]-> DP[i][0]+2 //shift+type         1  min(1,2)
DP[i][1]+2 //type+cap           2
DP[i+1][1]-> DP[i][0]+2 //cap+type           3  min(3,4)
DP[i][1]+1 //type		         4            

#include <iostream>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <ctype.h>
#include <string.h>
using namespace std;

int DP[105][2];
char Buf[105];
char buf[105];
int len;

int min(int x,int y)
{
return x < y ? x : y;
}

void dp()
{
int i;
DP[0][1] = 1;
for(i=1; buf[i] != '\0'; ++i)
{
if('a' <= buf[i] && buf[i] <= 'z')
{
DP[i][0] = min(DP[i-1][0]+1,DP[i-1][1]+2);
DP[i][1] = min(DP[i-1][0]+2,DP[i-1][1]+2);
}
else
{
DP[i][0] = min(DP[i-1][0]+2,DP[i-1][1]+2);
DP[i][1] = min(DP[i-1][0]+2,DP[i-1][1]+1);
}
}
printf("%d\n",min(DP[len][1]+1,DP[len][0]));
}
int main()
{
int T;
scanf("%d ",&T);
while(T--)
{
gets(buf+1); //从1数起
len = strlen(buf+1);
dp();
}
return 0;
}

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