学习STL -- 向量vector

原创 2015年07月09日 16:17:57

在STL中向量vector是使用数组的形式实现的,因此向量具有顺序表的所有特点,可以快速随机存取任意元素。向量是同一种数据类型的对象的集合,每个对象根据其位置有一个整数索引值与其对应,类似于数组。与定义数组不同,向量在实例化是不需要声明长度,标准库负责管理和储存元素相关的内存,不用担心长度不够。

vector容器中的元素是连续存放的,当容器中增加一个新元素的时候,如果原来的存储空间刚好被用完,那么系统需要重新申请一块更大的连续存储空间,把原来的元素复制到新的空间,并在最后添加新元素,最后再撤销久空间。若每次增加新元素都要重复以上步骤,则会降低性能。实际上vector容器每次在申请内存的时候,都会额外申请一块连续的存储区,用于存放将来新加入的元素,从而不必每次都为新元素重新分配一次容器。当所有空间都被占满时,再重新申请一块新的空间。所分配的额外内存容量因库的不同而不同,这种分配策略使得vector容器具有显著的增长效率,提高了性能。

(1) 容器定义的类型别名

public:
      typedef _Tp                                        value_type;
      typedef typename _Tp_alloc_type::pointer           pointer;
      typedef typename _Tp_alloc_type::const_pointer     const_pointer;
      typedef typename _Tp_alloc_type::reference         reference;
      typedef typename _Tp_alloc_type::const_reference   const_reference;
      typedef __gnu_cxx::__normal_iterator<pointer, vector_type> iterator;
      typedef __gnu_cxx::__normal_iterator<const_pointer, vector_type>
      const_iterator;
      typedef std::reverse_iterator<const_iterator>  const_reverse_iterator;
      typedef std::reverse_iterator<iterator>            reverse_iterator;
      typedef size_t                                     size_type;
      typedef ptrdiff_t                                  difference_type;
          typedef _Alloc                                     allocator_type;
value_type:   元素类型

reference:    元素的左值类型,等效与value_type&

const_reference:  元素的常量左值类型

iterator:     vector类型的迭代器类型

const_iterator:   元素的只读迭代器类型

const_reverse_iterator:  元素的只读逆序迭代器

reverse_iterator: 按逆序寻址元素的迭代器

size_type:    无符号整形

difference_type:  足够存储两个迭代器差值的有符号整形

(2) begin 和 end 成员

/**
       *  Returns a read/write iterator that points to the first
       *  element in the %vector.  Iteration is done in ordinary
       *  element order.
       */
      iterator
      begin()
      { return iterator (this->_M_impl._M_start); }

      /**
       *  Returns a read-only (constant) iterator that points to the
       *  first element in the %vector.  Iteration is done in ordinary
       *  element order.
       */
      const_iterator
      begin() const
      { return const_iterator (this->_M_impl._M_start); }

 /**
       *  Returns a read/write iterator that points one past the last
       *  element in the %vector.  Iteration is done in ordinary
       *  element order.
       */
      iterator
      end()
      { return iterator (this->_M_impl._M_finish); }

      /**
       *  Returns a read-only (constant) iterator that points one past
       *  the last element in the %vector.  Iteration is done in
       *  ordinary element order.
       */
      const_iterator
      end() const
      { return const_iterator (this->_M_impl._M_finish); }

 /**
       *  Returns a read/write reverse iterator that points to the
       *  last element in the %vector.  Iteration is done in reverse
       *  element order.
       */
      reverse_iterator
      rbegin()
      { return reverse_iterator(end()); }

      /**
       *  Returns a read-only (constant) reverse iterator that points
       *  to the last element in the %vector.  Iteration is done in
       *  reverse element order.
       */
      const_reverse_iterator
      rbegin() const
      { return const_reverse_iterator(end()); }

 /**
       *  Returns a read/write reverse iterator that points to one
       *  before the first element in the %vector.  Iteration is done
       *  in reverse element order.
       */
      reverse_iterator
      rend()
      { return reverse_iterator(begin()); }

 /**
       *  Returns a read-only (constant) reverse iterator that points
       *  to one before the first element in the %vector.  Iteration
       *  is done in reverse element order.
       */
      const_reverse_iterator
      rend() const
      { return const_reverse_iterator(begin()); }

(3) 增删元素

/**
       *  @brief  Add data to the end of the %vector.
       *  @param  x  Data to be added.
       *
       *  This is a typical stack operation.  The function creates an
       *  element at the end of the %vector and assigns the given data
       *  to it.  Due to the nature of a %vector this operation can be
       *  done in constant time if the %vector has preallocated space
       *  available.
       */
void
      push_back(const value_type& __x)
      {
        if (this->_M_impl._M_finish != this->_M_impl._M_end_of_storage)
          {
            this->_M_impl.construct(this->_M_impl._M_finish, __x);
            ++this->_M_impl._M_finish;
          }
        else
          _M_insert_aux(end(), __x);
      }

 /**
       *  @brief  Removes last element.
       *
       *  This is a typical stack operation. It shrinks the %vector by one.
       *
       *  Note that no data is returned, and if the last element's
       *  data is needed, it should be retrieved before pop_back() is
       *  called.
       */
void
      pop_back()
      {
        --this->_M_impl._M_finish;
        this->_M_impl.destroy(this->_M_impl._M_finish);
      }

 /**
       *  @brief  Inserts given value into %vector before specified iterator.
       *  @param  position  An iterator into the %vector.
       *  @param  x  Data to be inserted.
       *  @return  An iterator that points to the inserted data.
       *
       *  This function will insert a copy of the given value before
       *  the specified location.  Note that this kind of operation
       *  could be expensive for a %vector and if it is frequently
       *  used the user should consider using std::list.
       */
iterator
      insert(iterator __position, const value_type& __x);

 /**
       *  @brief  Inserts a number of copies of given data into the %vector.
       *  @param  position  An iterator into the %vector.
       *  @param  n  Number of elements to be inserted.
       *  @param  x  Data to be inserted.
       *
       *  This function will insert a specified number of copies of
       *  the given data before the location specified by @a position.
       *
       *  Note that this kind of operation could be expensive for a
       *  %vector and if it is frequently used the user should
       *  consider using std::list.
       */
void
      insert(iterator __position, size_type __n, const value_type& __x)
      { _M_fill_insert(__position, __n, __x); }

 /**
       *  @brief  Inserts a range into the %vector.
       *  @param  position  An iterator into the %vector.
       *  @param  first  An input iterator.
       *  @param  last   An input iterator.
       *
       *  This function will insert copies of the data in the range
       *  [first,last) into the %vector before the location specified
       *  by @a pos.
       *
       *  Note that this kind of operation could be expensive for a
       *  %vector and if it is frequently used the user should
       *  consider using std::list.
       */
template<typename _InputIterator>
        void
        insert(iterator __position, _InputIterator __first,
               _InputIterator __last)
        {
          // Check whether it's an integral type.  If so, it's not an iterator.
          typedef typename std::__is_integer<_InputIterator>::__type _Integral;
          _M_insert_dispatch(__position, __first, __last, _Integral());
        }

 /**
       *  @brief  Remove element at given position.
       *  @param  position  Iterator pointing to element to be erased.
       *  @return  An iterator pointing to the next element (or end()).
       *
       *  This function will erase the element at the given position and thus
       *  shorten the %vector by one.
       *
       *  Note This operation could be expensive and if it is
       *  frequently used the user should consider using std::list.
       *  The user is also cautioned that this function only erases
       *  the element, and that if the element is itself a pointer,
       *  the pointed-to memory is not touched in any way.  Managing
       *  the pointer is the user's responsibilty.
       */
iterator
      erase(iterator __position);

 /**
       *  @brief  Remove a range of elements.
       *  @param  first  Iterator pointing to the first element to be erased.
       *  @param  last  Iterator pointing to one past the last element to be
       *                erased.
       *  @return  An iterator pointing to the element pointed to by @a last
       *           prior to erasing (or end()).
       *
       *  This function will erase the elements in the range [first,last) and
       *  shorten the %vector accordingly.
       *
       *  Note This operation could be expensive and if it is
       *  frequently used the user should consider using std::list.
       *  The user is also cautioned that this function only erases
       *  the elements, and that if the elements themselves are
       *  pointers, the pointed-to memory is not touched in any way.
       *  Managing the pointer is the user's responsibilty.
       */
iterator
      erase(iterator __first, iterator __last);

 /**
       *  Erases all the elements.  Note that this function only erases the
       *  elements, and that if the elements themselves are pointers, the
       *  pointed-to memory is not touched in any way.  Managing the pointer is
       *  the user's responsibilty.
       */
      void
      clear()
      {
        std::_Destroy(this->_M_impl._M_start, this->_M_impl._M_finish,
                      _M_get_Tp_allocator());
        this->_M_impl._M_finish = this->_M_impl._M_start;
      }


(4) 赋值与交换

/**
       *  @brief  %Vector assignment operator.
       *  @param  x  A %vector of identical element and allocator types.
       *
       *  All the elements of @a x are copied, but any extra memory in
       *  @a x (for fast expansion) will not be copied.  Unlike the
       *  copy constructor, the allocator object is not copied.
       */
      vector&
      operator=(const vector& __x);

 /**
       *  @brief  Assigns a given value to a %vector.
       *  @param  n  Number of elements to be assigned.
       *  @param  val  Value to be assigned.
       *
       *  This function fills a %vector with @a n copies of the given
       *  value.  Note that the assignment completely changes the
       *  %vector and that the resulting %vector's size is the same as
       *  the number of elements assigned.  Old data may be lost.
       */
      void
      assign(size_type __n, const value_type& __val)
      { _M_fill_assign(__n, __val); }

 /**
       *  @brief  Assigns a range to a %vector.
       *  @param  first  An input iterator.
       *  @param  last   An input iterator.
       *
       *  This function fills a %vector with copies of the elements in the
       *  range [first,last).
       *
       *  Note that the assignment completely changes the %vector and
       *  that the resulting %vector's size is the same as the number
       *  of elements assigned.  Old data may be lost.
       */
template<typename _InputIterator>
        void
        assign(_InputIterator __first, _InputIterator __last)
        {
          // Check whether it's an integral type.  If so, it's not an iterator.
          typedef typename std::__is_integer<_InputIterator>::__type _Integral;
          _M_assign_dispatch(__first, __last, _Integral());
        }

 /**
       *  @brief  Swaps data with another %vector.
       *  @param  x  A %vector of the same element and allocator types.
       *
       *  This exchanges the elements between two vectors in constant time.
       *  (Three pointers, so it should be quite fast.)
       *  Note that the global std::swap() function is specialized such that
       *  std::swap(v1,v2) will feed to this function.
       */
      void
      swap(vector& __x)
      {
        std::swap(this->_M_impl._M_start, __x._M_impl._M_start);
        std::swap(this->_M_impl._M_finish, __x._M_impl._M_finish);
        std::swap(this->_M_impl._M_end_of_storage,
                  __x._M_impl._M_end_of_storage);
      }

(5) 容器大小的操作

/**  Returns the number of elements in the %vector.  */
      size_type
      size() const
      { return size_type(end() - begin()); }

 /**  Returns the size() of the largest possible %vector.  */
      size_type
      max_size() const
      { return size_type(-1) / sizeof(value_type); }

 /**
       *  @brief  Resizes the %vector to the specified number of elements.
       *  @param  new_size  Number of elements the %vector should contain.
       *  @param  x  Data with which new elements should be populated.
       *
       *  This function will %resize the %vector to the specified
       *  number of elements.  If the number is smaller than the
       *  %vector's current size the %vector is truncated, otherwise
       *  the %vector is extended and new elements are populated with
       *  given data.
       */
      void
      resize(size_type __new_size, value_type __x = value_type())
      {
        if (__new_size < size())
          erase(begin() + __new_size, end());
        else
          insert(end(), __new_size - size(), __x);
      }

 /**
       *  Returns the total number of elements that the %vector can
       *  hold before needing to allocate more memory.
       */
      size_type
      capacity() const
      { return size_type(const_iterator(this->_M_impl._M_end_of_storage)
                         - begin()); }

      /**
       *  Returns true if the %vector is empty.  (Thus begin() would
       *  equal end().)
       */
      bool
      empty() const
      { return begin() == end();

 /**
       *  @brief  Attempt to preallocate enough memory for specified number of
       *          elements.
       *  @param  n  Number of elements required.
       *  @throw  std::length_error  If @a n exceeds @c max_size().
       *
       *  This function attempts to reserve enough memory for the
       *  %vector to hold the specified number of elements.  If the
       *  number requested is more than max_size(), length_error is
       *  thrown.
       *
       *  The advantage of this function is that if optimal code is a
       *  necessity and the user can determine the number of elements
       *  that will be required, the user can reserve the memory in
       *  %advance, and thus prevent a possible reallocation of memory
       *  and copying of %vector data.
       */
void
      reserve(size_type __n);

(6) 访问元素

/**
       *  @brief  Subscript access to the data contained in the %vector.
       *  @param n The index of the element for which data should be
       *  accessed.
       *  @return  Read/write reference to data.
       *
       *  This operator allows for easy, array-style, data access.
       *  Note that data access with this operator is unchecked and
       *  out_of_range lookups are not defined. (For checked lookups
       *  see at().)
       */
      reference
      operator[](size_type __n)
      { return *(begin() + __n); }	

/**
       *  @brief  Subscript access to the data contained in the %vector.
       *  @param n The index of the element for which data should be
       *  accessed.
       *  @return  Read-only (constant) reference to data.
       *
       *  This operator allows for easy, array-style, data access.
       *  Note that data access with this operator is unchecked and
       *  out_of_range lookups are not defined. (For checked lookups
       *  see at().)
       */
      const_reference
      operator[](size_type __n) const
      { return *(begin() + __n); }

 /**
       *  @brief  Provides access to the data contained in the %vector.
       *  @param n The index of the element for which data should be
       *  accessed.
       *  @return  Read/write reference to data.
       *  @throw  std::out_of_range  If @a n is an invalid index.
       *
       *  This function provides for safer data access.  The parameter
       *  is first checked that it is in the range of the vector.  The
       *  function throws out_of_range if the check fails.
       */
      reference
      at(size_type __n)
      {
        _M_range_check(__n);
        return (*this)[__n];
      }

 /**
       *  @brief  Provides access to the data contained in the %vector.
       *  @param n The index of the element for which data should be
       *  accessed.
       *  @return  Read-only (constant) reference to data.
       *  @throw  std::out_of_range  If @a n is an invalid index.
       *
       *  This function provides for safer data access.  The parameter
       *  is first checked that it is in the range of the vector.  The
       *  function throws out_of_range if the check fails.
       */
      const_reference
      at(size_type __n) const
      {
        _M_range_check(__n);
        return (*this)[__n];
      }

 /**
       *  Returns a read/write reference to the data at the first
       *  element of the %vector.
       */
      reference
      front()
      { return *begin(); }

 /**
       *  Returns a read-only (constant) reference to the data at the first
       *  element of the %vector.
       */
      const_reference
      front() const
      { return *begin(); }

 /**
       *  Returns a read/write reference to the data at the last
       *  element of the %vector.
       */
      reference
      back()
      { return *(end() - 1); }

 /**
       *  Returns a read-only (constant) reference to the data at the
       *  last element of the %vector.
       */
      const_reference
      back() const
      { return *(end() - 1); }

(7) 关系操作符

/**
   *  @brief  Vector equality comparison.
   *  @param  x  A %vector.
   *  @param  y  A %vector of the same type as @a x.
   *  @return  True iff the size and elements of the vectors are equal.
   *
   *  This is an equivalence relation.  It is linear in the size of the
   *  vectors.  Vectors are considered equivalent if their sizes are equal,
   *  and if corresponding elements compare equal.
  */
  template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc>
    inline bool
    operator==(const vector<_Tp, _Alloc>& __x, const vector<_Tp, _Alloc>& __y)
    { return (__x.size() == __y.size()
              && std::equal(__x.begin(), __x.end(), __y.begin())); }

 /**
   *  @brief  Vector ordering relation.
   *  @param  x  A %vector.
   *  @param  y  A %vector of the same type as @a x.
   *  @return  True iff @a x is lexicographically less than @a y.
   *
   *  This is a total ordering relation.  It is linear in the size of the
   *  vectors.  The elements must be comparable with @c <.
   *
   *  See std::lexicographical_compare() for how the determination is made.
  */
  template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc>
    inline bool
    operator<(const vector<_Tp, _Alloc>& __x, const vector<_Tp, _Alloc>& __y)
    { return std::lexicographical_compare(__x.begin(), __x.end(),
                                          __y.begin(), __y.end()); }

 /// Based on operator==
  template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc>
    inline bool
    operator!=(const vector<_Tp, _Alloc>& __x, const vector<_Tp, _Alloc>& __y)
    { return !(__x == __y); }

  /// Based on operator<
  template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc>
    inline bool
    operator>(const vector<_Tp, _Alloc>& __x, const vector<_Tp, _Alloc>& __y)
{ return __y < __x; }

 /// Based on operator<
  template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc>
    inline bool
    operator<=(const vector<_Tp, _Alloc>& __x, const vector<_Tp, _Alloc>& __y)
    { return !(__y < __x); }

  /// Based on operator<
  template<typename _Tp, typename _Alloc>
    inline bool
    operator>=(const vector<_Tp, _Alloc>& __x, const vector<_Tp, _Alloc>& __y)
    { return !(__x < __y); }

(8) 构造函数

/**
       *  @brief  Default constructor creates no elements.
       */
      explicit
      vector(const allocator_type& __a = allocator_type())
      : _Base(__a)
      { }

 /**
       *  @brief  Create a %vector with copies of an exemplar element.
       *  @param  n  The number of elements to initially create.
       *  @param  value  An element to copy.
       *
       *  This constructor fills the %vector with @a n copies of @a value.
       */
explicit
      vector(size_type __n, const value_type& __value = value_type(),
             const allocator_type& __a = allocator_type())
      : _Base(__n, __a)
      {
        std::__uninitialized_fill_n_a(this->_M_impl._M_start, __n, __value,
                                      _M_get_Tp_allocator());
        this->_M_impl._M_finish = this->_M_impl._M_start + __n;
      }

 /**
       *  @brief  %Vector copy constructor.
       *  @param  x  A %vector of identical element and allocator types.
       *
       *  The newly-created %vector uses a copy of the allocation
       *  object used by @a x.  All the elements of @a x are copied,
       *  but any extra memory in
       *  @a x (for fast expansion) will not be copied.
       */
      vector(const vector& __x)
      : _Base(__x.size(), __x.get_allocator())
      { this->_M_impl._M_finish =
          std::__uninitialized_copy_a(__x.begin(), __x.end(),
                                      this->_M_impl._M_start,
                                      _M_get_Tp_allocator());
      }

 /**
       *  @brief  Builds a %vector from a range.
       *  @param  first  An input iterator.
       *  @param  last  An input iterator.
       *
       *  Create a %vector consisting of copies of the elements from
       *  [first,last).
       *
       *  If the iterators are forward, bidirectional, or
       *  random-access, then this will call the elements' copy
       *  constructor N times (where N is distance(first,last)) and do
       *  no memory reallocation.  But if only input iterators are
       *  used, then this will do at most 2N calls to the copy
       *  constructor, and logN memory reallocations.
       */
template<typename _InputIterator>
        vector(_InputIterator __first, _InputIterator __last,
               const allocator_type& __a = allocator_type())
        : _Base(__a)
        {
          // Check whether it's an integral type.  If so, it's not an iterator.
          typedef typename std::__is_integer<_InputIterator>::__type _Integral;
          _M_initialize_dispatch(__first, __last, _Integral());
        }

定义vector对象时必须说明其保存的对象类型。以下是定义向量对象的一些例子:

vector <int> ivec;              //定义向量对象ivec
vector <int> ivec1(ivec);     //定义向量对象ivec2,并用ivec初始化
vector <int> ivec2(n,i);   //定义向量对象ivec2,包含了n个值为i的元素
vector <int> ivec3(n);       //定义向量对象ivec3,包含了n个值为0的元素
vector<vector <int> > vivec; //定义向量对象vivec,这是一个容器的容器。注意两个“>”之间要有空格



版权声明:本文为博主原创文章,未经博主允许不得转载。

相关文章推荐

Epoll简介以及例子

第一部分:Epoll简介 在linux的网络编程中,很长的时间都在使用select来做事件触发。在linux新的内核中,有了一种替换它的机制,就是epoll。 相比于select,epoll最大的...

OC中的内存管理以及协议的详解

OC中内存管理,引用计数的变化         从0~1:alloc , copy    +1 :retain    -1 :release 、autorelease      ...

实现STL中的向量 vector

用到数组就会想到对应的可以动态

vector向量容器——STL Introduction

vector介绍: vector容器是一个线性结构,用3个指针存放向量的起始字节位置、当前最后一个元素的末尾字节和整个容器所占的内存空间的末尾字节。如下图所示,3个指针变量分别为: M_start...

【C++】STL常用容器总结之三:向量vector

4、向量vectorVector是同一种类型的对象的集合,每个对象都有一个对应的整数索引值。Vector的数据安排及操作方式与array非常相似,唯一的差别在于array是静态空间,一旦配置了就不能改...

STL中vector向量初始化问题

一个hello world程序。这个程序将一个字符串传送到一个字符 向量中,然后每次显示向量中的一个字符。向量就像是盛放变长数组的花园,大约所有STL容器中有一半 是基于向量的,如果你掌握了这个程...

C++ STL入门教程(1)——vector(向量容器)的使用(附完整程序代码)

一、简介 Vectors 包含着一系列连续存储的元素,其行为和数组类似。 访问Vector中的任意元素或从末尾添加元素都可以在O(1)内完成,而查找特定值的元素所处的位置或是在Ve...

C++ STL 栈stack 向量vector 队列queue的用法

栈的用法: 1.声明一个stack    stack s1;    stack s2; 2.stack中的操作     stack s;     s.p...

STL 向量容器(vector)

向量容器使用动态数组存储、管理对象。因为数组是一个随机访问数据结构,所以可以随机访问向量中的元素。在数组中间或是开始处插入一个元素是费时的,特别是在数组非常大的时候更是如此。然而在数组末端插入元素却很...

STL系列之deque双端队列+vector向量容器

deque双端队列容器       deque双端队列容器与vector一样,采用线性表顺序存储结构。但与vector唯一不同的是,deque采用分块的线性存储结构来存储数据,每块的大小一般为512字...
内容举报
返回顶部
收藏助手
不良信息举报
您举报文章:学习STL -- 向量vector
举报原因:
原因补充:

(最多只允许输入30个字)