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Android Context 是什么?

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【转载请注明出处:http://blog.csdn.net/feiduclear_up CSDN 废墟的树】 
PS:修该了一些有误区的地方。

Context总结

  1. Context是什么?Context是”运行上下文环境“,从代码角度看Application,Service,Activity都是Context。
  2. 所有Context都是在应用的主线程ActivityThread中创建的,由于Application,Service,Activity的祖先都是Context抽象类,所以在创建它们的同时也会为每一个类创建一个ContextImpl类,ContextImpl是Context的之类,真正实现Context功能方法的类。因此Application,Service,Activity都关联着一个ContextImpl对象。
  3. 尽量少用Context对象去获取静态变量,静态方法,以及单例对象。以免导致内存泄漏。
  4. 在创建与UI相关的地方,比如创建一个Dialog,或者在代码中创建一个TextView,都用Activity的Context去创建。然而在引用静态资源,创建静态方法,单例模式等情况下,使用生命周期更长的Application的Context才不会导致内存泄漏。




引言

Context对于Android开发人员来说并不陌生,项目中我们会经常使用Context来获取APP资源,创建UI,获取系统Service服务,启动Activity,绑定Service,发送广播,获取APP信息等等。那么Context到底是什么?Context又是怎么来实现以上功能的?在什么场景下使用不同的Context?一个APP中总共有多少个Context?这篇博客将从源码角度带你分析Android Context到底是个啥。

1.Context是什么

相信很多人多会问Context到底是什么?

  • 我们可以理解为“上下文”:它贯穿整个应用;
  • 也可以理解成“运行环境”:它提供了一个应用运行所需要的信息,资源,系统服务等;
  • 同样可以理解成“场景”:用户操作和系统交互这一过程就是一个场景,比如Activity之间的切换,服务的启动等都少不了Context。

然而以上这些都是我们从抽象角度去理解Context的作用,那么从Code代码来看Context到底是什么呢?Activity是一个Context,Application是一个Context,Service也是一个Context你信么?不信的话,同样还是那句话“look the fuck resource code”。

<code class="hljs java has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; background-color: transparent; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-top-left-radius: 0px; border-top-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">abstract</span> <span class="hljs-class" style="box-sizing: border-box;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">class</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">Context</span> {</span>
..............................
 <span class="hljs-javadoc" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">/** Return an AssetManager instance for your application's package. */</span>
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">abstract</span> AssetManager <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">getAssets</span>();

    <span class="hljs-javadoc" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">/** Return a Resources instance for your application's package. */</span>
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">abstract</span> Resources <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">getResources</span>();

    <span class="hljs-javadoc" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">/** Return PackageManager instance to find global package information. */</span>
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">abstract</span> PackageManager <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">getPackageManager</span>();

    <span class="hljs-javadoc" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">/** Return a ContentResolver instance for your application's package. */</span>
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">abstract</span> ContentResolver <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">getContentResolver</span>();

...................
<span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//获取系统服务</span>
<span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">abstract</span> Object <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">getSystemService</span>(@ServiceName @NonNull String name);
<span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//发送广播</span>
<span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">abstract</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">void</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">sendBroadcast</span>(Intent intent);
<span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//启动Activity</span>
<span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">abstract</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">void</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">startActivity</span>(Intent intent);
<span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//启动服务,绑定服务</span>
<span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">abstract</span> ComponentName <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">startService</span>(Intent service);
<span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">abstract</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">boolean</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">bindService</span>(Intent service, @NonNull ServiceConnection conn,
            @BindServiceFlags <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">int</span> flags);

................
}</code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238); top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right;"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">8</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">9</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">10</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">11</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">12</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">13</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">14</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">15</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">16</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">17</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">18</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">19</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">20</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">21</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">22</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">23</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">24</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">25</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">26</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">27</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">28</li></ul>

从源码看Context就是一个抽象类,里面定义了各种抽象方法,包括获取系统资源,获取系统服务,发送广播,启动Activity,Service等。所以从源码角度看Context就是抽象出一个App应用所有功能的集合,由于Context是一个纯的抽象类,所以它的具体的方法实现是在其之类ContextImpl中实现了,稍后分析。我们平时在MainActivity中会这么给mContext = this赋值,其言外之意就是当前Activity类就是Context,那说明Activity是Context的子类。通过Android Studio查看Context的子类图如下:

这里写图片描述

有图可知,Context的子类很多,我们主要分析以上红色矩形框内的即可。接下来就分析Android系统中Context的继承关系!

2.Android系统中Context的继承关系

有上一节我们知道,Activity是一个Context,Service也是一个Context等等,那么这些类跟Context具体什么关系呢?接下来有一幅图Context继承关系图来说明: 
这里写图片描述 
Context类是一个抽象类,具体实现在ContextImpl类中;而ContextWrapper是Context的一个包装类,其里面所有的方法实现都是调用其内部mBase变量的方法,而mBase就是ContextImpl对象,稍后分析。然而ContextWrapper还有一个ContextThemeWrapper子类,该类中扩展了主题相关的方法。有继承关系图可以看出,Application和Service是继承自ContextWrapper,而Activity是继承自ContextThemeWrapper,是不是有点奇怪?其实一点都不奇怪,Activity在启动的时候系统都会加载一个主题,也就是我们平时在AndroidManifest.xml文件里面写的android:theme=”@style/AppTheme”属性啦!然而Service和Applicaton都和UI界面并没有卵关系!因此他们继承自ContextWrapper。所以Activity,Application,Service其实都关联着一个mBase变量,而mBase变量是ContextImpl对象的赋值,也是真正实现抽象类Context的地方。虽然Activity,Application,Service都有一个共同的祖先Context,但是他们自己本身持有的Context对象是不同的,接下来我们从源码角度分析以上几个类的实现。

3.不同Context源码分析

3.1ContextImpl—真正实现Context功能的类

从源码看出Context类仅仅是定义了一组抽象方法的抽象类,其内部的方法真正实现的地方都在ContextImpl类中。

<code class="hljs lasso has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; background-color: transparent; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-top-left-radius: 0px; border-top-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;">class ContextImpl extends Context {
    <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//整个App的主线程</span>
    final ActivityThread mMainThread;
    <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//整个App的相关信息</span>
    final LoadedApk mPackageInfo;
    <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//资源解析器</span>
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">private</span> final ResourcesManager mResourcesManager;
    <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//App资源类</span>
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">private</span> final Resources mResources;
    <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//外部Context的引用</span>
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">private</span> Context mOuterContext;
    <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//默认主题</span>
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">private</span> int mThemeResource <span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">=</span> <span class="hljs-number" style="color: rgb(0, 102, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">0</span>;
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">private</span> Resources<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>Theme mTheme <span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">=</span> <span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">null</span>;
    <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//包管理器</span>
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">private</span> PackageManager mPackageManager;

    <span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">..</span>
<span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//以下是静态区注册系统的各种服务,多大五六十种系统服务,因此每个持有Context引用的对象都可以随时通过getSystemService方法来轻松获取系统服务。</span>
static {
        registerService(ACCESSIBILITY_SERVICE, <span class="hljs-literal" style="color: rgb(0, 102, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">new</span> ServiceFetcher() {
                <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> Object getService(ContextImpl ctx) {
                    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">return</span> AccessibilityManager<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>getInstance(ctx);
                }});

        registerService(CAPTIONING_SERVICE, <span class="hljs-literal" style="color: rgb(0, 102, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">new</span> ServiceFetcher() {
                <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> Object getService(ContextImpl ctx) {
                    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">return</span> <span class="hljs-literal" style="color: rgb(0, 102, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">new</span> CaptioningManager(ctx);
                }});

        registerService(ACCOUNT_SERVICE, <span class="hljs-literal" style="color: rgb(0, 102, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">new</span> ServiceFetcher() {
                <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> Object createService(ContextImpl ctx) {
                    IBinder b <span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">=</span> ServiceManager<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>getService(ACCOUNT_SERVICE);
                    IAccountManager service <span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">=</span> IAccountManager<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>Stub<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>asInterface(b);
                    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">return</span> <span class="hljs-literal" style="color: rgb(0, 102, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">new</span> AccountManager(ctx, service);
                }});
        <span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span>

       }

<span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">..</span>
<span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//启动Activity的地方</span>
 @Override
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-literal" style="color: rgb(0, 102, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">void</span> startActivity(Intent intent, Bundle options) {
        warnIfCallingFromSystemProcess();
        <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">if</span> ((intent<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>getFlags()<span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">&</span>Intent<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>FLAG_ACTIVITY_NEW_TASK) <span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">==</span> <span class="hljs-number" style="color: rgb(0, 102, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">0</span>) {
            throw <span class="hljs-literal" style="color: rgb(0, 102, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">new</span> AndroidRuntimeException(
                    <span class="hljs-string" style="color: rgb(0, 136, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">"Calling startActivity() from outside of an Activity "</span>
                    <span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">+</span> <span class="hljs-string" style="color: rgb(0, 136, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">" context requires the FLAG_ACTIVITY_NEW_TASK flag."</span>
                    <span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">+</span> <span class="hljs-string" style="color: rgb(0, 136, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">" Is this really what you want?"</span>);
        }
        mMainThread<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>getInstrumentation()<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>execStartActivity(
            getOuterContext(), mMainThread<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>getApplicationThread(), <span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">null</span>,
            (Activity)<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">null</span>, intent, <span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">-</span><span class="hljs-number" style="color: rgb(0, 102, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">1</span>, options);
    }

<span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>
<span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//启动服务的地方</span>
@Override
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> ComponentName startService(Intent service) {
        warnIfCallingFromSystemProcess();
        <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">return</span> startServiceCommon(service, mUser);
    }
<span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span>     
}</code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238); top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right;"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">8</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">9</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">10</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">11</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">12</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">13</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">14</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">15</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">16</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">17</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">18</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">19</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">20</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">21</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">22</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">23</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">24</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">25</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">26</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">27</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">28</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">29</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">30</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">31</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">32</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">33</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">34</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">35</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">36</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">37</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">38</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">39</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">40</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">41</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">42</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">43</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">44</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">45</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">46</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">47</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">48</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">49</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">50</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">51</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">52</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">53</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">54</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">55</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">56</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">57</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">58</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">59</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">60</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">61</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">62</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">63</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">64</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">65</li></ul>

分析:ContextImpl实现了抽象类Context里面的所有方法,获取资源,启动Activity,Service等。值得注意的是在ContextImpl创建的时候就会利用静态区来注册系统的各种服务,因此每个持有Context引用的类都可以通过getSystemService来轻松的获取系统服务了。比如我们平时LayoutInflater类来加载一个XML布局时时这么写的

<code class="hljs avrasm has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; background-color: transparent; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-top-left-radius: 0px; border-top-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;">LayoutInflater inflater = LayoutInflater<span class="hljs-preprocessor" style="color: rgb(68, 68, 68); box-sizing: border-box;">.from</span>(mContext)<span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">;</span>
View layout = inflater<span class="hljs-preprocessor" style="color: rgb(68, 68, 68); box-sizing: border-box;">.inflate</span>(R<span class="hljs-preprocessor" style="color: rgb(68, 68, 68); box-sizing: border-box;">.layout</span><span class="hljs-preprocessor" style="color: rgb(68, 68, 68); box-sizing: border-box;">.activity</span>_main,null)<span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">;</span></code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238); top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right;"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li></ul>

其实源码内部是这样实现的:

<code class="hljs java has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; background-color: transparent; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-top-left-radius: 0px; border-top-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;"> <span class="hljs-javadoc" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">/**
     * Obtains the LayoutInflater from the given context.
     */</span>
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">static</span> LayoutInflater <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">from</span>(Context context) {
        LayoutInflater LayoutInflater =
                (LayoutInflater) context.getSystemService(Context.LAYOUT_INFLATER_SERVICE);
        <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">if</span> (LayoutInflater == <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">null</span>) {
            <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">throw</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">new</span> AssertionError(<span class="hljs-string" style="color: rgb(0, 136, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">"LayoutInflater not found."</span>);
        }
        <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">return</span> LayoutInflater;
    }</code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238); top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right;"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">8</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">9</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">10</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">11</li></ul>

可以看出LayoutInflater布局加载器也是调用context.getSystemService(Context.LAYOUT_INFLATER_SERVICE);来获取系统服务得到的。因此我们以后在代码中也可以这么来加载一个XML布局:

<code class="hljs avrasm has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; background-color: transparent; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-top-left-radius: 0px; border-top-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;"> //获取服务
LayoutInflater inflater = (LayoutInflater) mContext<span class="hljs-preprocessor" style="color: rgb(68, 68, 68); box-sizing: border-box;">.getSystemService</span>(Context<span class="hljs-preprocessor" style="color: rgb(68, 68, 68); box-sizing: border-box;">.LAYOUT</span>_INFLATER_SERVICE)<span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">;</span>
View layout = inflater<span class="hljs-preprocessor" style="color: rgb(68, 68, 68); box-sizing: border-box;">.inflate</span>(R<span class="hljs-preprocessor" style="color: rgb(68, 68, 68); box-sizing: border-box;">.layout</span><span class="hljs-preprocessor" style="color: rgb(68, 68, 68); box-sizing: border-box;">.activity</span>_main,null)<span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">;</span></code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238); top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right;"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li></ul>

由于ContextImpl是抽象类Context的具体实现,而Application,Activity,Service的祖先又都是Context类,那么它们都关联着一个ContextImpl对象来真正实现Context里面所有的方法。现在来分析下不同子类创建的Context对象。

3.2ContextWrapper

<code class="hljs java has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; background-color: transparent; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-top-left-radius: 0px; border-top-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-class" style="box-sizing: border-box;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">class</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">ContextWrapper</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">extends</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">Context</span> {</span>
    Context mBase;

    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">ContextWrapper</span>(Context base) {
        mBase = base;
    }

    <span class="hljs-javadoc" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">/**
     * Set the base context for this ContextWrapper.  All calls will then be
     * delegated to the base context.  Throws
     * IllegalStateException if a base context has already been set.
     * 
     *<span class="hljs-javadoctag" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;"> @param</span> base The new base context for this wrapper.
     */</span>
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">protected</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">void</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">attachBaseContext</span>(Context base) {
        <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">if</span> (mBase != <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">null</span>) {
            <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">throw</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">new</span> IllegalStateException(<span class="hljs-string" style="color: rgb(0, 136, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">"Base context already set"</span>);
        }
        mBase = base;
    }

    <span class="hljs-javadoc" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">/**
     *<span class="hljs-javadoctag" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;"> @return</span> the base context as set by the constructor or setBaseContext
     */</span>
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> Context <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">getBaseContext</span>() {
        <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">return</span> mBase;
    }
 ...................
  <span class="hljs-annotation" style="color: rgb(155, 133, 157); box-sizing: border-box;">@Override</span>
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> AssetManager <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">getAssets</span>() {
        <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">return</span> mBase.getAssets();
    }

    <span class="hljs-annotation" style="color: rgb(155, 133, 157); box-sizing: border-box;">@Override</span>
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> Resources <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">getResources</span>()
    {
        <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">return</span> mBase.getResources();
    }

    <span class="hljs-annotation" style="color: rgb(155, 133, 157); box-sizing: border-box;">@Override</span>
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> PackageManager <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">getPackageManager</span>() {
        <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">return</span> mBase.getPackageManager();
    }
...............
}</code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238); top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right;"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">8</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">9</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">10</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">11</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">12</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">13</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">14</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">15</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">16</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">17</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">18</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">19</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">20</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">21</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">22</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">23</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">24</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">25</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">26</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">27</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">28</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">29</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">30</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">31</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">32</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">33</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">34</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">35</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">36</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">37</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">38</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">39</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">40</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">41</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">42</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">43</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">44</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">45</li></ul>

分析:从ContextWrapper源码可以看到,这个类只是一个装饰类,其内部所有方法的实现都指向mBase成员变量,而然谁给mBase成员变量赋值呢?结论是Context的真正实现类ContextImpl对象,后面会分析到。该类中通过attachBaseContext方法将ContextImpl对象赋值给mBase成员变量。

每一个App应用都是由ASM通过Binder机制创建一个新的进程然后调用ActivityThread类中的main方法开始的。很多人可能会感到奇怪为啥Android也是基于Java实现的,为啥没有看到main方法呢?其实整个App应用的入口在ActivityThread.main方法里面啦!关于Activity启动过程请参考大神级别人物老罗的这篇博客:Android应用程序的Activity启动过程简要介绍和学习计划。所有有关Application,Activity,Service的创建都是在ActivityThread类中,其实该类就是我们App的主线程。

3.3Application中的Context

每一个应用在启动的时候都会创建一个Application对象,该对象是全局的,开发者可以实现一个子类MyApplication类来继承Application,然后实现一些全局的方法或者数据。

应用入口ActivityThread#main

<code class="hljs cs has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; background-color: transparent; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-top-left-radius: 0px; border-top-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;"> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">static</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">void</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">main</span>(String[] args) {
        ................
        <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//初始化Looper</span>
        Looper.prepareMainLooper();
        <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//创建一个APP主线程ActivityThread对象</span>
        ActivityThread thread = <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">new</span> ActivityThread();
        <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//初始化App应用信息</span>
        thread.attach(<span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">false</span>);
        <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//获得主线程也就是UI线程的handler对象</span>
        <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">if</span> (sMainThreadHandler == <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">null</span>) {
            sMainThreadHandler = thread.getHandler();
        }
        <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//此处值得注意了,在Android4.1版本之后添加了这么一个方法,目的就是为了能让AsyncTask能在子线程创建,</span>
        <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//在之前的版本是不能在子线程中创建初始化AsyncTask的。</span>
        <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//对AsyncTask感兴趣的童鞋可以参考这篇博客[ Android异步任务处理框架AsyncTask源码分析](http://blog.csdn.net/feiduclear_up/article/details/46860015)</span>
        AsyncTask.init();
        <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//启动Looper循环,进入消息循环。</span>
        Looper.loop();
    }</code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238); top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right;"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">8</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">9</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">10</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">11</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">12</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">13</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">14</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">15</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">16</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">17</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">18</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">19</li></ul>

分析:main方法主要工作就是创建一个App应用的主线程ActivityThread并初始化,且构建一个消息循环机制用于处理UI交互。代码第6-8行,创建了一个应用的主线程ActivityThread并且调用attach方法来初始化。进入attach方法: 
ActivityThread#attach

<code class="hljs lasso has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; background-color: transparent; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-top-left-radius: 0px; border-top-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">private</span> <span class="hljs-literal" style="color: rgb(0, 102, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">void</span> attach(boolean system) {
    <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//整个应用的Application对象</span>
    Application mInitialApplication;
    <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//整个应用的后台管家</span>
    Instrumentation mInstrumentation;
        <span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>
            try {
                mInstrumentation <span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">=</span> <span class="hljs-literal" style="color: rgb(0, 102, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">new</span> Instrumentation();
                ContextImpl context <span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">=</span> ContextImpl<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>createAppContext(
                        this, getSystemContext()<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>mPackageInfo);
                <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//利用ContextImpl创建整个应用的Application对象</span>
                mInitialApplication <span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">=</span> context<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>mPackageInfo<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>makeApplication(<span class="hljs-literal" style="color: rgb(0, 102, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">true</span>, <span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">null</span>);
                <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//调用Application对象的onCreate方法</span>
                mInitialApplication<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>onCreate();
            } 
       <span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>
    }</code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238); top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right;"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">8</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">9</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">10</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">11</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">12</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">13</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">14</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">15</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">16</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">17</li></ul>

代码第13行:通过调用LoadedApk#makeApplication方法创建应用程序的Application对象。 
LoadedApk#makeApplication

<code class="hljs lasso has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; background-color: transparent; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-top-left-radius: 0px; border-top-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;"> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> Application makeApplication(boolean forceDefaultAppClass,
            Instrumentation instrumentation) {
        <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//第一次进来mApplication==null条件不满足,之后创建Activity的时候条件满足直接返回当前Application对象</span>
        <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">if</span> (mApplication <span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">!=</span> <span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">null</span>) {
            <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">return</span> mApplication;
        }

        Application app <span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">=</span> <span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">null</span>;

        try {

            <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//为Appliaction创建ContextImpl对象</span>
            ContextImpl appContext <span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">=</span> ContextImpl<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>createAppContext(mActivityThread, this);
            <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//调用Instrumentation类中的newApplication方法创建Application</span>
            app <span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">=</span> mActivityThread<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>mInstrumentation<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>newApplication(
                    cl, appClass, appContext);
            <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//给ContextImpl设置外部引用</span>
            appContext<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>setOuterContext(app);
        } 
      <span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">..</span>
        <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">return</span> app;
    }</code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238); top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right;"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">8</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">9</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">10</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">11</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">12</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">13</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">14</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">15</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">16</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">17</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">18</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">19</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">20</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">21</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">22</li></ul>

分析: 
1.代码第4-6行:判断当前应用是否是第一次创建Application对象,如果不是则直接返回Application对象,否则去创建第一个Application对象。目的是确保当前应用之创建了一个全局的Application对象。 
2.代码第13行:创建了一个ContextImpl对象,然后作为参数用于创建Application对象。 
3.代码第15行:调用Instrumentation类中的newApplication方法来创建Application对象。 
4.代码第18行:将创建好的Application对象赋值给ContextImpl类的mOuterContext成员变量,目的是让ContextImpl持有外部Application类的引用用于注册系统服务或者其他方法。

Instrumentation#newApplication

<code class="hljs java has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; background-color: transparent; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-top-left-radius: 0px; border-top-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> Application <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">newApplication</span>(ClassLoader cl, String className, Context context)
            <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">throws</span> InstantiationException, IllegalAccessException, 
            ClassNotFoundException {
        <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">return</span> newApplication(cl.loadClass(className), context);
    }

    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">static</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> Application <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">newApplication</span>(Class<?> clazz, Context context)
            <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">throws</span> InstantiationException, IllegalAccessException, 
            ClassNotFoundException {
        Application app = (Application)clazz.newInstance();
        app.attach(context);
        <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">return</span> app;
    }</code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238); top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right;"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">8</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">9</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">10</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">11</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">12</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">13</li></ul>

分析:以上代码通过类加载器来创建Application对象,并且调用app.attach(context)方法来初始化Application对象。这里的context就是上面传下来的ContextImpl对象了。进入Application源码 
Application#attach

<code class="hljs java has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; background-color: transparent; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-top-left-radius: 0px; border-top-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-class" style="box-sizing: border-box;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">class</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">Application</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">extends</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">ContextWrapper</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">implements</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">ComponentCallbacks2</span> {</span>
..................
<span class="hljs-javadoc" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">/**
     *<span class="hljs-javadoctag" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;"> @hide</span>
     */</span>
    <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">/* package */</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">final</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">void</span> attach(Context context) {
        attachBaseContext(context);
        mLoadedApk = ContextImpl.getImpl(context).mPackageInfo;
    }
...............
}</code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238); top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right;"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">8</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">9</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">10</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">11</li></ul>

分析:Application类是继承自ContextWrapper类,在attach方法中调父类也就是ContextWrapper中的attachBaseContext方法来对ContextWrapper的成员变量mBase赋值成ContextImpl对象,具体可以参考3.2小节。因此Application通过父类ContextWrapper类的成员变量mBase指向了ContextImpl,让Application类真正实现了其祖父类Context抽象类中的所有抽象方法。

3.4Activity中的Context

当Application创建完成之后,ASM会通过Binder机制通知ActivityThread去创建需要的Activity了。最后会辗转到ActivityThread类中的performLaunchActivity方法来创建Activity。

ActivityThread#performLaunchActivity

<code class="hljs lasso has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; background-color: transparent; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-top-left-radius: 0px; border-top-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">private</span> Activity performLaunchActivity(ActivityClientRecord r, Intent customIntent) {
        <span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span>

        Activity activity <span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">=</span> <span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">null</span>;
        try {
        <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//通过Instrumentation类的newActivity方法来创建一个Activity对象</span>
            java<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>lang<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>ClassLoader cl <span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">=</span> r<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>packageInfo<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>getClassLoader();
            activity <span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">=</span> mInstrumentation<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>newActivity(
                    cl, component<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>getClassName(), r<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>intent);
           <span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">..</span>
        }
        try {
            <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//获取当前应用的Application对象,该对象的唯一作用就是作为参数传递到Activity里,</span>
            然后在Activity类中可以获得调用getApplication方法来获取Application对象
            Application app <span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">=</span> r<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>packageInfo<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>makeApplication(<span class="hljs-literal" style="color: rgb(0, 102, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">false</span>, mInstrumentation);

          <span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">..</span>
            <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">if</span> (activity <span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">!=</span> <span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">null</span>) {
                <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//为Activity创建ContextImpl对象</span>
                Context appContext <span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">=</span> createBaseContextForActivity(r, activity);
                <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//为Activity赋值初始化</span>
                 activity<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>attach(appContext, this, getInstrumentation(), r<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>token,
                        r<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>ident, app, r<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>intent, r<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>activityInfo, title, r<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span><span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">parent</span>,
                        r<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>embeddedID, r<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>lastNonConfigurationInstances, config,
                        r<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>voiceInteractor);
               <span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>
                <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//获取当前应用的主题资源</span>
                int theme <span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">=</span> r<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>activityInfo<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>getThemeResource();
                <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">if</span> (theme <span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">!=</span> <span class="hljs-number" style="color: rgb(0, 102, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">0</span>) {
                <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//设置主题</span>
                    activity<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>setTheme(theme);
                }

                activity<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>mCalled <span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">=</span> <span class="hljs-literal" style="color: rgb(0, 102, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">false</span>;
                <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">if</span> (r<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>isPersistable()) {
                <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//辗转到Activity,调用Activity的生命周期onCreate方法</span>
                    mInstrumentation<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>callActivityOnCreate(activity, r<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>state, r<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>persistentState);
                } <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">else</span> {
                    mInstrumentation<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>callActivityOnCreate(activity, r<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>state);
                }
                <span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>
                r<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>activity <span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">=</span> activity;
                r<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>stopped <span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">=</span> <span class="hljs-literal" style="color: rgb(0, 102, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">true</span>;
                <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">if</span> (<span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">!</span>r<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>activity<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>mFinished) {
                <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//调用Activity的生命周期onStart方法</span>
                    activity<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>performStart();
                    r<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>stopped <span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">=</span> <span class="hljs-literal" style="color: rgb(0, 102, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">false</span>;
                }
                <span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>

        <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">return</span> activity;
    }</code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238); top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right;"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">8</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">9</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">10</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">11</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">12</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">13</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">14</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">15</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">16</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">17</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">18</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">19</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">20</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">21</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">22</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">23</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">24</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">25</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">26</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">27</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">28</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">29</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">30</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">31</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">32</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">33</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">34</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">35</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">36</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">37</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">38</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">39</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">40</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">41</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">42</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">43</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">44</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">45</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">46</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">47</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">48</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">49</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">50</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">51</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">52</li></ul>

分析:

  1. step1 这里也是通过Instrumentation类的newActivity方法来创建一个Activity对象,跟上面创建Application对象基本类似,这里就不贴源码了。
  2. step2 之后在调用本地方法 createBaseContextForActivity去创建ContextImpl对象,该对象将作为参数传递到Activity#attach方法中。
  3. step3 调用Activity#attach方法对刚创建好的Activity进行初始化操作。后面会分析Activity#attach方法。
  4. step4 获取当前应用的主题资源,然后调用Activity#setTheme方法给刚创建好的Activity对象设置主题。
  5. setp5 一次调用Activity的生命周期方法onCreate,onStart。

step2 
现在来分析下ActivityThread#createBaseContextForActivity方法。

ActivityThread#createBaseContextForActivity

<code class="hljs java has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; background-color: transparent; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-top-left-radius: 0px; border-top-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">private</span> Context <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">createBaseContextForActivity</span>(ActivityClientRecord r,
            <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">final</span> Activity activity) {
        ContextImpl appContext = ContextImpl.createActivityContext(<span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">this</span>, r.packageInfo, r.token);
        appContext.setOuterContext(activity);
        Context baseContext = appContext;
   .............
   <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">return</span> baseContext;
}</code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238); top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right;"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">8</li></ul>

分析:该方法里面的确创建了一个ContextImpl对象,并且返回该对象。同时也调用了ContextImpl#setOuterConexet方法让ContextImpl持有外部Activity对象的引用,目的是在ContextImpl类中注册一些服务,设置主题等都需要外部Activity对象的引用。

setp3 
由于Activity没有重写构造方法,因此创建出来的Activity并没有初始化。为了对Activity初始化,以上代码调用了Activity#attach方法来进行初始化操作。

Activity#attach

<code class="hljs java has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; background-color: transparent; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-top-left-radius: 0px; border-top-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-class" style="box-sizing: border-box;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">class</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">Activity</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">extends</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">ContextThemeWrapper</span>
        <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">implements</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">LayoutInflater</span>.<span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">Factory2</span>,
        <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">Window</span>.<span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">Callback</span>, <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">KeyEvent</span>.<span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">Callback</span>,
        <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">OnCreateContextMenuListener</span>, <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">ComponentCallbacks2</span>,
        <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">Window</span>.<span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">OnWindowDismissedCallback</span> {</span>

............................

<span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">final</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">void</span> attach(Context context, ActivityThread aThread,
            Instrumentation instr, IBinder token, <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">int</span> ident,
            Application application, Intent intent, ActivityInfo info,
            CharSequence title, Activity parent, String id,
            NonConfigurationInstances lastNonConfigurationInstances,
            Configuration config, IVoiceInteractor voiceInteractor) {
        <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//调用父类方法对mBase变量赋值</span>
        attachBaseContext(context);
        <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//创建一个Activity的窗口</span>
        mWindow = PolicyManager.makeNewWindow(<span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">this</span>);
        <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//给Window窗口设置回调事件</span>
        mWindow.setCallback(<span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">this</span>);
        mWindow.setOnWindowDismissedCallback(<span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">this</span>);
        mWindow.getLayoutInflater().setPrivateFactory(<span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">this</span>);
        <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//设置键盘弹出状态</span>
        <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">if</span> (info.softInputMode != WindowManager.LayoutParams.SOFT_INPUT_STATE_UNSPECIFIED) {
            mWindow.setSoftInputMode(info.softInputMode);
        }
        <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">if</span> (info.uiOptions != <span class="hljs-number" style="color: rgb(0, 102, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">0</span>) {
            mWindow.setUiOptions(info.uiOptions);
        }
        mUiThread = Thread.currentThread();

        mMainThread = aThread;
        mInstrumentation = instr;
        mToken = token;
        mIdent = ident;
        <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//此处注意,将整个应用的Application对象赋值给Activity的mApplication成员变量。</span>
        <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//目的是为了能在Activity中通过getApplication方法来直接获取Application对象</span>
        mApplication = application;
       ......................
    }
    <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//在Activity中返回当前应用的Application对象</span>
<span class="hljs-javadoc" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">/** Return the application that owns this activity. */</span>
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">final</span> Application <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">getApplication</span>() {
        <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">return</span> mApplication;
    }

.......................</code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238); top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right;"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">8</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">9</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">10</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">11</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">12</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">13</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">14</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">15</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">16</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">17</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">18</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">19</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">20</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">21</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">22</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">23</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">24</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">25</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">26</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">27</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">28</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">29</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">30</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">31</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">32</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">33</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">34</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">35</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">36</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">37</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">38</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">39</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">40</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">41</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">42</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">43</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">44</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">45</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">46</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">47</li></ul>

分析:attach方法一进来就调用了父类的attachBaseContext方法将ContextImpl对象注册到Activity里面去。由于Activity的父类是ContextThemeWrapper,进入该类查看attachBaseContext方法

ContextThemeWrapper#attachBaseContext

<code class="hljs java has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; background-color: transparent; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-top-left-radius: 0px; border-top-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-class" style="box-sizing: border-box;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">class</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">ContextThemeWrapper</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">extends</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">ContextWrapper</span> {</span>
   ............

    <span class="hljs-annotation" style="color: rgb(155, 133, 157); box-sizing: border-box;">@Override</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">protected</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">void</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">attachBaseContext</span>(Context newBase) {
        <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">super</span>.attachBaseContext(newBase);
    }
    ...........</code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238); top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right;"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li></ul>

该方法也很简单,还是调用父类的attachBaseContext方法注册ContextImpl,然而该类的父类就是ContextWrapper类。 
ContextWrapper#attachBaseContext

<code class="hljs java has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; background-color: transparent; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-top-left-radius: 0px; border-top-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-class" style="box-sizing: border-box;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">class</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">ContextWrapper</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">extends</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">Context</span> {</span>
..............
 <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">protected</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">void</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">attachBaseContext</span>(Context base) {
        <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">if</span> (mBase != <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">null</span>) {
            <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">throw</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">new</span> IllegalStateException(<span class="hljs-string" style="color: rgb(0, 136, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">"Base context already set"</span>);
        }
        mBase = base;
    }
..........
}</code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238); top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right;"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">8</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">9</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">10</li></ul>

在ContextWrapper类中调用attachBaseContext方法将ContextImpl对象(真正实现Context抽象类里面各种方法的类)赋值给mBase成员变量,而ContextWrapper只是一个装饰类,里面所有方法的实现都是调用mBase的方法。此时mBase方法被赋值成ContextImpl对象,这么一来Activity的祖父类就实现了里面的所有Context抽象方法,那么在Activity中可以调用Context里面的任何方法了。

3.5 Service中的Context

同样创建Service也是有ASM通过Binder机制通知ActivityThread类去创建一个Service服务了,最后会辗转到ActivityThread#handleCreateService方法中来创建一个Service服务。

ActivityThread#handleCreateService

<code class="hljs lasso has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; background-color: transparent; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-top-left-radius: 0px; border-top-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">private</span> <span class="hljs-literal" style="color: rgb(0, 102, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">void</span> handleCreateService(CreateServiceData <span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">data</span>) {

        LoadedApk packageInfo <span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">=</span> getPackageInfoNoCheck(
                <span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">data</span><span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>info<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>applicationInfo, <span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">data</span><span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>compatInfo);
        Service service <span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">=</span> <span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">null</span>;
        try {
            <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//通过类加载器创建Service服务</span>
            java<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>lang<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>ClassLoader cl <span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">=</span> packageInfo<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>getClassLoader();
            service <span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">=</span> (Service) cl<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>loadClass(<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">data</span><span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>info<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>name)<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>newInstance();
        } 
    <span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>
        try {
          <span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span>
          <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//此处为Service创建一个ContextImpl对象</span>
            ContextImpl context <span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">=</span> ContextImpl<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>createAppContext(this, packageInfo);
            <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//同样为ContextImpl类设置外部对象,目的还是让ContextImpl持有外部类的引用</span>
            <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//在ContextImpl类中的许多方法需要使用到外部Context对象引用</span>
            context<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>setOuterContext(service);
    <span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>
            <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//获得当前应用的Applicaton对象,该对象在整个应用中只有一份,是共享的。</span>
            Application app <span class="hljs-subst" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">=</span> packageInfo<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>makeApplication(<span class="hljs-literal" style="color: rgb(0, 102, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">false</span>, mInstrumentation);
            <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//将ContextImpl对象和Application对象作为attach方法参数来初始化Service</span>
            service<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>attach(context, this, <span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">data</span><span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>info<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>name, <span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">data</span><span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>token, app,
                    ActivityManagerNative<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>getDefault());
            <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//Service初始化完成之后系统自动调用onCreate生命周期方法</span>
            service<span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>onCreate();
     <span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>
    }</code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238); top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right;"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">8</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">9</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">10</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">11</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">12</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">13</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">14</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">15</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">16</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">17</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">18</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">19</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">20</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">21</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">22</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">23</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">24</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">25</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">26</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">27</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">28</li></ul>

分析: 
跟以上Activity和Application创建类似,通过类加载器来创建Service对象。然后在创建一个ContextImpl对象,并且为ContextImpl类设置外部Service对象Context的引用,目的之在ContextImpl类中的许多方法都需要使用到外部Context引用。

其次和Activity一样调用packageInfo.makeApplication方法去获得当前应用的Application对象,然后将Application对象和ContextImpl对象作为Service#attach方法去初始化Service,当Service初始化完成之后,系统调用Service的生命周期方法onCreate方法,该方法是创建Service过程中最早暴露给开发者的,所有开发者在实现自己的Service时可以重写onCreate方法来进行一些初始化工作。

现在我们来分析下Service#attach方法

Service#attach

<code class="hljs java has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; background-color: transparent; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-top-left-radius: 0px; border-top-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">abstract</span> <span class="hljs-class" style="box-sizing: border-box;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">class</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">Service</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">extends</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">ContextWrapper</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">implements</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">ComponentCallbacks2</span> {</span>
    <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//默认构造方法调用父类构造方法并且参数为null,意味着构造方法里并没有对Service初始化</span>
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">Service</span>() {
        <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">super</span>(<span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">null</span>);
    }

<span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//在Service中返回整个应用的Application对象</span>
    <span class="hljs-javadoc" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">/** Return the application that owns this service. */</span>
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">final</span> Application <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">getApplication</span>() {
        <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">return</span> mApplication;
    }
    ..............
 <span class="hljs-javadoc" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">/**
     *<span class="hljs-javadoctag" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;"> @hide</span>
     */</span>
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">final</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">void</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">attach</span>(
            Context context,
            ActivityThread thread, String className, IBinder token,
            Application application, Object activityManager) {
        <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//调用父类方法去注册ContextImpl对象</span>
        attachBaseContext(context);
        mThread = thread;           <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">// NOTE:  unused - remove?</span>
        mClassName = className;
        mToken = token;
        <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//将整个应用的Applicaton对象赋值给Service类的成员变量mApplication</span>
        mApplication = application;
        mActivityManager = (IActivityManager)activityManager;

    }
</code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238); top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right;"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">8</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">9</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">10</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">11</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">12</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">13</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">14</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">15</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">16</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">17</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">18</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">19</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">20</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">21</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">22</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">23</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">24</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">25</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">26</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">27</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">28</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">29</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">30</li></ul>

分析: 
Service的父类是ContextWrapper,在attach方法中调用了父类中attachBaseContext方法去注册CotextImpl对象,这一操作和创建Application一样,具体参考前面分析。

3.6总结

至此,一个Android应用可能创建Context的地方基本分析结束。所有有关创建Context对象的地方都是在ActivityThread类中,该类就是整个应用的入口,也是整个应用的主线程。每个应用首先会创建一个Application对象,且一个应用只有唯一一个Application对象,之后再根据需求创建Activity或者Service。且在创建Activity或者Service的时候都会持有一份当前应用的Application对象,通过getApplication方法即可获得。

不管在创建Application,Activity还是Service的时候都会去创建一个ContextImpl对象(真正实现抽象类Context功能的类就是ContextImpl),然后将该对象注册到对应的Application,Activity,Service中,之后在Application,Activity,Service类中就可以使用Context的所有功能了。所以Application,Activity,Service的祖先都是抽象类Context,相当于Context给了他们身体,让他们有了一个躯壳有思想,但真正让他们思想得到执行的类还是ContextImpl类。因此我们可以这么来理解:抽象类Context给了Application,Activity,Service思想,而ContextImpl类给了他们去执行思想的功能。

有以上分析我们知道,每创建一个Application,Activity还是Service都会创建一个ContextImpl类(真正实现Context类功能)。且一个应用只会创建一个Application对象。因此:一个App中Context的个数=1个Application+Activity的个数+Service的个数。

【转载请注明出处:http://blog.csdn.net/feiduclear_up CSDN 废墟的树】

4.Context应用场景

虽然Application,Activity,Service的祖先都是Context,并不是每个Context对象都是相同的。

  • Application:一个应用在创建的时候只会创建一个ActivityThread主线程,而在初始化ActivityThread主线程的时候就会创建一个Application对象。Application是全局的,在Activity和Service里都可以调用getApplication方法来获得一个应用的Application对象。Application的父类是ContextWrapper类。
  • **Service:**Service父类是ContextWrapper,一个应用每创建一个Service,都会创建一个ContextImpl类去关联Service。
  • **Activity:**Activity父类是ContextThemeWrapper,而ContextThemeWrapper父类是ContextWrapper。ContextThemeWrapper类是其父类的扩张,里面额外添加了关于主题设置的一些方法。在ActivityThread主线程中创建Activity的时候我们知道,创建完了Activity之后会立马调用Activity#setTheme设置Activity的主题。

不同Context的应用场景如下图标

功能 Application Service Activity
Start an Activity NO1 NO1 YES
Show a Dialog NO NO YES
Layout Inflation YES YES YES
Start a Service YES YES YES
Bind to a Service YES YES YES
Send a Broadcast YES YES YES
Register BroadcastReceiver YES YES YES
Load Resource Values YES YES YES

解释:

  • NO1表示Application和Service可以启动一个Activity,但是需要创建一个新的task。比如你在Application中调用startActivity(intent)时系统会报如下错误:
<code class="hljs livecodeserver has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; background-color: transparent; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-top-left-radius: 0px; border-top-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;">java.lang.RuntimeException: Unable <span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">to</span> <span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">create</span> application 
com.xjp.toucheventdemo.MyApplication: android.util.AndroidRuntimeException: Calling 
startActivity() <span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">from</span> outside <span class="hljs-operator" style="box-sizing: border-box;">of</span> <span class="hljs-operator" style="box-sizing: border-box;">an</span> Activity  context requires <span class="hljs-operator" style="box-sizing: border-box;">the</span> FLAG_ACTIVITY_NEW_TASK 
flag. Is this really what you want?</code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238); top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right;"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li></ul>

意思就是当在Activity以外的环境启动一个新的Activity的时候需要给Intent添加一个FLAG_ACTIVITY_NEW_TASK标记,该标记的作用就是为当前需要启动的Activity创建一个新的task任务队列。

  • 除了Activity可以创建一个Dialog,其他都不可以创建Dialog。比如在Application中创建Dialog会报如下错误:
<code class="hljs livecodeserver has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; background-color: transparent; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-top-left-radius: 0px; border-top-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;">Caused <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">by</span>: java.lang.IllegalStateException: You need <span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">to</span> use <span class="hljs-operator" style="box-sizing: border-box;">a</span> Theme.AppCompat theme (<span class="hljs-operator" style="box-sizing: border-box;">or</span> descendant) <span class="hljs-operator" style="box-sizing: border-box;">with</span> this activity.</code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238); top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right;"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li></ul>

原因是因为在创建Dialog的时候会使用到Context对象去获取当前主题信息,但是我们知道Application和Service是继承自ContextWrapper,没有实现关于主题的功能,然而Activity是继承自ContextThemeWrapper,该类是实现了关于主题功能的,因此创建Dialog的时候必须依附于Activity的Context引用。

5.getApplication和getApplicationContext区别

很多人对getApplication方法和getApplicationContext感到疑惑,这两个方法返回值有什么不同?什么场合使用什么样的方法?这里我们从源码角度告诉大家:这两个方法返回值都是指向同一个Application对象,仅仅是返回类型和实现方法的地方不同而已。

5.1 getApplication

<code class="hljs java has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; background-color: transparent; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-top-left-radius: 0px; border-top-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-class" style="box-sizing: border-box;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">class</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">Activity</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">extends</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">ContextThemeWrapper</span>
        <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">implements</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">LayoutInflater</span>.<span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">Factory2</span>,
        <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">Window</span>.<span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">Callback</span>, <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">KeyEvent</span>.<span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">Callback</span>,
        <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">OnCreateContextMenuListener</span>, <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">ComponentCallbacks2</span>,
        <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">Window</span>.<span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">OnWindowDismissedCallback</span> {</span>
..............
<span class="hljs-javadoc" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">/** Return the application that owns this activity. */</span>
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">final</span> Application <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">getApplication</span>() {
        <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">return</span> mApplication;
    }
...........</code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238); top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right;"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">8</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">9</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">10</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">11</li></ul>

getApplication方法实现是在Activity类中,且返回值是当前应用的Application对象。该对象是在ActivityThread类创建Activity时传递下来的。具体可以参考3.4小节。

5.2 getApplicationContext

<code class="hljs java has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; background-color: transparent; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-top-left-radius: 0px; border-top-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-class" style="box-sizing: border-box;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">class</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">ContextWrapper</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">extends</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">Context</span> {</span>
.............
 <span class="hljs-annotation" style="color: rgb(155, 133, 157); box-sizing: border-box;">@Override</span>
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> Context <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">getApplicationContext</span>() {
        <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">return</span> mBase.getApplicationContext();
    }
.............
}</code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238); top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right;"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">8</li></ul>

getApplicationContext方法是在ContextWrapper类中实现,由于mBase变量指向的是ContextImpl对象,因此真正实现的地方是ContextImpl类中

<code class="hljs php has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; background-color: transparent; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-top-left-radius: 0px; border-top-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;"><span class="hljs-class" style="box-sizing: border-box;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">class</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">ContextImpl</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">extends</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">Context</span> {</span>
................
 @Override
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> Context getApplicationContext() {
        <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">return</span> (mPackageInfo != <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">null</span>) ?
                mPackageInfo.getApplication() : mMainThread.getApplication();
    }
..........
}</code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238); top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right;"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">8</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">9</li></ul>

该方法返回的是Context类型,且返回值也是调用mPackageInfo.getApplication()或者mMainThread.getApplication()。

<code class="hljs asciidoc has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; background-color: transparent; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-top-left-radius: 0px; border-top-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;">public final class LoadedApk {
<span class="hljs-code" style="box-sizing: border-box;">............
Application getApplication() {
        return mApplication;
    }
..........</span>
}</code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238); top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right;"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li></ul>

可以看出返回的是当前应用的Application对象,由于一个应用只有一份LoadedApk对象,此处返回的也是系统的唯一Application对象。

<code class="hljs lasso has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; background-color: transparent; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-top-left-radius: 0px; border-top-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> final class ActivityThread {
<span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">..</span>
<span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> Application getApplication() {
        <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">return</span> mInitialApplication;
    }
<span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-attribute" style="box-sizing: border-box;">...</span><span class="hljs-built_in" style="color: rgb(102, 0, 102); box-sizing: border-box;">.</span>
}</code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238); top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right;"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li></ul>

可以看出返回值也是当前应用的Application对象,由于一个应用只有一个主线程,此处返回的也是系统的唯一Application对象。

因此:getApplication和getApplicationContext方法返回的对象都是指向当前应用的Application对象,是同一个Application对象,仅仅是返回值类型不同而已。

查看源码会发现getApplication方法是在Activity,Service类中实现的;而getApplicationContext方法是在ContextWrapper类中实现的。也就是getApplication方法是在Context子类中实现的,而getApplicationContext是在父类中实现的,从而导致两个方法的使用范围是不一样的。你可以这么调用

<code class="hljs avrasm has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; background-color: transparent; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-top-left-radius: 0px; border-top-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;">context<span class="hljs-preprocessor" style="color: rgb(68, 68, 68); box-sizing: border-box;">.getApplicationContext</span>()<span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">; </span></code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238); top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right;"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li></ul>

但是却不可以这么调用

<code class="hljs avrasm has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; background-color: transparent; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-top-left-radius: 0px; border-top-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;">context<span class="hljs-preprocessor" style="color: rgb(68, 68, 68); box-sizing: border-box;">.getApplication</span>()<span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">;</span></code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238); top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right;"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li></ul>

因为getApplication方法是Context子类中实现的,所以你必须这样调用

<code class="hljs avrasm has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; background-color: transparent; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-top-left-radius: 0px; border-top-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;">((Activity)context)<span class="hljs-preprocessor" style="color: rgb(68, 68, 68); box-sizing: border-box;">.getApplication</span>()<span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">;</span></code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238); top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right;"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li></ul>

6.Context内存泄漏问题

在项目中,我们经常会遇到使用单例模式或者静态static变量,虽然使用静态类或者静态变量很方便,但是也潜在很多的内存泄漏问题。

6.1静态资源导致的内存泄漏

你可能遇到以下这段代码:

<code class="hljs cs has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; background-color: transparent; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-top-left-radius: 0px; border-top-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">class</span> MyCustomResource {
    <span class="hljs-comment" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">//静态变量drawable</span>
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">private</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">static</span> Drawable drawable;
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">private</span> View view;

    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">MyCustomResource</span>(Context context) {
        Resources resources = context.getResources();
        drawable = resources.getDrawable(R.drawable.ic_launcher);
        view = <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">new</span> View(context);
        view.setBackgroundDrawable(drawable);
    }
}</code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238); top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right;"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">8</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">9</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">10</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">11</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">12</li></ul>

请问,这段代码有什么问题?乍一看貌似没啥问题,挺好的啊!其实不然,主要的问题在于view.setBackgroundDrawable方法里面,我们知道静态变量在整个应用的内存里只保存一份,一旦创建就不会释放该变量的内存,直到整个应用都销毁才会释放static静态变量的内存。

<code class="hljs java has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; background-color: transparent; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-top-left-radius: 0px; border-top-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-class" style="box-sizing: border-box;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">class</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">View</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">implements</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">Drawable</span>.<span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">Callback</span>, <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">KeyEvent</span>.<span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">Callback</span>,
        <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box; color: rgb(102, 0, 102);">AccessibilityEventSource</span> {</span>
    ...........
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">void</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">setBackgroundDrawable</span>(Drawable background) {
         ..........
         <span class="hljs-javadoc" style="color: rgb(136, 0, 0); box-sizing: border-box;">/**此处的this就是当前View对象,而View对象又是有Context对象获得
         因此,变量background持有View对象的引用,View持有Context的引用,
         所有background间接持有Context对象的引用了*/</span>
         background.setCallback(<span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">this</span>);
         .......
    }
    ..........
}</code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238); top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right;"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">8</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">9</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">10</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">11</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">12</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">13</li></ul>

setBackgroundDrawable方法内部调用了background.setCallback(this)回调方法,而该参数this就是View的对象,由于background是一个静态变量,会一直持有View对象的引用,而然View对象又是由Context对象创建出来的,因此background会间接持有Context的对象的引用,也就意味着如果该Context对应的Activity退出finish掉的时候其实该Activity是不能完全释放内存的,因为静态变量drawable持有该Activity的Context对象的间接引用。从而导致该Activity内存无法回收,导致内存泄漏隐患。因为Activity就是Context,所有Context的生命周期和Activity是一样长的,我们希望Activity退出时Context也释放内存,这样才不会导致内存泄漏隐患。那么以上这段代码是不安全的。值得注意的是:以上代码是由于静态资源drawable持有View对象的引用导致内存泄漏隐患的,并不是由于context.getResource导致内存泄漏,因此如果你想通过context.getApplicaitonContext来获取getResource是解决不了内存泄漏的。因此,Android系统在在3.0版本之后修改了setBackgroundDrawable内部方法中的 background.setCallback(this);方法,里面的实现使用了弱引用来持有View对象的引用,从而避免了内存泄漏隐患。所以,以后代码中避免使用静态资源,或者使用弱引用来解决相应的问题也是可以的。

6.2 单例模式导致内存泄漏

相信单例模式对开发者很有诱惑力吧!或多或少在项目中都有用过单例模式。你也可能见过一下这段代码:

<code class="hljs cs has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; background-color: transparent; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-top-left-radius: 0px; border-top-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">class</span> CustomManager {
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">private</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">static</span> CustomManager sInstance;
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">static</span> CustomManager <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">getInstance</span>(Context context) {
        <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">if</span> (sInstance == <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">null</span>) {
            sInstance = <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">new</span> CustomManager(context);
        }
        <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">return</span> sInstance;
    }

    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">private</span> Context mContext;
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">private</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">CustomManager</span>(Context context) {
        mContext = context;
    }
}</code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238); top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right;"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">8</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">9</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">10</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">11</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">12</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">13</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">14</li></ul>

同样,以上代码也存在内存泄漏的隐患。因为单例模式使用的是静态类的方式,让该对象在整个应用的内存中保持一份该对象,从而减少对多次创建对象带来的资源浪费。同样的问题:在创建该单例的时候使用了生命周期端的Context对象的引用,如果你是在Application中创建以上单例的话是木有任何问题的。因为Application的Context生命周期是整个应用,和单例的生命周期一样,因此不会导致内存泄漏。但是,如果你是在Activity中创建以上单例的话,就会导致和6.1小节一样的问题—内存泄漏。所以我们同样可以将代码修改成如下:

<code class="hljs cs has-numbering" style="display: block; padding: 0px; background-color: transparent; color: inherit; box-sizing: border-box; font-family: 'Source Code Pro', monospace;font-size:undefined; white-space: pre; border-top-left-radius: 0px; border-top-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-right-radius: 0px; border-bottom-left-radius: 0px; word-wrap: normal; background-position: initial initial; background-repeat: initial initial;"><span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">class</span> CustomManager {
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">private</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">static</span> CustomManager sInstance;
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">public</span> <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">static</span> CustomManager <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">getInstance</span>(Context context) {
        <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">if</span> (sInstance == <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">null</span>) {
            sInstance = <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">new</span> CustomManager(context.getApplicationContext());
        }
        <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">return</span> sInstance;
    }

    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">private</span> Context mContext;
    <span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(0, 0, 136); box-sizing: border-box;">private</span> <span class="hljs-title" style="box-sizing: border-box;">CustomManager</span>(Context context) {
        mContext = context;
    }
}</code><ul class="pre-numbering" style="box-sizing: border-box; position: absolute; width: 50px; background-color: rgb(238, 238, 238); top: 0px; left: 0px; margin: 0px; padding: 6px 0px 40px; border-right-width: 1px; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: rgb(221, 221, 221); list-style: none; text-align: right;"><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">1</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">2</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">3</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">4</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">5</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">6</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">7</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">8</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">9</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">10</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">11</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">12</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">13</li><li style="box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0px 5px;">14</li></ul>

6.3 总结

以后在使用Context对象获取静态资源,创建单例对象或者静态方法的时候,请多考虑Context的生命周期,一定要记得不要使用Activity的Context,切记要使用生命周期长的Application的Context对象。但是并不是所有情况使用Application的Context对象,比如第4小节,在创建Dialog,View控件的时候都必须使用Activity的Context对象。


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