# So Easy!

Time Limit: 2000/1000 MS (Java/Others)    Memory Limit: 32768/32768 K (Java/Others)
Total Submission(s): 3517    Accepted Submission(s): 1136

Problem Description
A sequence Sn is defined as:

Where a, b, n, m are positive integers.┌x┐is the ceil of x. For example, ┌3.14┐=4. You are to calculate Sn.
You, a top coder, say: So easy!

Input
There are several test cases, each test case in one line contains four positive integers: a, b, n, m. Where 0< a, m < 215, (a-1)2< b < a2, 0 < b, n < 231.The input will finish with the end of file.

Output
For each the case, output an integer Sn.

Sample Input
2 3 1 2013
2 3 2 2013
2 2 1 2013

Sample Output
4
14
4

#include<bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
long long a,b,n,m;
struct mat {
long long a[2][2];
};
mat mul(mat x,mat y) {
mat tt;
for(int i=0;i<=1;i++)
for(int j=0;j<=1;j++) {
tt.a[i][j]=0;
for(int k=0;k<=1;k++)
tt.a[i][j]+=x.a[i][k]*y.a[k][j];
tt.a[i][j]%=m;
}
return tt;
}
int main()
{
while(scanf("%I64d%I64d%I64d%I64d",&a,&b,&n,&m)!=EOF) {
long long f0=2;long long f1=2*a;
if(n==0) {
printf("%lld\n",f0);
continue;
}
if(n==1) {
printf("%lld\n",f1);
continue;
}
mat base,ans;
ans.a[0][0]=ans.a[1][1]=1;
ans.a[1][0]=ans.a[0][1]=0;
base.a[0][0]=((2*a)%m+m)%m;
base.a[0][1]=((b-a*a)%m+m)%m;
base.a[1][0]=1;
base.a[1][1]=0;
long long x=n-1;
// cout << x << endl;
while(x) {
if(x&1) {
ans=mul(ans,base);
}
base=mul(base,base);
x/=2;
}
long long tot=(ans.a[0][0]*f1+ans.a[0][1]*f0)%m;
printf("%lld\n",tot);
}
return 0;
}

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