使用NSProxy实现消息转发机制,模拟多重继承

转载 2016年06月02日 09:59:10

使用NSProxy实现消息转发机制,模拟多重继承


Objective-C不支持多重继承,但是我们可以使用NSProxy的消息转发机制,来转发可由其它类的对象处理的任务,达成同样的目的。

Xcode的Documentation中有示例(搜索ForwardInvocation,在Sample Code类别中),如下:

/*
     File: main.m
 Abstract: This example shows how to do Objective C message forwarding in Foundation.
  Version: 1.0
 
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 Inc. ("Apple") in consideration of your agreement to the following
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 not agree with these terms, please do not use, install, modify or
 redistribute this Apple software.
 
 In consideration of your agreement to abide by the following terms, and
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 license, under Apple's copyrights in this original Apple software (the
 "Apple Software"), to use, reproduce, modify and redistribute the Apple
 Software, with or without modifications, in source and/or binary forms;
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 without modifications, you must retain this notice and the following
 text and disclaimers in all such redistributions of the Apple Software.
 Neither the name, trademarks, service marks or logos of Apple Inc. may
 be used to endorse or promote products derived from the Apple Software
 without specific prior written permission from Apple.  Except as
 expressly stated in this notice, no other rights or licenses, express or
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 patent rights that may be infringed by your derivative works or by other
 works in which the Apple Software may be incorporated.
 
 The Apple Software is provided by Apple on an "AS IS" basis.  APPLE
 MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION
 THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF NON-INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS
 FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, REGARDING THE APPLE SOFTWARE OR ITS USE AND
 OPERATION ALONE OR IN COMBINATION WITH YOUR PRODUCTS.
 
 IN NO EVENT SHALL APPLE BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL
 OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF
 SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
 INTERRUPTION) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE, REPRODUCTION,
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 AND WHETHER UNDER THEORY OF CONTRACT, TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE),
 STRICT LIABILITY OR OTHERWISE, EVEN IF APPLE HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
 POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
 
 Copyright (C) 2009 Apple Inc. All Rights Reserved.
 
 */
 
#import <Foundation/Foundation.h>
#include <stdio.h>
 
 
@interface TargetProxy : NSProxy {
    id realObject1;
    id realObject2;
}
 
- (id)initWithTarget1:(id)t1 target2:(id)t2;
 
@end
 
int main(int argc, const char *argv[]) {
    NSAutoreleasePool *pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init];
    
    // Create an empty mutable string, which will be one of the
    // real objects for the proxy.
    NSMutableString *string = [[NSMutableString alloc] init];
 
    // Create an empty mutable array, which will be the other
    // real object for the proxy.
    NSMutableArray *array = [[NSMutableArray alloc] init];
 
    // Create a proxy to wrap the real objects.  This is rather
    // artificial for the purposes of this example -- you'd rarely
    // have a single proxy covering two objects.  But it is possible.
    id proxy = [[TargetProxy alloc] initWithTarget1:string target2:array];
 
    // Note that we can't use appendFormat:, because vararg methods
    // cannot be forwarded!
    [proxy appendString:@"This "];
    [proxy appendString:@"is "];
    [proxy addObject:string];
    [proxy appendString:@"a "];
    [proxy appendString:@"test!"];
 
    NSLog(@"count should be 1, it is: %d", [proxy count]);
    
    if ([[proxy objectAtIndex:0] isEqualToString:@"This is a test!"]) {
        NSLog(@"Appending successful.", proxy);
    } else {
        NSLog(@"Appending failed, got: '%@'", proxy);
    }
 
    NSLog(@"Example finished without errors.");
    [pool release];
    return 0;
}
 
 
@implementation TargetProxy
 
- (id)initWithTarget1:(id)t1 target2:(id)t2 {
    realObject1 = [t1 retain];
    realObject2 = [t2 retain];
    return self;
}
 
- (void)dealloc {
    [realObject1 release];
    [realObject2 release];
    [super dealloc];
}
 
// The compiler knows the types at the call site but unfortunately doesn't
// leave them around for us to use, so we must poke around and find the types
// so that the invocation can be initialized from the stack frame.
 
// Here, we ask the two real objects, realObject1 first, for their method
// signatures, since we'll be forwarding the message to one or the other
// of them in -forwardInvocation:.  If realObject1 returns a non-nil
// method signature, we use that, so in effect it has priority.
- (NSMethodSignature *)methodSignatureForSelector:(SEL)aSelector {
    NSMethodSignature *sig;
    sig = [realObject1 methodSignatureForSelector:aSelector];
    if (sig) return sig;
    sig = [realObject2 methodSignatureForSelector:aSelector];
    return sig;
}
 
// Invoke the invocation on whichever real object had a signature for it.
- (void)forwardInvocation:(NSInvocation *)invocation {
    id target = [realObject1 methodSignatureForSelector:[invocation selector]] ? realObject1 : realObject2;
    [invocation invokeWithTarget:target];
}
 
// Override some of NSProxy's implementations to forward them...
- (BOOL)respondsToSelector:(SEL)aSelector {
    if ([realObject1 respondsToSelector:aSelector]) return YES;
    if ([realObject2 respondsToSelector:aSelector]) return YES;
    return NO;
}
 
@end


使用NSProxy实现代理模式


// MyProxy.h

#import<Foundation/Foundation.h>


@interface MyProxy :NSProxy {

    NSObject *object;

}


- (id)transformToObject:(NSObject *)anObject;


@end


// MyProxy.m

#import"MyProxy.h"


@implementation MyProxy


- (void)dealloc

{

    [objectrelease];

    object = nil;

    [superdealloc];

}


- (void)fun

{

   // Do someting virtual

    //先做一些代理工作,然后创建一个后台线程,在后台线程中再调用真正的[object fun];

}


// Stupid transform implementation just by assigning a passed in object as transformation target. You can write your factory here and use passed in object as id for object that need ot be created.

- (id)transformToObject:(NSObject *)anObject 

{

    if(object != anObject) {

        [objectrelease];

    }

    object = [anObject retain];

    return object;

}


- (void)forwardInvocation:(NSInvocation *)invocation 

{

    if (object != nil) {

        [invocation setTarget:object];    

        

        [invocation invoke];

    }

}


- (NSMethodSignature *)methodSignatureForSelector:(SEL)sel 

{

   NSMethodSignature *result;

    if (object != nil) {

        result = [objectmethodSignatureForSelector:sel];

    } else {

       // Will throw an exception as default implementation

        result = [supermethodSignatureForSelector:sel];

    }

    return result;

}


@end


// RealSubject.h

#import<Foundation/Foundation.h>

@implementation RealSubject : NSObject


- (void)fun;


@end


// RealSubject.m

#import"RealSubject.h"


@implementation RealSubject


- (void)fun

{

    //这个方法需要代理进行惰性调用

   // Do something real

}


- (void)otherFun

{

    //这个方法不需要代理做任何处理,可直接被调用

   // Do something real

}


@end


// main.m

int main(int argc,char *argv[]) 

{

   NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePoolalloc]init];


    MyProxy *myProxy = [MyProxy alloc];

    RealSubject *realSub = [[RealSubject alloc] init];

    [myProxytransformToObject:realSub];

    [myProxyfun];// 直接调用myProxyfun执行代理工作

    [myProxyotherFun];// 依次调用myProxymethodSignatureForSelectorforwardInvocation转发给realSubrealSub调用otherFun


    [realSubject release];

    [myProxyrelease];


    [pool release];

    return 0;

}



注意,调用MyProxy中未定义的方法otherFun会出现'MyProxy' may not respond to 'fun'的警告,可通过使用私有范畴或通过performSelector:withObject:来避免,如果有更好的方法,请告知。



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