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some sentenses from The c++ programming language chapter9

标签: c++iostreamvariablescompilationtranslationreturning
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Where the unit of compilation is a file, all of a file must be recompiled
whenever a change (however small) has been made to it or to something on which it depends.

The keyword extern indicates
that the declaration of x in file2.c is (just) a declaration and not a definition (§4.9). Had x
been initialized, extern would simply be ignored because a declaration with an initializer is always
a definition.

Note that a
variable defined without an initializer in the global or a namespace scope is initialized by default.
This is not the case for local variables (§4.9.5, §10.4.2) or objects created on the free store

An inline function (§7.1.1, §10.2.9) must be defined – by identical definitions (§9.2.3) – in
every translation unit in which it is used.

By default, consts (§5.4) and typedefs (§4.9.7) have internal linkage.
A const can be given external linkage by an explicit declaration.

An unnamed namespace (§8.2.5) can be used to make names local to a compilation unit.

#include <iostream> / / from standard include directory
#include "myheader.h" / / from current directory
Unfortunately, spaces are significant within the< > or" " of an include directive:
#include < iostream > / / will not find <iostream>

A given class, enumeration, and template, etc., must be defined exactly once in a program.
#ifndef CALC_  ERROR_  H
#define CALC_  ERROR_  H
namespace Error {
/ / ...
}
#endif / / CALC_ERROR_H

a variable defined outside any function (that is, global, namespace, and class static
variables) is initialized before main() is invoked.

There is no guaranteed order of initialization of global variables in different translation units.

it is not possible to catch an exception thrown by the initializer
of a global variable

Often, a function returning a reference is a good alternative to a global variable.

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