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Oracle_spatial的主要函数

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原文地址:http://www.cnblogs.com/lanzi/archive/2010/12/28/1918803.html

一、sdo_Geom包的函数:

用于表示两个几何对象的关系(结果为True/False)的函数:

RELATE,WITHIN_DISTANCE

验证的函数:

VALIDATE_GEOMETRY_WITH_CONTEXT,VALIDATE_LAYER_WITH_CONTEXT

单个对象操作的函数:

SDO_ARC_DENSIFY,SDO_AREA,SDO_BUFFER,SDO_CENTROID,SDO_CONVEXHULL,

SDO_LENGTH,SDO_MAX_MBR_ORDINATE,SDO_MIN_MBR_ORDINATE,SDO_MBR,SDO_POINTONSURFACE

需两个对象操作操作的函数:

SDO_DISTANCE,SDO_DIFFERENCE,SDO_INTERSECTION,SDO_UNION,SDO_XOR

1、sdo_Geom.Relate

sdo_Geom.Relate(sdo_Geometry1, ‘MASK’, sod_Geometry2, tolerance )

用于判断一个几何体与另一个几何体的关系,我们用于判断当前点是否在某一个面(省份面、县市面、乡镇面)上。 

  参数说明: 
    sdo_Geometry1,sdo_Geometry2为空间数据对应的几何对象。 
    Tolerance: 容许的精度范围; 
      MASK参数: 
    Anyinteract: sdo_Geometry2落在sdo_Geometry1面上包括在边上。 
    Contains: sdo_Geometry2完全包含在sdo_Geometry1几何对象中,并且两个几何对象的边没有交叉。 
    Coveredby: sdo_Geometry1完全包含在sdo_Geometry2中,并且这两个几何对象的边有一个或多个点相互重叠。 
    Covers: sdo_Geometry2完全包含在sdo_Geometry1中,并且这两个几何对象的边有一个或多个点相互重叠。 
    Disjoint: 两个几何没有重叠交叉点,也没有共同的边。 
    Equal: 两个几何是相等的。 
    Inside: sdo_Geometry1完全包含在sdo_Geometry2几何对象中,并且两个几何对象的边没有交叉。 
    On: sdo_Geometry1的边和内部的线完全在sdo_Geometry2上。 
    Overlapbdydisjoint: 两个几何对象交迭,但是边没有交叉。 
    Overlapbdyintersect: 两个几何对象交迭,并且边有部分交叉。 
    Touch: 两个几何对象有共同的边,但没有交叉。
 

SELECT ct.gwm_fid, ct.name
FROM i_exch_s ct, sales_regions comp
WHERE SDO_GEOM.RELATE(ct.gwm_geometry, 'INSIDE', comp.geom, 0.5) = 'INSIDE'
<span style="white-space:pre">	</span>AND comp.gwm_fid = 50076218
ORDER BY ct.gwm_fid;
 
SELECT ct.gwm_fid, ct.name
FROM i_exch_s ct, sales_regions comp
WHERE SDO_GEOM.RELATE(ct.gwm_geometry, 'ANYINTERACT', comp.geom, 0.5) = 'INSIDE'
    AND comp.gwm_fid = 50076218
ORDER BY ct.gwm_fid;
 
--RELATE函数补充SDO_RELATE操作符
SELECT sra.gwm_fid, SDO_GEOM.RELATE(sra.geom, 'DETERMINE', srb.geom, 0.5) relationship
FROM sales_regions srb, sales_regions sra
WHERE srb.gwm_fid = 50076218
    AND sra.gwm_fid <> 50076218
    AND SDO_RELATE(sra.geom, srb.geom,
        'mask=TOUCH+OVERLAPBDYDISJOINT+OVERLAPBDYINTERSECT') = 'TRUE'
 ORDER BY sra.gwm_fid;

2、SDO_GEOM. WITHIN_DISTANCE
SDO_GEOM.WITHIN_DISTANCE(
geom1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY,
dim1 IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY,
dist IN NUMBER,
geom2 IN SDO_GEOMETRY,
dim2 IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY
[, units IN VARCHAR2]
) RETURN VARCHAR2;
or
SDO_GEOM.WITHIN_DISTANCE(
geom1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY,
dist IN NUMBER,
geom2 IN SDO_GEOMETRY,
tol IN NUMBER
[, units IN VARCHAR2]
) RETURN VARCHAR2; 


  参数说明: 
    sdo_Geometry1,sdo_Geometry2为空间数据对应的几何对象。 
    Tolerance: 容许的精度范围; 
    Dist: 指定的距离; 
    Unit: 用于表示距离的单位,可能是Unit=M/ Unit=KM等长度单位,但必须是SDO_DIST_UNITS表中列举出来的单位之一。
 
SELECT SDO_GEOM.WITHIN_DISTANCE(c_b.shape,
                                m.diminfo,
                                1,
                                c_d.shape,
                                m.diminfo)
 FROM cola_markets c_b, cola_markets c_d, user_sdo_geom_metadata m
 WHERE m.table_name = 'COLA_MARKETS'
   AND m.column_name = 'SHAPE'
   AND c_b.name = 'cola_b'
   AND c_d.name = 'cola_d';
 
SELECT sdo_geom.within_distance(c.shape,50,d.shape,'0.5')
 FROM cola_markets c,cola_markets d
 WHERE c.name = 'cola_d' and d.name='cola_c';
3、sdo_Geom.SDO_BUFFER
 SDO_BUFFER   
(  
geometry            IN SDO_GEOMETRY,  
 distance            IN NUMBER,  
 tolerance       IN NUMBER  
[, params       IN VARCHAR2]  
 )  
 RETURNS an SDO_GEOMETRY
其中
geometry是一个参数,表示将被缓冲的SDO_GEOMETRY对象。
distance是一个参数,表示缓冲输入的几何体的数值距离。
tolerance是一个参数,表示容差。
params是一个可选的第四个参数,表示两个参数:unit=<value_string>和arc_ tolerance=<value_number>。
unit=<value_string>参数表示距离的单位。你可以通过查阅MDSYS.SDO_DIST_UNITS表来获得单位的可能取值。
如果几何体是大地测量的(也就是说,如果几何体的SDO_SRID被赋值为大地测量SRID,如8307或者8625),那么 arc_tolerance=<value_number>参数就是必须的。在大地测量的空间里,弧度是不允许的。然而,它们可以近似地用线 表示。弧线的容差参数表示弧线与它的近似线的最大距离。
注:弧线容差通常要大于几何体的容差。
在大地测量数据中,容差是以米为单位来指定的。而arc_tolerance总是使用parameter_string中指定的单位。
例子:
--创建表
CREATE TABLE sales_regions AS 
SELECT gwm_fid,
       SDO_GEOM.SDO_BUFFER(b.gwm_geometry,
                            0.25,
                            0.5,
                            'arc_tolerance=0.005') geom
 FROM i_exch_s b where rownum<10;
由于i_exch_s表中的srid为null,所以arc_tolerance不能指定单位
 
--插元数据
INSERT INTO user_sdo_geom_metadata
 SELECT 'SALES_REGIONS', 'GEOM', diminfo, srid
    FROM user_sdo_geom_metadata
   WHERE table_name = 'I_EXCH_S'
--建空间索引
 CREATE INDEX sr_sidx ON sales_regions(geom) INDEXTYPE IS mdsys.spatial_index;
 
4、sdo_Geom.SDO_DISTANCE
SDO_DISTANCE函数的语法如下:
SDO_DISTANCE  
(  
geometry1       IN SDO_GEOMETRY,  
geometry2       IN SDO_GEOMETRY,  
tolerance       IN NUMBER  
[, params       IN VARCHAR2]  
)  
RETURNS a NUMBER 
其中
geometry1和geometry2是起始的两个参数,它们表示SDO_GEOMETRY对象。
tolerance表示数据集的容差。对于大地测量的数据,它们通常是0.5或者0.1(0.5米或者是0.1米)。对于非大地测量的数据,它将被设置为合适的值,来避免四舍五入引起的错误。
params是可选的第四个参数,是形如'unit=<value_string>'的字符串。这个参数指定了返回距离的单位。可以通过查看MDSYS.SDO_DIST_UNITS表获得可能的单位值。
-- Return the distance between two geometries.
SELECT SDO_GEOM.SDO_DISTANCE(c_b.shape, c_d.shape, 0.005)
 FROM cola_markets c_b, cola_markets c_d
 WHERE c_b.name = 'cola_b'
   AND c_d.name = 'cola_d';
 
SELECT ct.gwm_fid, ct.name
   FROM i_exch_s comp, l_interest_s ct
 WHERE comp.gwm_fid = 52065726
    AND SDO_GEOM.SDO_DISTANCE(ct.gwm_geometry, comp.gwm_geometry, 0.5 /*',unit=mile'*/) < 50
 ORDER BY ct.gwm_fid;
 
在SQL中使用带有SDO_WITHIN_DISTANCE空间操作符的SDO_DISTANCE函数
SELECT ct.gwm_fid,
       ct.name,
       SDO_GEOM.SDO_DISTANCE(ct.gwm_geometry,
                             comp.gwm_geometry,
                             0.5 /*,'unit=yard'*/) distance
 FROM i_exch_s comp, l_interest_s ct
 WHERE comp.gwm_fid = 52065726
   AND SDO_WITHIN_DISTANCE(ct.gwm_geometry,
                           comp.gwm_geometry,
                           'distance=50') = 'TRUE'
 ORDER BY ct.gwm_fid;
对于三维的大地测量几何体,计算的距离通常是二维的距离
 
 
5、几何组合函数(sdo_Geom.)
A SDO_INTERSECTION B:返回A和B共有的区域。
A SDO_UNION B:返回A和B覆盖的区域的并。
A SDO_DIFFERENCE B:返回被A覆盖的但是不被B覆盖的区域。
A SDO_XOR B:返回A和B不相交的区域。这个函数与(A SDO_UNION B) SDO_DIFFERENCE (A SDO_INTERSECTION B)是等同的。
每一个函数都有如下语法:
SDO_<set_theory_fn> 
(  
Geometry_A      IN SDO_GEOMETRY,  
Geometry_B      IN SDO_GEOMETRY,  
Tolerance           IN NUMBER  
)  
RETURNS SDO_GEOMETRY 
 
Geometry_A 和Geometry_B是SDO_GEOMETRY对象(拥有相同的SRID)。
Tolerance是几何对象的容差值
注:
在Oracle 11g中,几何函数只适用于二维几何体。你不能对两个三维对象进行并操作
 
5.1 SDO_INTERSECTION
CREATE TABLE sales_intersection_zones AS
SELECT sra.gwm_fid id1,
       srb.gwm_fid id2,
       SDO_GEOM.SDO_INTERSECTION(sra.geom, srb.geom, 0.5) intsxn_geom
 FROM sales_regions srb, sales_regions sra
 WHERE sra.gwm_fid <> srb.gwm_fid
   AND SDO_RELATE(sra.geom, srb.geom, 'mask=anyinteract') = 'TRUE';
5.2 SDO_UNION
SELECT count(*)
 FROM (SELECT SDO_GEOM.SDO_UNION(sra.geom, srb.geom, 0.5) geom
          FROM sales_regions srb, sales_regions sra
         WHERE sra.gwm_fid = 50076211
           and srb.gwm_fid = 50076218) srb,
       i_exch_s sra
 WHERE SDO_RELATE(sra.gwm_geometry, srb.geom, 'mask=anyinteract') = 'TRUE';
 
CREATE TABLE sales_region_coverage (coverage SDO_GEOMETRY); 
DECLARE
 coverage SDO_GEOMETRY := NULL; 
BEGIN
 FOR g IN (SELECT geom FROM sales_regions) LOOP 
 coverage := SDO_GEOM.SDO_UNION(coverage, g.geom, 0.5); 
 END LOOP; 
 INSERT INTO sales_region_coverage values (coverage); 
 COMMIT; 
END; 
 
5.3 SDO_DIFFERENCE
SDO_DIFFERENCE函数是从第一个几何体中减去第二个几何体。结果,它返回的是只属于第一个几何体的区域。注意,它只有在以下情况下才有意义:
第一个和第二个几何体都必须有区域(也就是说,区域为多边形,多重多边形等)。
第二个几何体是一个多边形或者一条线并且第一个几何体是一条线。
第一个几何体是一个点。
如果这些条件不满足,SDO_DIFFERENCE操作的结果是返回第一个几何体。
 
--竞争对手区域2和销售区域6的SDO_DIFFERENCE操作
CREATE TABLE exclusive_region_for_comp_2 AS
SELECT SDO_GEOM.SDO_DIFFERENCE(b.geom, a.geom, 0.5) geom
 FROM sales_regions sr, competitors_sales_regions csr
 WHERE csr.id = 2
   and sr.id = 6;
 
--在竞争对手的独属区域内确定客户
SELECT ct.id, ct.name
 FROM exclusive_region_for_comp_2 excl, customers ct
 WHERE SDO_RELATE(ct.location, excl.geom, 'mask=anyinteract') = 'TRUE'
 ORDER BY ct.id;
--将以上两个合并为一个
SELECT ct.id, ct.name
 FROM sales_regions sr, competitors_sales_regions csr, customers ct
 WHERE csr.id = 2
   AND sr.id = 6
   AND SDO_RELATE(ct.location,
                  SDO_GEOM.SDO_DIFFERENCE(csr.geom, sr.geom, 0.5),
                  'mask=anyinteract') = 'TRUE'
 ORDER BY ct.id;
 
5.4 SDO_XOR
--不被共享的客户
SELECT count(*)
 FROM (SELECT SDO_GEOM.SDO_XOR(a.geom, b.geom, 0.5) geom
          FROM sales_regions srb, sales_regions sra
         WHERE sra.id = 51
           and srb.id = 43) srb,
       customers sra
 WHERE SDO_RELATE(sra.location, srb.geom, 'mask=anyinteract') = 'TRUE';
 
6、几何分析函数(sdo_Geom.)
二维的或者三维的几何体上使用这些函数。这些函数有如下的PL/SQL通用语法
Function_name  
(  
Geometry                                IN SDO_GEOMETRY,  
tolerance                           IN NUMBER  
[, units_params IN VARCHAR2]  
)  
RETURN  NUMBER 
其中
Geometry表示将被分析的几何体。
Tolerance表示在这个分析中的容差。
units_params是可选的第三个参数,表示返回的面积、长度和体积的单位。这个参数的 形式是'unit=<value_string>'。可以查看MDSYS.SDO_DIST_UNITS表的length函数和MDSYS.SDO_AREA_UNITS表的面积函数获得这些单位的可能取值
 
6.1 SDO_AREA
select name,sdo_geom.sdo_area(a.gwm_geometry,0.05) from p_region_area a;
 
6.2 SDO_LENGTH
此函数返回一条线的长度和多边形、平面和立方体的周长。对于点,这个函数返回0。
select name,sdo_geom.sdo_length(a.gwm_geometry,0.05) from p_region_area a;
 
6.3 SDO_VOLUME
如果输入的几何体是三维的立方体或者是多重立方体,那么这个函数将一个几何体和一个容差值作为参数并且返回体积。对所有其他的几何体类型,这个函数返回0。
 
7、MBR(最小边界矩形) 函数 sdo_Geom.
7.1 SDO_MBR
SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBR(
geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY
[, dim IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY]
) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
 
l         SDO_MBR函数把SDO_GEOMETRY作为一个参数并且计算这个几何体的MBR。它返回的是一个SDO_GEOMETRY对象。
l         如果输入的是一个点,那么SDO_MBR函数返回的是一个点几何体。
l         如果输入的是一条平行于X或Y轴的线串,那么函数返回一个线性几何体。
否则,函数返回输入几何体的MBR,将它作为一个SDO_GEOMETRY对象。
l         对于一个输入的三维对象,SDO_MBR函数返回一个范围,也就是说,返回这个三
维几何体在三个维度上的最小值和最大值。
-- Return the minimum bounding rectangle of cola_d (a circle).
SELECT SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBR(c.shape, m.diminfo)
 FROM cola_markets c, user_sdo_geom_metadata m
 WHERE m.table_name = 'COLA_MARKETS'
   AND m.column_name = 'SHAPE'
   AND c.name = 'cola_d';
 
注:
SDO_AGGR_UNION, SDO_AGGR_CENTROID和SDO_CONVEXHULL这些函数只能在二维几何体上使用。
7.2SDO_MIN_MBR_ORDINATE与 SDO_MAX_MBR_ORDINATE
除了获得两个维数上的范围,有时你可能对获得指定的维数上的范围感兴趣。你可以通过SDO_MIN_MBR_ORDINATE和SDO_MAX_MBR_ORDINATE函数来获得指定的维数上的范围,这两个函数返回指定维数上几何体的最小和最大坐标值。
也可以在三维对象上使用这些函数。
SELECT SDO_GEOM.SDO_MIN_MBR_ORDINATE(sr.geom, 1) min_extent,
       SDO_GEOM.SDO_MAX_MBR_ORDINATE(sr.geom, 1) max_extent
 FROM sales_regions sr;
 
SELECT SDO_GEOM.SDO_MIN_MBR_ORDINATE(sr.geom, 3) min_extent,
       SDO_GEOM.SDO_MAX_MBR_ORDINATE(sr.geom, 3) max_extent
 FROM sales_regions sr;
8、各种几何分析函数 sdo_Geom.
<Function_name>  
(  
Geometry            IN SDO_GEOMETRY,  
Tolerance       IN NUMBER  
)  
RETURENS SDO_GEOMETRY 
 
8.1 SDO_CONVEXHULL
--该函数可用于简化面的顶点(与原来的面仍保持近似)
select name,sdo_geom.sdo_convexhull(a.gwm_geometry,0.5) from p_region_area a;
 
在Oracle 11g中,SDO_CONVEXHULL函数只适用于二维的几何体
8.2 SDO_CENTROID
在Oracle 11g中,SDO_CENTROID函数只适用于二维的几何体
点返回的仍是一个点,线返回的是空值,面返回的是该面的质心。
8.3 SDO_POINTONSURFACE
既然一个多边形的质心有可能在也有可能不在这个多边形内,那么在几何体表面的其他点放置一个标签也可能是有用的。在创建多边形地图的一些类型时,这个也是必要的。你可以通过使用SDO_POINTONSURFACE函数来得到这样的点。
也可以在三维的几何体上使用这个函数。
SDO_POINTONSURFACE函数的唯一保证是返回的点在穿过的多边形的边界上或者内部(在目前的实现中,它实际返回的是多边形几何体的SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY中的第一个点)。
SDO_GEOM.SDO_POINTONSURFACE(
geom1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY,
dim1 IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY
) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
or
SDO_GEOM.SDO_POINTONSURFACE(
geom1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY,
tol IN NUMBER
) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
9、聚合函数   非免费 sdo_Geom.
SDO_AGGR_MBR 可用于三维几何体;SDO_AGGR_UNION、SDO_AGGR_CENTROID和SDO_CONVEXHULL函数只适用于二维的几何体
9.1 聚合MBR函数(SDO_AGGR_MBR)
假设你想找到SDO_GEOMETRY对象集覆盖的范围(通常,在创建索引之前,需要使用这个信息来填充USER_SDO_GEOM_METADATA视图)
 
9.2 SDO_AGGR_UNION
聚合函数SDO_AGGR_UNION计算几何体集合的并。并以SDO_GEOMETRY对象返回。
9.3 SDO_AGGR_CONVEXHULL
如果所有输入的几何体的所有顶点是共线的或者如果只有一个顶点(一个点),那么SDO_AGGR_CONVEXHULL返回空值
9.4 SDO_AGGR_CENTROID
SDO_AGGR_CENTROID函数允许你计算客户任意组合的质心
10、SDO_GEOM.SDO_ARC_DENSIFY
SDO_GEOM.SDO_ARC_DENSIFY(
geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY,
dim IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY
params IN VARCHAR2
) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
or
SDO_GEOM.SDO_ARC_DENSIFY(
geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY,
tol IN NUMBER
params IN VARCHAR2
) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
 
-- Arc densification of the circle cola_d
SELECT c.name,
       SDO_GEOM.SDO_ARC_DENSIFY(c.shape, m.diminfo, 'arc_tolerance=0.05')
 FROM cola_markets c, user_sdo_geom_metadata m
 WHERE m.table_name = 'COLA_MARKETS'
   AND m.column_name = 'SHAPE'
   AND c.name = 'cola_d';
10、验证函数(sdo_Geom.)
10.1 VALIDATE_GEOMETRY_WITH_CONTEXT
SDO_GEOM.VALIDATE_GEOMETRY_WITH_CONTEXT(
Geometry IN SDO_GEOMETRY,
DimInfo IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY --该参数指定了维度(范围)和容差值的信息
) RETURN VARCHAR2;
or
SDO_GEOM.VALIDATE_GEOMETRY_WITH_CONTEXT(
Geometry IN SDO_GEOMETRY,
tolerance IN NUMBER
) RETURN VARCHAR2;
10.2 VALIDATE_LAYER_WITH_CONTEXT
SDO_GEOM.VALIDATE_LAYER_WITH_CONTEXT(
geom_table IN VARCHAR2, --验证的表
geom_column IN VARCHAR2, --验证的列
result_table IN VARCHAR2   --验证结果存放的表
[, commit_interval IN NUMBER]); --验证结果每隔多少个提交一次
 
二sdo_util包的函数
1、sdo_util.remove_duplicate_vertices
删除重复的顶点
SDO_UTIL.REMOVE_DUPLICATE_VERTICES
geometry IN SDO_GEOMETRY,
tolerance IN NUMBER
) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
2、sdo_util.extract(只能提取二维)
SDO_UTIL.EXTRACT(
geometry IN SDO_GEOMETRY, --提取的对象
element IN NUMBER        --提取哪个元素
[, ring IN NUMBER]         --环号,可选
) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
3、sdo_util.append
    在给定的容差值内,这个函数将两个输入的几何体合成为单个几何体。
SDO_UTIL.APPEND(
geom1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY,
geom2 IN SDO_GEOMETRY
) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY
4、sdo_util.GetNumElem
获取元素的数目(即由几个元素组成)
SDO_UTIL.GETNUMELEM(
geometry IN SDO_GEOMETRY
) RETURN NUMBER;
5、sdo_util.GetNumVertices
获取对象的顶点数目
SDO_UTIL.GETNUMVERTICES(
geometry IN SDO_GEOMETRY
) RETURN NUMBER;
6、sdo_util.getvertices
SDO_UTIL.GETVERTICES(
geometry IN SDO_GEOMETRY
) RETURN VERTEX_SET_TYPE;
 
7、SDO_UTIL.CIRCLE_POLYGON
返回一个圆
SDO_UTIL.CIRCLE_POLYGON(
center_longitude IN NUMBER,
center_latitude IN NUMBER,
radius IN NUMBER,
arc_tolerance IN NUMBER
) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
SELECT SDO_UTIL.CIRCLE_POLYGON(-71.34937, 42.46101, 100, 5) FROM DUAL;
 
8、SDO_UTIL.ELLIPSE_POLYGON
返回一个椭圆
SDO_UTIL.ELLIPSE_POLYGON(
center_longitude IN NUMBER,
center_latitude IN NUMBER,
semi_major_axis IN NUMBER,
semi_minor_axis IN NUMBER,
azimuth IN NUMBER,
arc_tolerance IN NUMBER
) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
SELECT SDO_UTIL.ELLIPSE_POLYGON(-71.34937, 42.46101, 100, 50, 90, 5)FROM DUAL;
9、SDO_UTIL.CONVERT_UNIT
单位转换
SDO_UTIL.CONVERT_UNIT(
input_value IN NUMBER,
from_unit IN VARCHAR2,
to_unit IN VARCHAR2
) RETURN NUMBER;
SELECT SDO_UTIL.CONVERT_UNIT(1, 'Radian', 'Degree') FROM DUAL;
10、wkt、wkb与geometry互转与验证
Ø         SDO_UTIL.FROM_WKBGEOMETRY
Ø         SDO_UTIL.FROM_WKTGEOMETRY
Ø         SDO_UTIL.TO_WKBGEOMETRY
Ø         SDO_UTIL.TO_WKTGEOMETRY
Ø         SDO_UTIL.VALIDATE_WKBGEOMETRY
Ø         SDO_UTIL.VALIDATE_WKTGEOMETRY
 
 
DECLARE
wkbgeom BLOB;
wktgeom CLOB;
val_result VARCHAR2(5);
geom_result SDO_GEOMETRY;
geom SDO_GEOMETRY;
BEGIN
SELECT c.shape INTO geom FROM cola_markets c WHERE c.name = 'cola_b';
-- To WBT/WKT geometry
wkbgeom := SDO_UTIL.TO_WKBGEOMETRY(geom);
wktgeom := SDO_UTIL.TO_WKTGEOMETRY(geom);
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('To WKT geometry result = ' || TO_CHAR(wktgeom));
-- From WBT/WKT geometry
geom_result := SDO_UTIL.FROM_WKBGEOMETRY(wkbgeom);
geom_result := SDO_UTIL.FROM_WKTGEOMETRY(wktgeom);
-- Validate WBT/WKT geometry
val_result := SDO_UTIL.VALIDATE_WKBGEOMETRY(wkbgeom);
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('WKB validation result = ' || val_result);
val_result := SDO_UTIL.VALIDATE_WKTGEOMETRY(wktgeom);
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('WKT validation result = ' || val_result);
END;
11、GML与GEOMETRY转换
 
SDO_UTIL.TO_GMLGEOMETRY(
thegeom IN SDO_GEOMETRY
) RETURN CLOB;
SELECT TO_CHAR(SDO_UTIL.TO_GMLGEOMETRY(shape)) AS GmlGeometry
 FROM COLA_MARKETS c
 WHERE c.name = 'cola_b';
12、SDO_UTIL.SIMPLIFY
根据输入的阈值来简化输入的对象
SDO_UTIL.SIMPLIFY(
geometry IN SDO_GEOMETRY,
threshold IN NUMBER
tolerance IN NUMBER DEFAULT 0.0000005
) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
 
SELECT SDO_UTIL.SIMPLIFY(
SDO_GEOMETRY(
3302, -- line string, 3 dimensions (X,Y,M), 3rd is linear ref. dimension
NULL,
NULL,
SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1,2,1), -- one line string, straight segments
SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(
2,2,0, -- Starting point - Exit1; 0 is measure from start.
2,4,2, -- Exit2; 2 is measure from start.
8,4,8, -- Exit3; 8 is measure from start.
12,4,12, -- Exit4; 12 is measure from start.
12,10,NULL, -- Not an exit; measure automatically calculated and filled.
8,10,22, -- Exit5; 22 is measure from start.
5,14,27) -- Ending point (Exit6); 27 is measure from start.
),
6, -- threshold value for geometry simplification
0.5 -- tolerance
) FROM DUAL;
13、SDO_UTIL.RECTIFY_GEOMETRY
纠正有错误的对象并正确输出
SDO_UTIL.RECTIFY_GEOMETRY(
geometry IN SDO_GEOMETRY,
tolerance IN NUMBER
) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
SELECT SDO_UTIL.RECTIFY_GEOMETRY(shape, 0.005)
FROM COLA_MARKETS c WHERE c.name = 'cola_b';
 
14、SDO_UTIL.PREPARE_FOR_TTS与SDO_UTIL.INITIALIZE_INDEXES_FOR_TTS
在不同的Oracle数据库之间传输数据可通过表空间。而为了保证表空间上的表的空间索引也被传输,需要执行这些函数SDO_UTIL.PREPARE_FOR_TTS(在传输表空间前执行)与SDO_UTIL.INITIALIZE_INDEXES_FOR_TTS(在表空间导出后执行)
例子:创建一个dmp文件,从一个源数据库中传输表空间tbs。
首先:从一个源数据库中传输表空间tbs
Sqlplus spatial/ spatial
Execute SDO_UTIL.PREPARE_FOR_TTS(‘TBS’)
Connect system/manager as sysdba
Execute dbms_tts.transport_set_check(‘TBS’,true);
Alter tablespace TBS read only;
Exit;
 
Exp spatial/ spatial transport_ tablespace=y tablespaces=TBS file=trans_ts.dmp
 
然后导入
ixp spatial/ spatial transport_ tablespace=y file=trans_ts.dmp datafiles=’sdo_tts.dbf’ tablespaces=tbs
 
Sqlplus sys/password
Alter tablespace TBS read write;
Connect spatial/ spatial;
Exec SDO_UTIL.INITIALIZE_INDEXES_FOR_TTS
 
 
15、sdo_util.extract3d
提取三维对象的元素
16、sdo_util.sdo_concat_lines
连接两个线串
SDO_UTIL.CONCAT_LINES(
geom1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY,
geom2 IN SDO_GEOMETRY
) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
17、sdo_util.sdo_reverse_linestring
倒转一条线串中的顶点的顺序
SDO_UTIL.REVERSE_LINESTRING(
geometry IN SDO_GEOMETRY
) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
18、sdo_util.sdo_polygontoline
将多边形转换为线串几何体
SDO_UTIL.POLYGONTOLINE(
geometry IN SDO_GEOMETRY
) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
 
15到18非免费
 
三 sdo_lrs包
Subprograms for Creating and Editing Geometric Segments
1、SDO_LRS.DEFINE_GEOM_SEGMENT(过程)
语法:
SDO_LRS.DEFINE_GEOM_SEGMENT(
geom_segment IN OUT SDO_GEOMETRY
[, start_measure IN NUMBER,
end_measure IN NUMBER]);
or
SDO_LRS.DEFINE_GEOM_SEGMENT(
geom_segment IN OUT SDO_GEOMETRY,
dim_array IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY
[, start_measure IN NUMBER,
end_measure IN NUMBER]);
 
 
    功能:根据起始点和终止点测量值计算出没有测量的点
例子:
-- Test the LRS procedures.
DECLARE
geom_segment SDO_GEOMETRY;
line_string SDO_GEOMETRY;
dim_array SDO_DIM_ARRAY;
result_geom_1 SDO_GEOMETRY;
result_geom_2 SDO_GEOMETRY;
result_geom_3 SDO_GEOMETRY;
BEGIN
SELECT a.route_geometry into geom_segment FROM lrs_routes a
WHERE a.route_name = 'Route1';
SELECT m.diminfo into dim_array from
user_sdo_geom_metadata m
WHERE m.table_name = 'LRS_ROUTES' AND m.column_name = 'ROUTE_GEOMETRY';
-- Define the LRS segment for Route1. This will populate any null measures.
-- No need to specify start and end measures, because they are already defined in the geometry.
SDO_LRS.DEFINE_GEOM_SEGMENT (geom_segment, dim_array);
SELECT a.route_geometry INTO line_string FROM lrs_routes a
WHERE a.route_name = 'Route1';
-- Split Route1 into two segments.
SDO_LRS.SPLIT_GEOM_SEGMENT(line_string,dim_array,5,result_geom_1,result_geom_2);
-- Concatenate the segments that were just split.
result_geom_3 := SDO_LRS.CONCATENATE_GEOM_SEGMENTS(result_geom_1, dim_array,
result_geom_2, dim_array);
-- Update and insert geometries into table, to display later.
UPDATE lrs_routes a SET a.route_geometry = geom_segment
WHERE a.route_id = 1;
INSERT INTO lrs_routes VALUES(
11,
'result_geom_1',
result_geom_1
);
INSERT INTO lrs_routes VALUES(
12,
'result_geom_2',
result_geom_2
);
INSERT INTO lrs_routes VALUES(
13,
'result_geom_3',
result_geom_3
);
END;
 
2、SDO_LRS.REDEFINE_GEOM_SEGMENT(过程)
语法:
SDO_LRS.REDEFINE_GEOM_SEGMENT(
geom_segment IN OUT SDO_GEOMETRY
[, start_measure IN NUMBER,
end_measure IN NUMBER]);
or
SDO_LRS.REDEFINE_GEOM_SEGMENT(
geom_segment IN OUT SDO_GEOMETRY,
dim_array IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY
[, start_measure IN NUMBER,
end_measure IN NUMBER]);
功能:重新定义几何体(可进行单位转换)
例子:
-- Redefine geometric segment to "convert" miles to kilometers
DECLARE
geom_segment SDO_GEOMETRY;
dim_array SDO_DIM_ARRAY;
BEGIN
SELECT a.route_geometry into geom_segment FROM lrs_routes a WHERE a.route_name = 'Route1';
SELECT m.diminfo into dim_array from user_sdo_geom_metadata m WHERE m.table_name = 'LRS_ROUTES' AND m.column_name = 'ROUTE_GEOMETRY';
-- "Convert" mile measures to kilometers (27 * 1.609 = 43.443).
SDO_LRS.REDEFINE_GEOM_SEGMENT (geom_segment,
dim_array,
0, -- Zero starting measure: LRS segment starts at start of route.
43.443); -- End of LRS segment. 27 miles = 43.443 kilometers.
-- Update and insert geometries into table, to display later.
UPDATE lrs_routes a SET a.route_geometry = geom_segment WHERE a.route_id = 1;
END;
 
3、SDO_LRS.CLIP_GEOM_SEGMENT
语法:
SDO_LRS.CLIP_GEOM_SEGMENT(
geom_segment IN SDO_GEOMETRY,
start_measure IN NUMBER,
end_measure IN NUMBER,
tolerance IN NUMBER DEFAULT 1.0e-8
) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
or
SDO_LRS.CLIP_GEOM_SEGMENT(
geom_segment IN SDO_GEOMETRY,
dim_array IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY,
start_measure IN NUMBER,
end_measure IN NUMBER
) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
功能:截取指定的一段
例子:
-- Clip a piece of Route1.
SELECT SDO_LRS.CLIP_GEOM_SEGMENT(route_geometry, 5, 10) FROM lrs_routes WHERE route_id = 1;
 
4、SDO_LRS.DYNAMIC_SEGMENT
语法:
SDO_LRS.DYNAMIC_SEGMENT(
geom_segment IN SDO_GEOMETRY,
start_measure IN NUMBER,
end_measure IN NUMBER,
tolerance IN NUMBER DEFAULT 1.0e-8
) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
or
SDO_LRS.DYNAMIC_SEGMENT(
geom_segment IN SDO_GEOMETRY,
dim_array IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY,
start_measure IN NUMBER,
end_measure IN NUMBER
) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
用法与SDO_LRS.CLIP_GEOM_SEGMENT一样
5、 SDO_LRS.CONCATENATE_GEOM_SEGMENTS
语法:
SDO_LRS.CONCATENATE_GEOM_SEGMENTS(
geom_segment_1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY,
geom_segment_2 IN SDO_GEOMETRY,
tolerance IN NUMBER DEFAULT 1.0e-8
) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
or
SDO_LRS.CONCATENATE_GEOM_SEGMENTS(
geom_segment_1 IN SDO_GEOMETRY,
dim_array_1 IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY,
geom_segment_2 IN SDO_GEOMETRY,
dim_array_2 IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY
) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
功能:连接线串,例子见1
6、SDO_LRS.OFFSET_GEOM_SEGMENT
语法:
SDO_LRS.OFFSET_GEOM_SEGMENT(
geom_segment IN SDO_GEOMETRY,
start_measure IN NUMBER,
end_measure IN NUMBER,
offset IN NUMBER,
tolerance IN NUMBER DEFAULT 1.0e-8
[, unit IN VARCHAR2]
) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
or
SDO_LRS.OFFSET_GEOM_SEGMENT(
geom_segment IN SDO_GEOMETRY,
dim_array IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY,
start_measure IN NUMBER,
end_measure IN NUMBER,
offset IN NUMBER
[, unit IN VARCHAR2]
) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
功能:指定的线段内进行偏移
例子:
SELECT SDO_LRS.OFFSET_GEOM_SEGMENT(a.route_geometry, m.diminfo, 5, 10, 2)
 FROM lrs_routes a, user_sdo_geom_metadata m
 WHERE m.table_name = 'LRS_ROUTES'
   AND m.column_name = 'ROUTE_GEOMETRY'
   AND a.route_id = 1;
7、SDO_LRS.SPLIT_GEOM_SEGMENT(过程)
语法:
SDO_LRS.SPLIT_GEOM_SEGMENT(
geom_segment IN SDO_GEOMETRY,
split_measure IN NUMBER,
segment_1 OUT SDO_GEOMETRY,
segment_2 OUT SDO_GEOMETRY);
or
SDO_LRS.SPLIT_GEOM_SEGMENT(
geom_segment IN SDO_GEOMETRY,
dim_array IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY,
split_measure IN NUMBER,
segment_1 OUT SDO_GEOMETRY,
segment_2 OUT SDO_GEOMETRY);
功能:将一个几何体分为两个
例子见1
8、SDO_LRS.RESET_MEASURE(过程)
语法:
SDO_LRS.RESET_MEASURE(
geom_segment IN OUT SDO_GEOMETRY
[, dim_array IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY]);
功能:将起始点到终止点的测量值都清空
例子:
-- Reset geometric segment measures.
DECLARE
geom_segment SDO_GEOMETRY;
BEGIN
SELECT a.route_geometry into geom_segment FROM lrs_routes a
WHERE a.route_name = 'Route1';
SDO_LRS.RESET_MEASURE (geom_segment);
-- Update and insert geometries into table, to display later.
UPDATE lrs_routes a SET a.route_geometry = geom_segment
WHERE a.route_id = 1;
END;
9、SDO_LRS.SET_PT_MEASURE
语法:
SDO_LRS.SET_PT_MEASURE(
geom_segment IN OUT SDO_GEOMETRY,
point IN SDO_GEOMETRY,
measure IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2;
or
SDO_LRS.SET_PT_MEASURE(
geom_segment IN OUT SDO_GEOMETRY,
dim_array IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY,
point IN SDO_GEOMETRY,
pt_dim_array IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY,
measure IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2;
or
SDO_LRS.SET_PT_MEASURE(
point IN OUT SDO_GEOMETRY,
measure IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2;
or
SDO_LRS.SET_PT_MEASURE(
point IN OUT SDO_GEOMETRY,
dim_array IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY,
measure IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2;
功能:将测量值设为一个特定的点
-- Set the measure value of point 8,10 to 20 (originally 22).
DECLARE
geom_segment SDO_GEOMETRY;
dim_array SDO_DIM_ARRAY;
result VARCHAR2(32);
BEGIN
SELECT a.route_geometry into geom_segment FROM lrs_routes a
WHERE a.route_name = 'Route1';
SELECT m.diminfo into dim_array from
user_sdo_geom_metadata m
WHERE m.table_name = 'LRS_ROUTES' AND m.column_name = 'ROUTE_GEOMETRY';
-- Set the measure value of point 8,10 to 20 (originally 22).
result := SDO_LRS.SET_PT_MEASURE (geom_segment,
SDO_GEOMETRY(3301, NULL, NULL,
             SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1, 1),
             SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(8, 10, 22)),
20);
-- Display the result.
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Returned value = ' || result);
END;
10、SDO_LRS.REVERSE_MEASURE
11、SDO_LRS.TRANSLATE_MEASURE
12、SDO_LRS.REVERSE_GEOMETRY
Subprograms for Querying and Validating Geometric Segments
13、SDO_LRS.VALID_GEOM_SEGMENT
14、SDO_LRS.VALID_LRS_PT
15、SDO_LRS.VALID_MEASURE  
16、SDO_LRS.CONNECTED_GEOM_SEGMENTS
17、SDO_LRS.GEOM_SEGMENT_LENGTH  
18、SDO_LRS.GEOM_SEGMENT_START_PT
19、SDO_LRS.GEOM_SEGMENT_END_PT
20、SDO_LRS.GEOM_SEGMENT_START_MEASURE
21、SDO_LRS.GEOM_SEGMENT_END_MEASURE
22、SDO_LRS.GET_MEASURE  
23、SDO_LRS.GET_NEXT_SHAPE_PT
24、SDO_LRS.GET_NEXT_SHAPE_PT_MEASURE
25、SDO_LRS.GET_PREV_SHAPE_PT  
26、SDO_LRS.GET_PREV_SHAPE_PT_MEASURE
27、SDO_LRS.IS_GEOM_SEGMENT_DEFINED
28、SDO_LRS.IS_MEASURE_DECREASING
29、SDO_LRS.IS_MEASURE_INCREASING
30、SDO_LRS.IS_SHAPE_PT_MEASURE
31、SDO_LRS.MEASURE_RANGE
32、SDO_LRS.MEASURE_TO_PERCENTAGE
33、SDO_LRS.PERCENTAGE_TO_MEASURE
34、SDO_LRS.LOCATE_PT
35、SDO_LRS.PROJECT_PT
36、SDO_LRS.FIND_LRS_DIM_POS
37、SDO_LRS.FIND_MEASURE
38、SDO_LRS.FIND_OFFSET
39、SDO_LRS.VALIDATE_LRS_GEOMETRY
Subprograms for Converting Geometric Segments
40、SDO_LRS.CONVERT_TO_LRS_DIM_ARRAY
41、SDO_LRS.CONVERT_TO_LRS_GEOM
42、SDO_LRS.CONVERT_TO_LRS_LAYER
43、SDO_LRS.CONVERT_TO_STD_DIM_ARRAY
44、SDO_LRS.CONVERT_TO_STD_GEOM
45、SDO_LRS.CONVERT_TO_STD_LAYER
四、SDO_MIGRATE包
SDO_MIGRATE.TO_CURRENT
Format (Any Object-Relational Model Implementation to Current)
SDO_MIGRATE.TO_CURRENT(
tabname IN VARCHAR2
[, column_name IN VARCHAR2]);
or
SDO_MIGRATE.TO_CURRENT(
tabname IN VARCHAR2,
column_name IN VARCHAR2
[, commit_int IN NUMBER]);
Format (Single Object-Relational Model Geometry to Current)
SDO_MIGRATE.TO_CURRENT(
geom IN SDO_GEOMETRY,
dim IN SDO_DIM_ARRAY
) RETURN SDO_GEOMETRY;
Format (Any Relational Model Implementation to Current)
SDO_MIGRATE.TO_CURRENT(
layer IN VARCHAR2,
newtabname IN VARCHAR2,
gidcolumn IN VARCHAR2,
geocolname IN VARCHAR2,
layer_gtype IN VARCHAR2,
updateflag IN VARCHAR2);
 
EXECUTE SDO_MIGRATE.TO_CURRENT('ROADS');


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