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leetcode: Reservoir Sampling:Linked List Random Node(382)

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Given a singly linked list, return a random node’s value from the linked list. Each node must have the same probability of being chosen.

Follow up:
What if the linked list is extremely large and its length is unknown to you? Could you solve this efficiently without using extra space?

Example:

// Init a singly linked list [1,2,3].
ListNode head = new ListNode(1);
head.next = new ListNode(2);
head.next.next = new ListNode(3);
Solution solution = new Solution(head);

// getRandom() should return either 1, 2, or 3 randomly. Each element should have equal probability of returning.
solution.getRandom();

class Solution {  
    ListNode* hd;  
public:  
    /** @param head The linked list's head. Note that the head is guanranteed to be not null, so it contains at least one node. */  
    Solution(ListNode* head) : hd(head) {}  

    /** Returns a random node's value. */  
    int getRandom() {  
        ListNode* node = hd;  
        int cnt = 0, randVal = 0;  
        while(node) {  
            if(rand() % (++cnt) == 0)  
                randVal = node->val;  
            node = node->next;  
        }  
        return randVal;  
    }  
};  

/** 
 * Your Solution object will be instantiated and called as such: 
 * Solution obj = new Solution(head); 
 * int param_1 = obj.getRandom(); 
 */  
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